Posts tagged with "Miami":

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ROSSETTI designed a partial-pop-up tennis stadium for the Miami Open

Miami’s vibrant nightlife scene was the design inspiration behind the modular tennis complex that hosted this year’s Miami Open. Fans, players, and sponsors at the top tournament were surprised this spring with a colorful new campus located in and around Hard Rock Stadium in Miami Gardens, Florida.  Under the direction of Miami Dolphins' owner and Hudson Yards developer Stephen Ross, the Detroit-based ROSSETTI created an out-of-the-box solution for the annual tennis championship that was highly-stylized yet saved tons of money. Instead of building a new, standalone tennis stadium, the design team decided to integrate a mix of temporary and permanent structures into the overall plan, across a total of 26 acres. “During a time when new stadiums cost a billion dollars, we designed a solution that uses the existing venue while creating an entirely fresh experience,” said Matt Rossetti, president of ROSSETTI, in a statement. “This design solution equates to a fraction of the embodied energy of a brand-new stadium and is a low-impact solution for the Miami environment. At the same time, we are creating an ‘international tennis festival’ that embodies the essence of Miami and delights fans.”  Centered around six themed “neighborhoods,” the food and entertainment areas within the tennis campus were broken down into hospitality concepts that promoted different experiences for fans. These activation zones were set up as public squares that flanked the centralized Dolphin Plaza, a palm-tree lined pathway with fountains and greenery that linked the new outdoor courts to the larger stadium next door.  New infrastructure included the 5,000-seat, demountable Grandstand, and the 13,8000-seat, temporary Stadium Court, which as the name suggests, was inside Hard Rock Stadium. In order to provide a more intimate viewing experience in that venue, a 47,200-square-foot confetti scrim was hung from its upper deck. Additionally, 18 practice courts, 12 exterior tournament courts, and 24 demountable cabana suites inside the stadium were built for the two-week competition.  Because this year’s March tournament was the first time the Miami Open was held at this location, ROSSETTI crafted the entire architectural set-up to be built securely and taken down swiftly. The firm partnered with Thornton Tomasetti on the structural engineering and stadium design expert Seating Solutions on the stadium components. Renewable materials such as recycled glass countertops, decorative bamboo paneling, and interlocking wood decking were used throughout the site, and some of the structural products were repurposed after the event.  Much like ROSSETTI's recently revamped USTA Billie Jean King National Tennis Center in New York, elevating the energy efficiency and enhancing the spectator experience of the Miami Open were at the heart of the project. Both the semi-permanent and temporary elements of the complex are slated to return for the 2020 tournament. 
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Zaha Hadid's completed One Thousand Museum joins the Miami skyline

Zaha Hadid’s exoskeletal skyscraper in downtown Miami has officially opened for business. One Thousand Museum, the late architect’s final residential tower in the United States, is the newest high-end condominium to grace Biscayne Boulevard in the city’s cultural core, and its 84 units are now available for sale.  Standing 707 feet tall, the building boasts the status of being the fourth-largest structure in Florida and rises 62 stories above Museum Park, a 30-acre urban greenspace that houses the Pérez Art Museum and the Philip and Patricia Frost Museum of Science. The massive project incorporates Hadid’s signature curves both within the interior and along the exterior—it’s most distinctive feature is the white-painted concrete “web of flowing lines” that meander up the facade.  The exterior scorpionlike "exoskeleton," an expressive inclusion that was also designed as structural support, has resulted in some nicknaming the building the “Scorpion Tower.” The bracing is further texturized by the lower and upper floor terraces and the podium, which includes even thicker columns that splay out and round off at the corners.  According to the architects, the glass cladding behind the exoskeleton includes a “folded, faceted, crystal-like facade” that will play off of the Miami sun and uniquely interact with light both from inside and outside the building. Just as important, the structure is strong; it’s resistant to forceful hurricane winds thanks to the diagonal bracketing system created by the design team.  Within One Thousand Museum, the interior floor plate is almost entirely column-free, allowing residents full views of Biscayne Bay and Miami Beach beyond. The lobby, communal spaces, and living units each embody Hadid’s futuristic style and sensibilities—the interior cladding, flooring, furniture, lighting, and ceiling designs all feature sleek, curved elements. Amenities include a spa, sunbathing deck, a double height aquatic center, sky lounge, multiple fitness areas, and private helipad. 
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Arquitectonica’s second finished building is being torn down

