Posts tagged with "rain screens":

The latest panels, cladding, & screening help facades to shine

AN found the latest additions that offer aesthetic sensibility, new advancements in materials and technology, and solutions for both passive and active design strategies.

TEXTURED CLADDING Paperstone

Made from recycled paper and a non-petroleum resin, the cladding is environmentally conscious and incredibly hardwearing. It is resistant to rain and UV rays, making it suitable for rainscreen and other environmentally-conscious applications.

TECU DESIGN_PUNCH KME Architectural

Perforated and embossed, the sheeting creates an ever-evolving, “living” facade. It can be used as screening or secondary cladding and in copper as its natural (and eventual patinaed) coloring or in treated variations ranging in colors that pass through the various stages of oxidation.

SELF-CLEANING AND SUSTAINABLE FACADE Neolith + Pureti

This facade system is treated with an aqueous and titanium dioxide nanoparticle-based treatment, which creates a photocatalytic, self-cleaning, and decontaminating effect. Put simply, the photocatalysis-activated coating is accelerated by light, decontaminating the surface millions of times per second. As a byproduct, the autonomously cleaned cladding also improves air quality.

FLOWTECH BY FLOOR GRES Florim

Giving an industrial look, Flowtech offers industrial-resilience to humidity, general wear and tear, and other weather-oriented impairments. The metal sheathing comes in fives sizes and in three neutral color variations.

LINARTE Renson

The vertical 3-D wall sheathing is mounted invisibly by clips, horizontally positioned and supported by the structure underneath. It is available in custom profiles, even for curved and organic-shaped applications.

3D WALL PANEL Corian Design

Undulating and virtually seamless, the 3-D surface can morph into almost any shape imaginable. By the means a thermal-forming technology, it can be produced in varying levels of transparency and countless colors.

CEDAR AND ASH ARCHITECTURAL PANELS Nichiha

Nichiha developed two new colors—redwood and ash—for fiber cement cladding collection inspired by the look and feel of natural wood panels. The red and gray tones add the perfect notes to complement both commercial and residential projects.

M.LOOK NCORE FunderMax

Reinforced with metal fibers, these heavy-duty architectural facade panels are equipped to with a weather-resistant decorative finish. The adorned layer protects and surrounds the non-combustible mineral core that is resilient to fire and heat threats.

Bohlin Cywinski Jackson’s water-inspired facade

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The School of Freshwater Sciences is the first of its kind in the country, supporting a regional initiative to establish Milwaukee as a global hub for water-related research and technology. Located in the city's Harbor District, the project is an anchor for the re-utilization of industrial brownfield sites. Designed by Bohlin Cywinski Jackson and Milwaukee-based architecture firm Continuum, the project is a long, linear addition to an existing building that was once used as a ceramics factory. The facility accommodates a dock for research vessels that have direct access to Lake Michigan. Natalie Gentile, ‎associate principal at Bohlin Cywinski Jackson, said the design concept was about discovering a facade solution inspired by the visual qualities of water. She said flying into Milwaukee over Lake Michigan gives a unique vantage point of the water, and provided a departure point for the school's facade concept: “We loved the way the water responds to different daylight conditions, and we were hoping to capture some of that in the building elevation." The building integrates custom TAKTL panels with a Kawneer curtain wall into a thoughtful composition of horizontal and vertical regulating lines. The majority of the exterior shell is flat, but the project team was able to produce depth and curvilinearity through subtle two-dimensionally profiled shapes. Curves were rarely—but impactfully—incorporated into the facade. Custom-profiled louvers cast undulating shadow lines over the building, while a parapet wall camouflages the reading of the facade as a flat surface.
  • Facade Manufacturer TAKTL (UHPC); Kawneer (curtain wall); Goldray Industries (glazing)
  • Architects Bohlin Cywinski Jackson (Design Architect); Continuum Architects + Planners, S.C. (Architect of Record)
  • Facade Installer JP Cullen
  • Facade Consultants n/a
  • Location Milwaukee, WI
  • Date of Completion 2014
  • System rainscreen, curtain wall
  • Products TAKTL panels in Kalahari finish; Centria panels; Kawneer 451T curtain wall
The primary section of the facade is flanked by a set of gently curved bays and an elliptical stairwell inspired by boat hull geometry. The curtain wall incorporates extended mullion cap extrusions of varying length, evoking verticality of dripping rain, and cantilevered panels that give the facade a sense of movement akin to the flow of water. The curtain wall system picks up the geometry established by ribbon windows on the central portion of the facade. The compositional logic of the resulting grid is a response to a state of Wisconsin requirement that limits view glass percentage on facades dependent on solar orientation—in this case, the south-facing building was allowed to be composed of 30 percent openings along its primary facade. A set of ribbon windows set to this target established a grid with spandrel glass and rainscreen panels infilling opaque areas. The project team conducted numerous color studies looking at how to add dimension to the flat facade. The team arrived at a solution that incorporated five colors into a specific patterning that utilizes a proportioning system of one-thirds of a standard panel size to limit material waste. Gentile said the panels played a significant role in producing the water-inspired visual effects she sought: "I'm really pleased with how the TAKTL panels are performing in terms of meeting our architectural goals for replicating the way water reflects light under different lighting conditions.” She said photography taken in the morning versus the evening shows how the building—clad in blue panels—can range anywhere from golden to violet hues. “We were very concerned about the sheen of the panels. We knew this modest sheen was important to getting us that changing coloration and reflectivity." Bob Barr, principal of Continuum, said the project successfully worked with the state's regulations on view glass percentage to producing an impactful facade: “To have something very visible after the limitation of the glazing is why we played so much with the patterning of the spandrel glass."