Arquitectonica’s second completed project, the multifamily Babylon apartment block in Miami, is set to be demolished before July. Fears over the now-abandoned building’s demolition have swirled for years, but last January, the ziggurat-inspired complex had its historic designation overturned by Miami city commissioners. The building’s owner, former spaghetti western star Francisco Martínez Celeiro (known professionally as George Martin), wants to replace the 37-year-old postmodern Babylon at 240 SE 14th Street with a 24-story condo tower, a far cry from the existing five-story structure. The Babylon, with its distinctive stepped, fire-truck-red facade, made an immediate splash when it was completed in 1982 and helped propel Arquitectonica on towards larger projects. While the stepped profile, which is extruded through the long, narrow site it sits on, stood out when it was first erected, the building is now overshadowed by the surrounding condo towers in the Brickell neighborhood. While Celeiro originally sought to build a narrow tower on the site that could have stood anywhere from 48 to 80 stories, the 15,000-square-foot lot is only zoned for a 12-story building. Now, Celeiro is seeking to upzone the lot for a 24-story tower, but according to the Biscayne Times, that request is driving a wedge between the city and Brickell residents and urban planners, who fear the precedent will open the floodgates for other developers to request variances. The primary motivation for revoking the Babylon’s protected status seems to have stemmed from an engineering survey commissioned by Celeiro, who argued that the building was too far gone to repair, and the inexorable link the complex has to the gritty 1980’s—a drug trafficking-filled era that many are keen to forget. “This is the real history of the Babylon,” said Commissioner Joe Carollo in 2018, during the 4-1 vote to strip the building of its historic designation, according to the Miami Herald. “This is a place built on the cheap by a guy who was so high he didn’t know if he was coming or going most of the time. I’m amazed that we’re talking about this 35 years later. I’m amazed we have spent too much time glorifying one of the worst buildings in an era many of us would like to forget.” AN will follow up on this story once further details on the Babylon’s replacement come to light.
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Yona Friedman sculpture takes the stage at ICA Miami

Miami’s Institute of Contemporary Art (ICA Miami), in collaboration with Miami Design District, will unveil a towering art installation by Yona Friedman, Hungarian-born French architect, designer, sculptor, and urban planner, whose innovative works represent humans’ complex relationship with the environment. The public sculpture, titled Space-Chain Phantasy-Miami 2019, features intertwined, geometric cubes composed of metal wire. The lightweight installation reflects Friedman’s perception that architecture should be flexible and capable of adjusting to the needs of its users and inhabitants. This concept originates from his personal history as an emigrant and nomadic refugee who often depended on temporary shelters to survive. While major urban centers can be dense, harsh, and chaotic, Friedman believes that temporary, ephemeral architecture can help democratize a city and empower its inhabitants, promoting a city that evolves with its people. Friedman's work, including temporary structures similar to Space-Chain Phantasy-Miami 2019, has been featured in collections of the Getty Research Institute in Los Angeles, the Museum of Modern Art in New York City, and the Centre Pompidou in Paris, among many other locations. The sculpture will be unveiled on February 22 at Paradise Plaza in the Miami Design District. ICA Miami is free and open to the public all year.
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The Berkowitz Contemporary Foundation reveals a tapering art space for Miami

Just in time for this year’s Art Basel Miami Beach (December 6 through 9) and Design Miami (December 5 through 9), the Miami-based firm Rene Gonzalez Architect (RGA) has released the first look at a new public art space for the nonprofit Berkowitz Contemporary Foundation (BCF). RGA was approached to design the space in 2017, and the BCF is looking to break ground on Miami’s Biscayne Boulevard between 26th Street and 26th Terrace in 2020. The dramatically cantilevering concrete arts space has been designed from the ground up with input from the artists whose work will be featured within, allowing RGA to carve out spaces that will specifically highlight those pieces. Once complete in 2023, the new building will create a permanent home for BCF’s collection. RGA has pulled most of the gallery’s mass off of the street level and onto the second story, where the building terminates with a double-height window. The three-story, 45-000-square-foot art space will hold 30,000 square feet of exhibition spaces. Rotating galleries for traveling installations and work from the permanent collection will be located on the second and third floors. Much of the building’s shape was driven in response to the needs of two massive works in particular. Richard Serra’s Passage of Time, a sinuous, 218-foot-long corten steel sculpture will be given a dedicated courtyard area between the building proper and the garden. The viewing area will be closed off by a street-facing glass wall, allowing pedestrians to look inside. The other work is James Turrell’s towering Aten Reign. The 80-foot-tall light installation, first unveiled at the Guggenheim in 2013, will be located at the end of its own transitional hallway to give visitors time to adjust to the lighting conditions. Aten Reign will be positioned within the building’s tallest section; a skylight will allow natural light to filter in through the top of the cone through five tiers of rings, each embedded with hidden LEDs. The end result is a free-floating “light tunnel” that creates an enclosure using only light. “I am honored to be working with the founder and board of BCF to design and realize its vision for a new landmark building in Miami,” wrote RGA founder Rene Gonzalez. “We have worked closely with the Foundation, as well as several of the artists in their collection, to design an immersive and contemplative building that will enhance the city’s cultural landscape.” The building will be free to enter and open to the public when the project is complete, furthering BCF’s goal of highlighting international contemporary art.
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Design errors potentially responsible for deadly bridge collapse in Miami

Last week, the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) revealed its latest investigative findings related to the deadly collapse of the Florida International University (FIU) pedestrian bridge that killed six in Miami earlier this year. The bridge, which hovered over eight lanes of traffic at an already hazardous intersection at the university, was designed to minimize disruptions to the transportation below, and it featured an amenity deck and bicycle lane for students. Its March 15, 2018, collapse, which completely flattened the cars underneath, could have been the result of errors in its design, according to the NTSB. Within the framework of the NTSB investigation, authorities from the Federal Highway Administration assessed the 174-foot-long, 950-ton span’s construction and found crucial design errors in the north end of the structure, where two trusses were connected diagonally to the bridge deck. According to the reports, the bridge's designers overestimated the capacity of a major section of the bridge and underestimated the load that section would have to carry. Examiners also discovered that the cracks found in the northernmost nodal region prior to the collapse were related to the aforementioned design errors. On August 9, 2018, the NTSB tested the concrete and steel used for the bridge, finding that there were no flaws in either of the materials. The report also included detailed pictures of the cracks at the north end of the bridge, which were minor before the span’s installation but transformed into fissure-like gaps by the time the structure was placed over the busy highway. Investigators believe the gaps contributed significantly to the bridge’s failure. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) recognized safety violations on March 15, the day of the collapse, and hired five contractors to inspect the structure and implement repairs, including Munilla Construction Management. However, OSHA issued FIGG Bridge Engineers, a designer on the project, a serious violation with a fine of over $12,000 for putting employees in physical danger by permitting them to work on the bridge after the dangerous cracks were discovered. The NTSB report is preliminary, and investigators are still searching for other design and technical flaws that led to the bridge’s failure.
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Judy Chicago to ignite feminist fireworks at Art Basel Miami Beach

Known most for her landmark piece, The Dinner Party (1979), revolutionary feminist artist Judy Chicago uses art, painting, and sculpture to showcase the role of women throughout history and culture. Opening on December 4 in conjunction with Art Basel Miami Beach, Judy Chicago: A Reckoning, is an exhibition that will feature six major works of art produced by Chicago between the 1960s and 1990s. The exhibit, which will take place at Miami’s Institute of Contemporary Arts (ICA), will also unveil A Purple Poem for Miami, Chicago’s new, site-specific smoke piece that will ignite the museum’s sculpture garden with colorful smoke bombs, dry ice, and other pyrotechnics. A Purple Poem draws from Chicago’s radical performance works from the sixties called Atmospheres, a series of pyrotechnic art installations that took place in Pasadena, California. The Atmospheres pieces, which Chicago displayed in the '60s and '70s and then recently again in 2012, were intended to be daring acts of feminism. At the time of their conception, Chicago often joked that she would set the Pasadena Art Museum on fire in protest of its male-dominated curatorial preferences. While the art museum was never set ablaze, Chicago inflamed the deserts, fields, and forests of Pasadena with fireworks, smoke bombs, and other colorful explosives she had learned to use. Each eccentric and vivacious display of pyrotechnics created a mesmerizing visual effect, conjuring feelings of wonder, fear, and inspiration among its viewers. “The narrative of landscape and land art had been dominated by men,” said Chicago in an interview with New York Magazine. “Atmospheres came from the desire to insert a feminine perspective into the conversation and to soften and feminize the environment.” Her words are especially significant in light of the fact that she was sexually harassed by the head of the fireworks company where she once apprenticed at, causing her to take a two-decade hiatus from her project. However, in 2012, with funding and support from the Getty Performance Festival, Chicago was able to revisit her role as a pioneering female pyrotechnician. Atmospheres, along with the upcoming exhibition at ICA Miami, represent the ways in which Chicago’s powerful feminist voice not only transforms the landscape and environment but also interpretations of modernism and its values. Photographs documenting Atmospheres are currently on display at Nina Johnson Gallery in Miami. A Purple Poem for Miami, her sixth major art installation, will take place at ICA Miami in February 2019.
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Miami approved David Beckham's soccer stadium site in ballot vote