DXU Delivers Luxe Minimalism in Dekton

Sleek black rain screen reflects Porsche Design's understated style.

In the world of high-end retail, first impressions matter. Knowing this, DXU, LLC principal Eric Styer took special care selecting a facade material for the Porsche Design boutique in Oak Brook, Illinois. "We were trying to play off Porsche Design's simplicity and clean lines," said Styer, referring to the clothing and leather goods retailer's minimalist style. "Of course, this location is in a mall, so we had to deal with [their requirements] as well." After first eliminating other options on budgetary, performance, or aesthetic grounds, the architect found himself drawn to Dekton, an ultra-compact surfacing material from Cosentino. Styer's solution, a matte black Dekton rain screen featuring mitered joint detailing and integrated acrylic signage, plays up the material's strengths to embody Porsche Design's understated glamour. "We were looking for materials that would meet Porsche Design's design qualities as well as the mall's," recalled Styer. "They were pushing us to get granite on the exterior. However, that potentially leans in a direction we didn't want to follow." Specifically, Styer worried that the marbling on granite or another natural stone would distract from the overall impression he hoped to convey—of a solid block carved into masses and voids. In search of a similarly durable material, he reached out to Cosentino. The company mentioned Dekton, which was just being introduced to the United States, and suggested that the Porsche Design presented a unique opportunity to explore the material's use in a new application (as a facade). Styer was soon convinced that the material, composed of naturally existing inorganic minerals subjected to a patented high-heat, high-pressure process, would help him realize his technical and aesthetic ambitions.
  • Facade Manufacturer Stone Systems, Cosentino (advisors)
  • Architects DXU, LLC
  • Facade Installer Ryan Construction
  • Location Oak Brook, IL
  • Date of Completion August 2014
  • System Ventilated Dekton rain screen with mitered corners, integrated acrylic signage
  • Products Dekton by Cosentino in Sirius
Styer, who half-jokingly referred to Dekton as "basically surfacing on steroids," selected the material for three principal reasons. The first was its technical compatibility with his design. Dekton is manufactured in 5-foot by 10-foot slabs, thus reducing the occurrence of joints or seams. In addition, it can be miter-cut to mimic the appearance of cut stone. "That went back to the very simplistic, minimalistic impression we were looking for," explained Styer. "For all of our fenestrations in the building we have three-inch returns tucked behind the storefront volumes; that aspect of the material was perfect for Porsche Design." Durability was another important factor in the architect's decision to go with Dekton. The Oak Brook Porsche Design store is located on a high-traffic corner in a popular mall, making it especially vulnerable to wear and tear. Given Chicago's freeze-thaw cycle, Dekton's resistance to thermal shock was also a plus. As well as being technically appropriate and rugged, Dekton appealed to Styer on aesthetic grounds. Elegant but not showy, it captures the Porsche Design brand's emphasis on quality over bling. And though the material was available in only a limited number of colors and finishes at the time (Cosentino's offerings have since expanded to 23 colors), one of those combinations—the matte black Sirius—echoed the interior painting scheme. "In the interior, Porsche Design uses black glass, so if a high gloss black was available, we would have chosen that," said Styer. "But they also use matte black paint, so [Sirius] was perfect for us." The Dekton panels were installed as a ventilated rain screen. "There were some complications, maybe something of a learning curve in the fabrication process," recalled Styer. "A lot of that was due to the newness of the product in the States." None of the components that had been used to install Dekton rain screens in the United Kingdom were yet available on the other side of the pond, he explained, so "the Cosentino team had to jump through some hoops to get them here." The extra effort was worth it, however, as the particularities of the Dekton rain screen helped mitigate the difficulty of dealing with a preexisting structural rhythm. "For it being a pretty hard material, it was flexible in terms of some of the parameters we were looking for," said Styer. "There were piers we couldn't change, and a parapet element we had to tuck back into. To us, it seemed like a magic material." Styer is understandably pleased with where his hunt for an appropriate facade material led him—so much so that he looks forward to further experiments with Dekton. He mentioned in particular the capacity for bookmatching, and imagines a facade distinguished by a mirrored pattern. "It seems like you'd have more of an opportunity to do that with Dekton than with traditional stone," mused Styer. "It's a new aesthetic area I would like to investigate."

Gruen Associates Clad Utility Plant in Flowing Steel

Curved metal facade embodies spirit of mobility at LAX.

The commission to design a new Central Utility Plant (CUP) for Los Angeles International Airport (LAX) came with a major caveat: the original 1960s-era CUP would remain online throughout construction, providing heating and cooling to adjacent passenger terminals until the new plant was ready to take over."We had to keep the existing CUP up and running, build the new one, do the cutover, then tear down the old CUP and build a thermal energy storage tank in its place," explained Gruen Associates project designer Craig Biggi. "It was a very challenging project from that standpoint—working in a 24/7 environment, and getting everything up and running within a small footprint." But despite these and other hurdles, the design-build team (which included Clark/McCarthy, A Joint Venture as general contractors, Arup as A/E design lead, and Gruen Associates as architect) succeeded in delivering the new CUP in time to support LAX's newest terminal. Its curved stainless steel and glass facade captures the airport's spirit of mobility, and helps restore a sense of cohesion to an otherwise fragmented built landscape. LAX is a busy place, both aesthetically and with respect to passenger movement. "There's a lot of visual activity happening there," explained Biggi. "It's been built up over time, so there's this layering effect. This was meant to be an architectural design that not only simplifies some of the visual confusion, but addresses the context of the airport itself as a site that has a lot of movement." When shaping the building envelope, the designers looked at concepts of laminar flow, of which one example is the passage of air over an aircraft wing. "What we came up with was a streamlined architectural expression that ties together three distinct programmatic elements," said Biggi. "The project uses this expression to tie into the existing context by flowing around corners, then opens up at certain locations to allow the program to have ventilation and views."
  • Facade Manufacturer Custom Metal Contracting (CUP composite panels), Morin (profiled aluminum panels), Alcoa (cooling tower composite panels)
  • Architects Gruen Associates (architect), Clark/McCarthy, A Joint Venture (general contractors), Arup (A/E design lead)
  • Facade Installer Woodbridge Glass (CUP composite panels, profiled aluminum panels), Engineered Wall Systems (cooling tower composite panels)
  • Location Los Angeles, CA
  • Date of Completion 2015
  • System stainless steel composite panels within a pressure-equalized rain screen system, profiled aluminum panels, glazing
  • Products 4mm 316 stainless steel faced fire rated core composite panels with InvariMatte finish from Custom Metal Contracting, .050 aluminum with Kynar finish from Morin, 4mm 316 stainless steel faced composite panels with InvariMatte finish from Alcoa
The CUP's primary facade is clad in stainless steel composite panels within a pressurized rain screen system. The architects chose stainless steel, explained partner-in-charge and project manager Debra Gerod, to respond to the potentially corrosive effects of jet fuel and other chemicals as well as the salty Southern California air. In addition, "we had to work to get a finish that wouldn't create reflections," said Gerod. "We're right underneath the control tower. Being mindful that the sun can be at any angle, bouncing off airplanes, that [became a] careful performance-based element" of the design. Non-curved sections of the CUP's envelope feature corrugated aluminum panels, which reduce the risk of reflection and help camouflage functional components including large doors that allow the installation and replacement of equipment. "How we were able to put these giant openings into the side of the facade and have it be blended in and aligned with the corrugated metal paneling—these were some of the things we really paid a lot of attention to," said Gerod. Similarly, the ribbon windows on the stainless steel facade help conceal exhaust louvers, in addition to providing views from the engineers' offices. "We always looked at opportunities for streamlining the aesthetic of the exterior," said Biggi. "We were looking for simple massing that looked fluid in its resolution." Gruen Associates designed the new CUP as a visual landmark for passersby, installing a massive window on the north facade in order to reveal the interior of the chiller room. "This is a bit of an homage to the old CUP," explained Gerod. "When it was first built, it was a really nice building: round, with lots of glass. By the time we got to it, things were spilling out in all directions. But as originally designed, it had a view into the inner workings of the plant." Meanwhile, the architects used blue-colored LEDs and reflectors moved by the wind to create a lighting effect on the adjacent thermal energy storage tank—which, like the nearby cooling towers, is also clad in stainless steel—that mimics the rippling motion of a swimming pool at night. "The lighting effect is meant to address passengers as they're driving down Center Way, and give some animation to the large mass of the storage tank," said Biggi. Here, too, the designers were careful to plan the lighting so as not to interfere with air traffic control functions. LAX's new CUP, which is targeting LEED Gold certification, promises a 25 percent increase in efficiency over the 50-year-old plant it replaces. With continued expansion in the offing, it did not arrive on the scene any too soon. Though much of the design was shaped by current conditions at the airport, including both functional considerations and an aesthetic embrace of the airport's hectic pace, Gruen Associates simultaneously thought ahead, to a larger—but hopefully visually more coherent—LAX. Should a proposed terminal extension to the west come to pass, the CUP's curved stainless steel facade will provide a backdrop for the newer buildings, setting the stage for a more deliberate approach to the airport's ongoing transformation.

Perkins+Will Builds a Sustainability Beacon

Building technology research center features wood, integrated photovoltaics, and green wall.

When John Robinson began formulating a vision for the University of British Columbia's (UBC) Centre for Interactive Research on Sustainability (CIRS), he did not start small. Robinson, who is responsible for integrating academic and operational sustainability at the university's Vancouver campus, dreamed of constructing the most sustainable building in North America, a monument to and testing ground for energy-generating strategies. Invited to join the project in 2001, architects Perkins+Will sought an approach combining passive design and innovative technology. Featuring a facade of locally manufactured wood panels, high performance glazing, solar shading with integrated photovoltaics, and a green wall sunscreen, CIRS is a living laboratory for the research and practice of sustainable design. The initial concept for the building included 22 goals centered on three themes, explained Perkins+Will's Jana Foit. First, CIRS was to have a net positive environmental impact. In addition, the structure was designed to provide an adaptive, healthy, and socially generative workplace for researchers, staff, and students. Third, CIRS would utilize smart building technologies for real-time user feedback and testing. The building envelope was a critical component of the project's overall environmental strategy on both conceptual and practical levels. "The overarching design idea is to communicate sustainability, to make it visible and apparent," said Foit. In terms of pragmatics, the architects focused on reducing heat gain and providing 100 percent daylighting to the interiors.
  • Facade Manufacturer Silva Panel (rain screen), Kawneer (curtain wall), Green Screen (vegetated screen), Solarity (PV panels)
  • Architects Perkins+Will
  • Facade Installer Heatherbrae Builders (rain screen), Glastech (curtain wall)
  • Facade Consultant Morrison Herschfield
  • Location Vancouver, BC
  • Date of Completion 2011
  • System wood rain screen, fixed sunshades with integrated PVs, green wall, high-performance glazing
  • Products Multiple Ply Cedar Panels from Silva Panel, Kawneer glazing, Green Screen vegetated screen, Solarity PVs
To reduce solar gain, Perkins+Will reduced the window area from the current code of 40 percent maximum to 31 percent. They installed fixed and operable triple-glazed windows on the ground floor, and fixed and operable double-glazed windows above. For cladding, the architects selected Multiple Ply Cedar Panels from locally-developed Silva Panel—one of the first solid wood products designed for rain screen application. "The exterior panels were detailed and designed to be removable, to allow for material testing and research," said Foit. CIRS' two-pronged solar shading program includes a network of fixed shades with integrated photovoltaics and a green wall. The former results in 24,427 kilowatt-hours per year in energy savings. The architects designed the green wall, meanwhile, to protect the west-facing atrium, which lacks a mechanical heating or cooling system. Together with a combination of solid spandrel and vision glass, the living screen achieves 50 percent shade during the warmer months. "The plants are chocolate vines, which lose their leaves in winter, allowing passive heat gain into the building," explained Foit. "In the summer, when the vines are in full bloom, the leaves provide shading for the atrium." In an important sense, the CIRS story did not conclude once construction was complete in 2011. Rather, the proof of CIRS' value as a demonstration tool is in its ongoing operations. The building returns an impressive 600 megawatt-hours of surplus energy to the UBC campus each year—and continues to rack up sustainability prizes, including the Royal Architecture Institute of Canada's 2015 Green Building Award. But perhaps more importantly, thanks to publicly available performance data and a "lessons learned" document compiled by UBC, CIRS has fulfilled Robinson's dream of promoting green design through the construction of a transparent, replicable model.