In yesterday’s midterm elections, Miami residents voted to approve a referendum that brings David Beckham’s Freedom Park soccer complex one step closer to fruition after a five-year battle. According to The Miami Herald, the referendum gets rid of competitive bidding for the property where Beckham and his partners now want to build, a 131-acre site near Miami International Airport currently home to the city-owned Melreese golf course. On the ballot, voters were asked whether or not the local government would be allowed to change bidding laws within the city charter to secure a no-bid deal at the massive public green space. About 60 percent of voters endorsed the measure, solidifying the chances that the $1 billion project, designed by Arquitectonica, will actually get built. The city can now begin to negotiate a 99-year-lease for a minimum of $3.5 million per year with Beckham’s Miami Freedom Park LLC, a group jointly-owned by Sprint chief executive Marcelo Claure, and business brothers Jorge and Jose Mas. The developers plan to use 73 acres to build a 25,000-seat stadium for Miami’s future Major League Soccer team, Inter Miami CF, as well as 750 hotel rooms, and at least one million square feet of office, retail, and commercial space. The referendum also calls for Beckham’s group to financially back a 58-acre public park near the complex, which will cost about $20 million to construct. The Miami Herald reported that critics of the decision to build the mega-project are defending the value of the golf club’s youth and mentoring programs. Concern is also rising over the toxic dirt that sits underneath the parkland, which was contaminated by an old municipal incinerator. The city will likely have to approve a serious land remediation plan before moving forward with negotiating final lease terms. Now that voters are behind the goal to build at Melreese, Beckham’s team will have to find a new vision for the nine-acre plot of land it owns in Overtown, Miami, where the soccer star previously wanted to develop a stadium designed by Populous.
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Florida's tallest tower will be a vertical theme park for gravity-defying fun

Florida’s soon-to-be tallest building, SkyRise Miami, is on track to becoming the country’s sole vertical theme park, complete with a dramatic sloping outer wall that will offer thrill-seekers the option to try gravity-defying stunts. After years of setbacks and legal controversy, the 1,000-foot-tall building—like something straight out of a Mission Impossible movie—will tower over the edge of Biscayne Bay by 2023. According to Building Design + Construction, the project was designed by Arquitectonica and will begin construction early next year on a small piece of land just outside of downtown Miami. Local firms Berkowitz Development Group and Plaza Construction will lead the build-out alongside a hefty team of partners including structural engineers Magnusson Klemencic Associates, exhibition designers gsmprjct°, and engineering consultants Cosentini Associates and DVS. Composed of 30,000 tons of structural steel, SkyRise will house several observation decks that will boast unfiltered views of Miami, and will serve as an entertainment and retail complex with restaurants, nightclubs, a ballroom, and boardrooms for rent. Among its many offerings will be the Flying Theater, inspired by the Soarin’ ride at Epcot in Disney World, the SkyPlunge for base-jumpers, and the Skydrop, which drops riders elevator-style 540 feet at speeds of up to 95 miles per hour. SkyRise will also feature a zero-gravity tunnel, a transparent slide that loops outside the building, as well as a clear skydeck that cantilevers off the structure. The facility will be operated by Legends, a sports and entertainment management company owned by the Dallas Cowboys and New York Yankees. Among the city’s handful of mega-projects in Coconut Grove and downtown Miami, SkyRise is one of the most ambitious and most politically-troubled structures in development. Per The Real Deal, the building was approved by the city commission and local voters in the August 2014 primary election, despite opposition regarding the project’s competitive bid process. The Florida Supreme Court swooped in the following year to stop the complaint and effectively allow the project to move forward. Not only is the tower’s planned construction a breakthrough for the developers and the project’s many supporters, the design itself is unprecedented. The teams at Berkowitz and Arquitectonica told BD+C that they plan to build it with concrete in addition to the structural steel—a combination that hasn’t been done before in South Florida. Given its small footprint with the bay, the building will also have to withstand up to 186 mile-per-hour winds during hurricane season. The engineering for the tower alone, much like the attractions inside, must be groundbreaking for it to stay afloat. Many of the upcoming residential and commercial enclaves in Miami, especially those sitting directly on its waterfront, pose the same challenges for their developers and architects. Merging (literal) high design with resiliency efforts is a hot-button issue for coastal communities across the U.S. and Southern Florida. With name-brand firms like Bjarke Ingels Group, OMA, and Zaha Hadid Architects taking on larger developments in Miami, other-worldly designs are poised to not only propel Miami as an architectural attraction but also to support the city’s efforts to disaster-proof all of its latest urban advances from future storms.
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Facades+ Miami will examine facades in tropical environments