Jaklitsch/Gardner’s Three-Part Ode to Tokyo

Marc Jacobs flagship store features a tripartite facade of aluminum, tile, and glass.

Commissioned to design Marc Jacobs' flagship Tokyo store, Jaklitsch/Gardner Architects' first order of business was to rectify the desire for an iconic urban presence with strict local regulations. To make the 2,800-square-meter shop more visible from nearby Omotesando Street, the architects took advantage of a loophole in the building code that allowed them to double the height of the structure as long as the top half was not occupiable. The catch was that the code required a 500-millimeter gap between the occupiable and non-occupiable spaces. "Our first strategy was to create a louvered facade system that would disguise [the divide]," recalled principal Stephan Jaklitsch. But after an afternoon walk through the Imperial gardens, they reversed course. "We were inspired by the vernacular architecture," said project architect Jonathan Kirk. "We wanted to somehow utilize the language of proportions, but also the materiality within that experience. Rather than trying to create something that was monolithic, we began to look at different materials for each of the building's components." The result, called Tōrō Ishi Ku (lantern-rock-void), makes its mark on the city with a tripartite facade in punched aluminum, bespoke tile, and glass. The top, non-occupiable half of the store is wrapped in stamped aluminum panels. Jaklitsch came up with the idea of a patterned two-dimensional facade after a trip to Prague Castle. "There was a smooth facade, but it employed a visual trick to deliver an illusion of depth," he said. "We were in a sense doing the same thing [in Tokyo]. It looks like a quilted facade, and appears to wrap around seamlessly." The texture of small punched holes was derived from a method of fabrication common throughout Tokyo. Behind the aluminum, the architects installed a fabric scrim that in turn reflects light from a series of LEDs, so that the upper portion of the building—the tōrō, or lantern—glows at night. A second optical illusion concerns the size of the aluminum panels themselves. Each large rectangular aluminum panel in fact comprises four separate aluminum pieces bolted together. Deep reveal seams between each four-part component result from turning the edges over to create rigidity, and also allow for thermal expansion and movement during seismic activity. "What ends up looking very simple in presentation is actually quite complex," said Kirk. Jaklitsch/Gardner defined the central portion of the building—the ishi, or "rock" containing a ready-to-wear showroom—with an opaque rain screen of bespoke tile. The building falls within a fire zone, so the architects were restricted to either fire glass or a non-combustible material. "Because it was also a more private program, and because we were dealing with various conditions in the adjacent buildings, we clad the entire thing in porcelain tile," explained Kirk. The sole exceptions are a single window on each of the building's east and west faces. The blade-shaped tiles were made from molds with a score joint in the middle. Each larger component was broken in two to create bespoke texturing along two edges; the half-tiles were then randomized and arranged in offset rows to form an interlocking pattern at the building's corners.
  • Facade Manufacturer LIXIL (porcelain tile)
  • Architects Jaklitsch/Gardner Architects
  • Facade Installer Kitano Construction Corp.
  • Location Tokyo, Japan
  • Date of Completion December 2010
  • System punched aluminum panels over tensile fabric, porcelain tile over extruded concrete panel with aluminum clip system, transparent glass
  • Products custom punched anodized aluminum panels, LIXIL custom porcelain tile, tensile fabric, optical clear tempered glass
The architects had originally intended to adhere the tile directly to the second floor's extruded concrete exterior, but the porcelain proved too heavy. Instead, they worked with the manufacturer to develop a custom fixing solution, in which the tiles are held off the wall by a series of metal studs. As a result, said Kirk, "the tiles can appear continuous across the concrete panels, which have seams about every three feet. The tiles are independent of the seams because the mounting brackets aren't affected by them." Like the aluminum panels above, the tiles are designed to move freely in case of an earthquake. Tōrō Ishi Ku's "void"—its ground-floor display room—is a transparent glass box. "We went through a number of different studies to get the proportions of the first and second floor just right," said Jaklitsch. The architects discovered that by restricting the height to three meters, they could eliminate the need for anchoring fins, thus increasing the sense of openness to the surrounding buildings. The feeling of continuity between inside and out is further emphasized by the use of honed granite for both the interior floor and the surrounding sidewalks. In this case, Jaklitsch/Gardner's sleight-of-hand worked too well. After several pedestrians collided with the glass, the architects modified the design by applying a subtle vertical striping to the exterior glass at eye level. One final consideration helped shape the shop's unique envelope: the rapidity with which the surrounding built environment is changing. The life expectancy of structures in the area averages only 26 years, explained Jaklitsch. Even as they were designing Tōrō Ishi Ku, the building across the street was torn down. "It became a matter of balancing the massing with this transitional zone between the commercial and residential districts," he said. "We were trying to anticipate the next three chess moves in this urban game."