On October 4, The Architect’s Newspaper will be hosting Facades+ Miami for the third time. The morning event features talks and workshops by national and global leaders of the AEC industry covering a range of subjects relating to building envelopes within tropical environments and the architectural vernacular of the Miami metropolitan area. Allan Shulman, founder of Shulman + Associates, is co-chair of the event.

Over the last century, Miami’s population has grown from approximately 60,000 to just 6 million. This explosive growth of the southernmost major in the U.S. has fostered an architectural identity distinct to the region, one that often adapts modernist trends to suit local environmental performance. 

Founded in 1977, Arquitectonica has designed dozens of developments in downtown Miami, and they are bringing their expertise to this year's conference. In recent years, the firm has completed the Brickell City Centre, the American Airlines Arena, and Regalia. The Regalia is a nearly 500-foot-tall tower on the northeastern edge of the Miami metropolitan area described by founding partner Bernardo Fort-Brescia as a rectangular glass prism “wrapped by a sensuously undulating terrace” that simultaneously serves as a tool for interior shading.

Ateliers Jean Nouvel, a firm that works globally with an emphasis on facades, is also presenting. The practice is currently constructing a significant project in Miami’s South Beach. The residential complex will contain approximately 200,000 square feet, and will stand atop an 11-foot podium to avoid the increasing threat of storm surges in Miami. Significant segments of the facade will be clad in perforated screens, filtering natural sunlight while maintaining a degree of privacy for residents of the glass-faced residential tower.

While the lion’s share of high-rise construction is centered in Miami’s downtown and in a ribbon of development adjacent to the coastline, other local and international practices are advancing with sensitive residential and commercial projects throughout the region, such as Brillhart Architecture’s timber Surfer’s Outpost; Gelpi Projects’ proposed Coconut Grove Playhouse; Germane Barnes's public art installations, such as RAW POP UP / LAB at Brickell City Centre; and micucci arquitectos asociados' institutional projects across Latin America.

Outside of architectural practices, representatives from manufacturers and engineering practices such as the Al-Farooq, Crawford-Tracey, Terranova, STI Firestop, Gate Precast, and Valspar will also be on hand to lead workshops and panels.

Further information for Facades+ Miami can be found here.

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Shulman + Associates blends the vernacular and contemporary in hybrid facade systems