Gould Evans Rewraps Kansas Library

Terra cotta rain screen transforms brutalist eyesore into energy-efficient community space.

Considered an aesthetic and functional failure almost since its construction in 1974, the old public library in Lawrence, Kansas, was overdue for a renovation four decades later. Gould Evans' challenge was to transform the low-slung brutalist behemoth, a poor environmental performer lacking both adequate daylighting and a sense of connection to the community, into an asset. "The desire was to try to come up with a building that basically reinvented the library for the community," said vice president Sean Zaudke. Rather than tacking an addition on to one end of the existing structure, the architects elected to wrap a 20,000-square-foot reading room and open stacks area around the old facade. In so doing, they altered the exterior for the better, swapping bare concrete for an earth-hued terra cotta rain screen punctuated by plentiful glazing. They also significantly enhanced the library's environmental performance, with early estimates suggesting that the new Lawrence Public Library will see a 50 percent reduction in energy usage despite a 50 percent increase in square footage. The decision to entirely enclose the old building within the addition was a critical component of the architects' sustainability strategy. "It allowed us to come up with a continuous facade utilizing a continuous insulation system," explained Zaudke. "It helped a lot with energy performance." Gould Evans chose a terra cotta rain screen from NBK to better tie the library to its surroundings. The building is located in an interstitial zone, immediately adjacent to buildings constructed in the 1950s but not far from Lawrence's thriving historic downtown. "We selected terra cotta because it could play by both sets of rules," said Zaudke. "It has an historic connotation, but it's also a much more modern-looking material."
  • Facade Manufacturer NBK (terra cotta), EFCO Corporation (storefront/curtain wall), Insulite Glass Company (glazing)
  • Architects Gould Evans
  • Facade Installer Drewco Inc. (terra cotta), Kennedy Glass (storefront/curtain wall/glazing)
  • Facade Consultant Building Science Corporation
  • Location Lawrence, KS
  • Date of Completion 2014
  • System terra cotta rain screen, high performance glazing and Solatubes, tongue-in-groove wood siding over existing concrete
  • Products NBK TERRART-MID, EFCO S433 storefront, EFCO S5600 curtain wall, EFCO D318 doors, PPG Solarban 70XL glass
Daylighting was another of the architects' key concerns. "Because there were so few windows in the old library, wherever you went there was a sort of phototropic behavior," said Zaudke. "People just gathered around the windows. The rest was not as utilized." Gould Evans significantly altered the user experience by creating an open reading room within the wraparound addition, all of which is exposed to daylight. Other library functions are contained within the core, which in turn is lit both by a continuous clerestory and a series of Solatubes. The clerestory also prevents glare within the reading room by illuminating the inside of the facade. Gould Evans used prescriptive data to determine the overall balance of terra cotta to glass on the new facade—about 60/40—as well as on each exterior wall. To reduce thermal gain on the east and west faces, the architects placed terra cotta baguettes over each horizontal slit window. Together, the baguettes and the depth of the wall act as sunshades. As for Lawrence Public Library's old concrete facade, "we didn't want to just pretend it wasn't there," said Zaudke. Instead, Gould Evans partially overlaid it with a tongue-in-groove system of unstained wood. "The concrete had a harsh feel to it," explained Zaudke. "By wrapping it with wood and revealing it in places, there's this nice dialog that occurs. Everywhere it opens up is where some core function reveals itself—it's an interesting dynamic." At the library entrance, the architects brought the wood outside, encased in glass to protect it from the elements, said Zaudke. "That vocabulary of cracking open the library, of making it accessible, is present at the entry."

Passive House Laboratory by GO Logic

Architects deliver a North American first with Warren Woods Ecology Field Station.

When Belfast, Maine–based architecture firm GO Logic presented the University of Chicago's Department of Ecology and Evolution with three schematic designs for the new Warren Woods Ecology Field Station, the academics decided to go for broke. Despite being new to Passive House building, the university was attracted to the sustainability standard given the laboratory's remote location in Berrien County, Michigan. "We presented them with three design options: one more compact, one more aggressive formally," recalled project architect Timothy Lock. The third option had an even more complicated form, one that would make Passive House certification difficult. "They said: 'We want the third one—and we want you to get it certified,'" said Lock. "We had our work cut out for us." Thanks in no small part to an envelope comprising a cedar rain screen, fully integrated insulation system, and high performance glazing, GO Logic succeeded in meeting the aesthetic and environmental goals set down by the university, with the result that the Warren Woods facility is the first Passive House–certified laboratory in North America.
  • Facade Manufacturer Kneer-Südfenster (glazing), Neopor (structural insulation), pro clima (breathable building paper)
  • Architects GO Logic
  • Facade Installer GO Logic (general contractor), Ebels Construction (carpentry)
  • Location Warren Woods, MI
  • Date of Completion 2014
  • System cedar rain screen with high performance glazing, integrated insulation
  • Products locally-sourced Eastern White Cedar vertical gap siding, Kneer-Südfenster windows and doors, Neopor insulation, pro clima Solitex Quatra-Fronta Building Paper, SIGA tapes
Warren Woods' envelope begins at ground level, with a shallow foundation utilizing GO Logic's patented L-shaped EPS insulation around the edges, and a continuous air-seal layer between the foam and the slab. "The system allows us to pour consistent slab-on-grade without any thermal bridging," explained Lock. The sealing layer connects into the wood stud wall backed by graphite-impregnated Neopor insulation. The architects chose the insulation for its high R-value, knowing that they would need to compensate for the relatively large amount of surface area dedicated to the exterior wall. Pro clima one-way breathable building paper allows the building to expel moisture. GO Logic installed a rain screen of Eastern White Cedar vertical gap siding sourced from the Upper Peninsula "because of the aesthetic goals of the client," said Lock. "They desired a contemporary aesthetic but also [the look of] a Midwestern barn." The architects planned the interior space and allotted glazing judiciously, locating the laboratory on the north side of the building. Its position, under the cantilever over the entry, maximally reduces solar gain—an important consideration given the heat generated by the equipment inside. The classroom space, on the other hand, is positioned on the building's south side, punctuated by a long strip of Kneer-Südfenster glazing. "We are highly critical of windows that are available domestically," said Lock. "The big drawback with North American windows is that the tradeoff for a higher R-value is significantly reduced solar heat gain." Instead, the firm imports Kneer-Süd's products directly from Germany. "In Northern Europe they know how to get all the heat from the sun that they can," he observed. "We also love the way they look." The windows and doors are fully integrated into the air-seal layer using one-way breathable tapes from SIGA, imported (like the pro clima paper) through 475 High Performance Building Supply in Brooklyn. A custom-fabricated stainless steel accordion screen shields the classroom-side glazing from both intruders and the sun. "It's good for security—the university likes that," said Lock. "But the screen was also big for us to control the amount of heat that enters during the summer months and shoulder seasons." The idea, he explained, is that when classes are in session and the weather is nice, the occupants can throw open the doors. When only the laboratory is in operation, the closed screen will cut back on heat gain. In addition, the steel mesh "became something that was also a really exciting design feature," said Lock. "It had a great effect—not just cooling the space, but also softening the natural light."

Biomimetic Pyramid by Burkett Design/Studio NYL

Plate tectonics, honeycombs inspire new Denver Botanic Gardens research center.

For their new Science Pyramid, the Denver Botanic Gardens sought a design that delivered more than just aesthetic impact. "They wanted an icon, but they also wanted to show an icon can be high performance," said Chris O'Hara, founding principal of Studio NYL. Studio NYL and its SKINS Group worked with architect Burkett Design and longtime Botanic Gardens general contractor GH Phipps to craft a structure to house the institution's conservation and research efforts. "People think of the Botanic Gardens as a beautiful place to go, but what most of them don't realize is what happens behind the scenes," said O'Hara. "The whole concept was to showcase that, and to educate the public not just about what the Botanic Gardens are doing, but a little more about their environment." Clad in a Swisspearl rain screen that serves as both roof and wall, the Science Pyramid's biomimetic design reconsiders the relationship between the built and natural worlds. Tasked with building a pyramidal structure with dynamic glass elements, the Burkett Design team turned to two natural metaphors. The first was the tectonic shifts that created Colorado's mountains, the second, the defensive structures built by honeybees. The geological metaphor influenced the building's form, a twisting, reaching variation on a pyramid designed to take full advantage of its site. The biological metaphor informed the building's skin, dominated by cement composite panels cut into honeycomb-like hexagons.
  • Facade Manufacturer Swisspearl (rain screen), View (glazing), Cosella-Dörken (weather and air barrier systems)
  • Architects Studio NYL's SKINS Group (facade designer), Burkett Design (architect)
  • Facade Installer NDF Construction (cladding), Alliance Glazing Technologies (glazing), Roadrunner Fabrication (perforated metal panels), United Materials (weather and air barriers)
  • Location Denver, CO
  • Date of Completion September 2014
  • System FRC rain screen roof and walls with electrochromic glazing and high performance insulation
  • Products Swisspearl rain screen, View dynamic glass, Cosella-Dörken weather and air barrier systems, Cascadia Clip fiberglass thermal spacers
Though they originally imagined a heavily glazed facade, Studio NYL soon realized that transparency would be impractical, given the projection elements involved in the Science Pyramid's exhibits. They opted instead for a rain screen system comprising custom-cut Swisspearl panels. The rain screen reduces thermal gain by venting hot air before it reaches the building. It encases the roof as well as the facade's vertical elements, the second such use of Swisspearl panels worldwide, and the first in the United States. "Here you don't hear about rain screen roofs often," said O'Hara. "Using the technology as a roof system was a little different." Because they still wanted some glass, Studio NYL incorporated electrochromic glazing from View. "They can tune the building—the user has a flip switch to black it out," explained O'Hara. "At the same time, you can have a visual connection to the gardens." To further boost performance, Studio NYL worked with Cosella-Dörkin to layer a UV resistant weather barrier system under the open joint rain screen. "Whereas the form was about this iconic, biomimetic structure, on a technical level, everything was about performance," said O'Hara. Fabrication and installation were complicated by two factors: a compressed timeline, and a need to work around the Botanic Gardens' ongoing operations. To help with the former, the Burkett Design team leaned heavily on digital fabrication, including having the structural steel digitally cut. As for the latter, the construction crew was forced to develop creative solutions to spatial restrictions. "There were a lot of logistical problems given that we were in the center of an active botanic garden," said O'Hara, noting that only machinery below a certain size could be brought to the site. "The primary axis we had could only go up twelve feet, to the extent that we were pushing tree branches out of the way with a broom." The design-build team came through in the end. "It's really quite spectacular," said O'Hara. But while the Science Pyramid achieves the landmark status the Botanic Gardens had hoped for, it nonetheless defers to its context—the gardens themselves. "The building is very oriented to the paths you take," said O'Hara. "Everything has a different moment. If you enter one way, you see the glass spine; if you come another, you see the canopy. It's playing constantly against the juxtaposed landscape."