On October 4, Facades+ is coming to Miami. The conference features nine speakers from a broad range of AEC firms, ranging from architectural concrete supplier Gate Precast to Paris-based Ateliers Jean Nouvel, and Miami's own Arquitectonica. Allan Shulman, who founded Miami’s Shulman + Associates in 1996, will be co-chairing the conference. Over the last two decades, Shulman + Associates has been recognized with dozens of design awards stemming from the practice’s site-specific designs and ambitious forays into architectural preservation and urbanism. To learn more about Miami’s architectural development, AN interviewed Allan Shulman on the city’s burgeoning urbanism, adaptation to climate change, and preservation efforts. The Architect’s Newspaper: Miami is undergoing a significant period of development, with seemingly continual expansions of the Miami Design District and nationally-prestigious projects such as the Phillip and Patricia Frost Museum of Science. Shulman + Associates is a player in this current trend. What factors do you perceive as driving Miami’s architectural renaissance? Allan Shulman: I am a bit skeptical of the term “significant period of development” in this city, because it seems as though the development cycle, like the touristic cycle, has sprawled into a continuous blob, not a focused moment. The challenges are therefore fundamental and strategic, not localized. Overall, I see three themes driving Miami’s development: First, we are building today the infrastructure of a great city. The reality and ambition of the city are driven by the idea of being a global city, comparable and compared to other such cities around the globe. Is the city just becoming a better version of itself? I don’t think so. Great parks and public spaces, great cultural facilities, great transportation networks, ground-up public involvement in design questions by an empowered and informed public are all at play. Yet the frustrations about our failures in this regard are as intense as the optimistic ambition. But still, the global city is the emerging measuring stick, so I think the discussion is getting more interesting. Second, we are witnessing a remarkable densification and consolidation of neighborhoods throughout the metropolitan area. In a city as decentralized as Miami, the building is not happening in just one or two areas, but across a broad swath of the city. Certainly, it is uneven and driven more by the glam end of the spectrum: downtown, Miami Beach, Wynwood, and the Design District, but you can see it cropping up around Metrorail stations, extending along Miami’s commercial arteries and mushrooming around old neighborhood centers. Also, you can see it in the widespread use of historic preservation to conserve neighborhood character, and in the vast number of civic initiatives that are a part of the discourse. Finally, it seems as though the “tropical” and the “modern” are new again. This is extraordinary…it ties us to our roots, of course. Miami has a long tradition, and some of the greatest work produced here was inspired by these themes. But it also launches us into the future because it engages two relevant themes: How do we understand and relate to our particular context? And what is the appropriate architectural solution to address the problems of today? Miami is known for its distinctive modernist heritage. How does this architectural heritage contrast or complement contemporary facade systems? AS: Miami has often been a laboratory of contemporary building systems; it certainly was in the 1930s, when the city experienced an explosion of construction. Plate and Vitrolite glass products and new lighting systems were used in support of modern architecture. Today, it is difficult to be innovative because we have a more limited array of available facade systems, compared to other cities in North America. Our building codes require compliance with water-tightness and impact criteria, and each system must be tested and approved for a specific use in order to be used in Miami-Dade County. The process is expensive and time-consuming and limits choices. Manufacturers with a large market for their product invest, but certain niche players find it not worth it. Of course, choices have expanded a lot since the imposition of the testing requirement after Hurricane Andrew in the 1990s, but this requirement is still quite limiting. Certainly glass systems have improved, as well as rain-screens and louver systems. There are a number of modern-appropriate systems we can use, but others we can’t. Restoration projects, such as Shulman + Associates' Betsy-Carlton Hotel, allow for the retention of historic properties while bringing them up to contemporary standards. How do you approach blending the new with the old, and is there a specific intervention or facade treatment that your firm is particularly proud of? AS: At the most basic level, we try to blend serious research-based preservation with inventive approaches in areas we add or adapt. We aspire to make the finished project a legible record of the building’s development over time. Regarding historic facades, we try to use the same techniques as were used in the original building’s construction, to be true to the material culture of the period. In new facades, we are all about the contemporary. We are proud of the Betsy-Carlton, where we used laser-cut aluminum to feature poetry, and abundant transparent walls at the new wings of the building while preserving the old fabric of the structure. We also developed a spherical object (an “Orb”) that ties the Betsy and the Carlton, in order to abstract an otherwise utilitarian building connection over the alley. What is new is proudly idiosyncratic and situational. The rest is context. Hurricane Irma highlighted the environmental challenges that lie ahead for Miami with increased incidents of extreme weather. What methods and techniques are currently being used across Miami and by Shulman + Associates to confront this predicament? AS: The most important new techniques involve raising buildings and protecting the facade from flying debris. We have been raising buildings for some years now, following FEMA requirements, but now we are raising them more radically, enough to open the space under the building. This is a practical and low-tech solution. The other strategy, protecting facades from flying debris, overlaps with the objective of protecting the facade from sun and rain. So hybrid facade systems that are layered in depth and have resilience are preferred. Outside of the threat of climate change and extreme weather conditions, Miami is located within a tropical climate. How can firms best adapt their facade systems to this environment, and what techniques are Shulman + Associates utilizing? AS: Adapting facade systems to the tropics is the biggest challenge we have because it affects everyday use, performance, and comfort of the building. Although we get no or little credit for it in our energy calculations, we generally shade and/or screen our facades to the extent we can. This again leads to hybrid systems that provide some depth by which to filter and dampen the extreme effects of the environment. The materials are new, but the techniques for doing this have been around since at least the postwar period. I consider myself an avid student of history in this regard. To learn more about Miami Facades+AM click here.