Marlon Blackwell Puts on a Clinic with Vol Walker Hall

University of Arkansas  addition celebrates the future with a contemporary rewrite of Neoclassicism.

As head of the architecture department and distinguished professor at the University of Arkansas Fay Jones School of Architecture, Marlon Blackwell was uniquely qualified to oversee the renovation and expansion of the school's home, Vol Walker Hall. To unite the school's landscape architecture, architecture, and interior design departments under one roof for the first time, Blackwell's eponymous firm designed a contemporary west wing to mirror the east bar on the existing Beaux-Arts style building, constructed in the 1930s as the university library. But the Steven L. Anderson Design Center—which tied for Building of the Year in AN's 2014 Best of Design Awards—is more than a container for 37,000 square feet of new studio, seminar, and office space. It is also a teaching tool, a lesson in the evolution of architectural technology writ in concrete, limestone, glass, steel, and zinc.
  • Facade Manufacturer Stone Panels (limestone), Tulsa Dynapan (architectural concrete), Rheinzink (zinc panels), L&L Metal Fabrication (metal/glass curtain wall), Kawneer (other curtain wall)
  • Architects Marlon Blackwell Architect, Polk Stanley Wilcox Architects (associate architect)
  • Facade Installer ACE Glass Construction Corp. (glazing), Baldwin & Shell Construction Company (general contractor)
  • Facade Consultant Heitmann & Associates, Inc. (curtain wall), Clarkson Consulting (concrete)
  • Location Fayetteville, AR
  • Date of Completion 2013
  • System custom curtain wall with frit glass fins, limestone rain screen, zinc panels, architectural precast concrete
  • Products Stone Panels StoneLite limestone rain screen, architectural precast concrete from Tulsa Dynaspan, Rheinzink zinc panels, Viracon frit glass, Kawneer curtain wall, Viracon insulated glass
"Our strategy was to create a counterweight to the existing building," explained Blackwell. Rather than a layered steel-frame construction, Marlon Blackwell Architect opted for a post-tensioned concrete structure to convey a sense of mass and volume. "We also wanted to demonstrate what you can do with new technology like post-tensioned concrete, such as introducing a cantilever and introducing a profile that has minimal columns in the spaces," he said. "All of that is a didactic tool for our students to contrast and compare with the load-bearing technology of the existing structure." The exterior of the Steven L. Anderson Design Center also reflects on changes to architectural practice during the last 80 years. "We really wanted to develop a strong profile of the building, in contrast to Vol Walker Hall," said Blackwell. He describes the effect as a figure-ground reversal: where in the older structure the mass of the building is the ground and the windows and ornament act as figure, in the new wing the mass is the figure and the fenestration the ground. To create what Blackwell terms a "condition of resonance" between the Design Center and Vol Walker Hall, the architects engaged Clarkson Consulting to develop an architectural concrete to match the color of a local Arkansas limestone no longer available. They echoed the Indiana limestone on the older wing with panels sourced from a quarry only 50 miles from the original. But instead of grouting the limestone cladding on the new wing, Blackwell chose a limestone rain screen system from Stone Panels. "That allows us to go much thinner but much larger," he said. "Again, we're using the same materials but showing how the advancement of technology allows for a different expression of architecture." The defining feature of the Design Center is the more than 200-foot-long glass and steel curtain wall on the western facade. Knowing that the western exposure would provide the only source of natural light for the new wing, the architects worked to balance the need for light against the threat of solar gain. To complement the existing building, they chose a fascia steel curtain wall custom-fabricated by local company L&L Metal Fabrication. With curtain wall consultants Heitmann & Associates, Blackwell developed a brise soleil comprising 3/4-inch by 18-inch frit glass fins, angled to filter sunlight into the Design Center's 43-foot-deep studios. "What we like about it, too, is that it's one big window," said Blackwell. "It allows it to feel as if we've cut a section right through the building. At night the entire facade becomes a beacon, allowing for a nice interface between the school of architecture and the rest of the community." Other details, including the monolithic concrete pours designed to lighten the Design Center's connection to the ground, and zinc cladding used on the top floor to sharpen the profile of the main body, continue the dialogue between the new structure and its Neoclassical neighbor. "There are a lot of little things that give a tautness to the expression of the new addition, and give it its own identity," said Blackwell. "But at the same time, one of the things we were faithful to was trying to analyze and uncover units of measure and proportion on the old building, and apply that to ours." Perhaps more importantly, the building works as a design school—and Blackwell would know. "There's certainly contrast on the outside," he said. "But there's an almost resonant seamlessness on the inside."

Allied Works Carves a Winery Out of Cedar

Textured wood envelope draws on the history and landscape of Oregon’s Willamette Valley.

Sokol Blosser Winery's Willamette Valley tasting room, designed by Allied Works Architecture, pays homage to its agricultural surroundings in its massing and materials. Nestled within a set of terraces scooped out of the Dundee Hills, the building plants roots with a below-grade cellar, on top of which its long, low first story spreads like grape vines along a trellis. Both exterior and interior are wrapped in locally-sourced cedar siding—rough grey boards hung horizontally on the outside, smooth clear wood laid diagonally on the inside—whose regularity recalls aerial photographs of the vineyard. "We went with wood for a number of reasons," explained principal Kyle Lommen. "There's a history of wood in the agrarian architecture of that region. There's a history of wood in wineries as well. And there was a desire to create an atmosphere that is warm and had a material quality." Though the open front porch and fissures between the building's several volumes create a fluid interplay between outside and inside, Allied Works Architecture used texture and color to distinguish the exterior skin. "We wanted to create an expression of the outer crust, the outer envelope of the building, and have it play or pick up the daylight that hits the building," said Lommen. The architects chose a few different sizes of cedar boards, stained grey, then flipped them around "so as the sun hits the wood it creates a shadow, a kind of relief," he explained. "The wall has a very random pattern, but it's created from only three different board sizes."
  • Facade Manufacturer R&H Construction
  • Architects Allied Works Architecture
  • Facade Installer R&H Construction
  • Location Dayton, OR
  • Date of Completion 2013
  • System stained cedar rain screen with boards flipped for texture
  • Products locally-sourced cedar, window system from Dynamic Architectural Windows & Doors
The horizontal rain screen system on the tasting room facade contrasts sharply with the interior, where unstained boards set flush with one another travel in diagonal paths along the walls and sloped ceilings. Because the orientation of the boards changes each time they meet a seam, "it almost does this visual trick, creates a kind of complexity through a very simple concept," said Lommen. The interior siding extends onto the ceiling of the porch and the walls of the gaps between rooms, suggesting a solid block carved into a succession of spaces. The architects used sketches and drawings to establish the basic design concept before moving through several iterations of physical models. "We created a digital model as well to create perspectives that helped us understand materiality," said Lommen. "We did a number of perspectives to make sure that we weren't creating an environment that was too hectic, too busy. Through studies we realized it would be quite calm." The material studies, he said, were also helpful for the client, who had never worked on a project of this scale. Yet none of Allied Works Architecture's renderings captured the impact of the built space, said Lommen. "When the project was close to completion I was on site talking to the client, and they said, 'We never really understood what we were getting, even after all these models and exterior perspectives,'" he recalled. "Even for us as the architects, it ends up being more rich going to see the building."

Alexander Gorlin Wraps Supportive Housing in a Binary Skin

An aluminum rain screen and locally-sourced brick articulate a two-part program.

The Brook, developed by Common Ground and designed by Alexander Gorlin Architects, is part of a new wave of affordable housing communities popping up all over the United States. Unlike the public housing projects of the mid-twentieth century, which focused exclusively on housing and tended to suffer from a lack of routine maintenance, The Brook, located in the Bronx, combines apartments and support services under one roof. This duality is manifested in the envelope’s contrasting material palette—dark grey brick for the residential spaces, raw aluminum over the community facilities. “The idea of the exterior was to symbolize, as well as reflect, the internal program of Common Ground as supportive housing,” said Alexander Gorlin. “It’s inspired in part by Le Corbusier and his idea of expressing the program on the facade, and expressing the public functions as a means of interrupting a repetitive facade." The Brook’s communal areas, which are clustered at the corner of the 92,000-square-foot, six-story building, are marked on the exterior by ES Tolga Dry Seal System aluminum panels from Allied Metal. In addition to articulating the change in program, the metal facade “represents coming together, creating a landmark for the neighborhood as well,” said Gorlin, who noted that Common Ground “liked from the beginning marking the corner as a special symbolic place.” The metal-clad corner also functions “urbanistically, to break the building into three parts, break down its scale,” he explained. A series of inset terraces interrupt the grey aluminum walls with splashes of red. “At one level it’s a bright color to be cheerful and optimistic,” said Gorlin. “In China, red is a symbol of good luck. It also symbolizes the heart of the program and the community.”
  • Facade Manufacturer Allied Metal
  • Architects Alexander Gorlin Architects
  • Facade Consultant Justin Henshell
  • Facade Installer Mountco Construction
  • Location Bronx, NY
  • Date of Completion 2011
  • System prefabricated aluminum rain screen
  • Products ES Tolga Dry Seal System aluminum rain screen, locally-sourced brick
The Brook’s 190 studio apartments are distributed to either side of the community facilities, along wings punctuated with square and rectangular windows. “We decided to vary the window placement so it would create a more lively asymmetrical pattern. It’s not just a simple grid,” said Gorlin. The designers clad the housing areas in locally sourced dark grey brick. “Brick is a very noble, ancient material,” observed Gorlin. As a good insulator, it also contributes to the building’s LEED Silver status. Other sustainability strategies include a green roof, a special boiler system, building management technology that turns off the lights when a room is not in use, and the use of recycled and non-offgassing materials. The Brook was erected on a vacant lot in a neighborhood once known for pervasive blight. Early in the design process, said Gorlin, the architects and developers discussed installing bars over the lower windows. “It was determined very consciously not to do it, even though there’s glass on the corner,” he explained. “We decided not to put bars up or make it look in any way prison-like. In fact, by not doing so it’s been maintained in perfect shape. People in the neighborhood think it’s a high-end condo.” Gorlin calls Common Ground “a miraculous kind of client in terms of what they do and the manner in which they deal with the community.” The Brook, he said, represents a new approach not just to affordable housing, but to homelessness. “To actually build permanent housing for homeless people” is a unique opportunity, he said. “It’s not just a shelter, but a place to start over in life.”