Posts tagged with "Javits Center":

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Pop-up coronavirus hospitals begin to wind down operations

In what can be interpreted as a sign that the social distancing measures instituted around the world over the past several weeks have proven effective, some of the largest temporary emergency treatment facilities erected to care for an influx of patients during the coronavirus pandemic are now discharging their final patients and shuttering their doors for the time being. In London, the Independent reported that the NHS Nightingale Hospital London, one of several critical care hospitals across the United Kingdom operated by the National Health Service, is effectively closing up shop in the near future after admitting no new patients within the last week. As of this past Friday, medical workers assigned to the hospital were caring for 19 infected patients, down from a peak number of 35 in mid-April. Erected in just over a week within the cavernous halls of the ExCel London convention center, the field hospital opened at the top of April with 500 ventilator-equipped patient beds, with the capacity to accommodate up to 5,000 patients spread across 78 wards if needed. NHS Nightingale hospitals in other English cities including Birmingham and Manchester have treated no patients during the course of the pandemic because, like in London, the intensive care wards of established hospitals, although unusually hectic, have not exceeded capacity as originally anticipated. These hospitals also opted to keep COVID-19-stricken patients within their own facilities instead of sending them to field hospitals due to the various services that the temporary NHS facilities lacked. Simply, the dreaded surge that the NHS anticipated never quite arrived. “As an initial idea, the Nightingale made a great deal of sense. The rationale for that is receding quite rapidly. We are having to think about what to do next,” an anonymous source close to the NHS Nightingale Hospital London told the Independent. “There are still patients and staff are still caring for patients but there have been no admissions in the past week. The numbers are going down.” It’s unclear at this point what the ultimate fate of the NHS Nightingale London will be, although ExCel London certainly won’t be back in conventioneer-hosting action at any point soon. The Independent noted the NHS field hospitals would likely either be used as “step-down” facilities for patients in the midst of recovering from the deadly virus or temporarily closed altogether until a potential second wave of infections hits, which is certainly a possibility. To date, 28,446 lives have been lost to coronavirus in the U.K. “We are still well above intensive care capacity in London overall,” the source explained to the Independent. “We don’t have a fully functioning NHS in London that is coping with strokes, cancer, heart disease, and coronavirus. If we mothball the Nightingale and need it again, standing it back up becomes that bit harder.” While operations at the facility reportedly wind down, a spokesperson for the NHS makes clear that the “NHS Nightingale London will remain available to treat Covid-19 patients for as long as it is needed.” In New York City, the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) has halted treatment operations at a temporary field hospital located within the Jacob K. Javits Convention Center on the West Side of Manhattan. A few dozen remaining patients were discharged from the 2,500-bed facility, which treated over 1,000 New Yorkers over the span of a month. The temporary critical care facility at the Javits Center—along with three other military-run field hospitals in the greater New York area—will close but won’t be disassembled completely in the event of a second wave of infections per ABC News 7 NY. Although horrific stories and images continue to come out of New York City on a near-daily basis, the city is believed to have inched past the peak of coronavirus infections as hospitalization rates continue to decline. The five boroughs remain the hardest hit area in the United States with 174,331 confirmed coronavirus cases and 18,925 deaths resulting from the virus as of writing. “We are encouraged by the data which suggest the curve is flattening in New York and we are working with the city and state to begin the strategic drawdown of resources,” a spokesperson for FEMA told Gothamist in late April ahead+ of the field hospital’s closure. Another military-run emergency treatment facility based in Manhattan, the Navy hospital ship USNS Comfort, has also since departed the city. Hundreds of military medical personnel assigned to the Javits Center have since been redeployed to local hospitals or sent elsewhere. In Seattle, an early domestic hotspot for the coronavirus, a 250-bed military field hospital built-out at a convention center was deemed redundant and closed before admitting any patients. The hospital was dissembled and its equipment was returned to FEMA for deployment to harder hit areas. Plans for pop-up critical care facilities in other cities were also ultimately scrapped due to the fact that local hospitals got close to, but never surpassed, capacity.
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New York’s Javits Center completes transformation into 1,200 bed emergency hospital

A 1,200-bed field hospital, established in response to the dire need for additional hospital beds as the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) overwhelms New York City’s existing medical infrastructure, opened today at the Jacob K. Javits Center. The Army Corps of Engineers, along with civilian staff and members of the New York National Guard, executed the dramatic transformation of the Javits Center from a normally bustling venue for trade shows and conventions to a fully equipped overflow medical facility in just one week. If needed, the makeshift hospital at the Javits Center can be expanded to accommodate 2,910 beds. This would make it one of the largest hospitals in America, regardless of ephemerality, according to ABC News. By comparison, New York-Presbyterian, the city’s largest hospital, has a 2,600-bed capacity. First floated as a potential field hospital earlier this month, the Javits Center, a vast green-roofed, glass-encased complex on Manhattan's far West Side designed by Pei Cobb Freed & Partners, is the first of several Army Corps-identified facilities across the five boroughs to be adapted into a temporary medical hub. Late last week, New York Governor Andrew Cuomo announced that the Army Corps, pending approval from the White House, will also convert four other facilities with considerable square footage into field hospitals: The Aqueduct Racetrack in Queens, the New York Expo Center in Bronx, CUNY Staten Island, and the Brooklyn Cruise Terminal in Red Hook. These four facilities will have the capacity for a combined 4,000 additional hospital beds as even more sites, including the Brooklyn Center Nursing Home and a Marriott hotel in downtown Brooklyn, are considered by state health officials as having overflow-need potential according to the Brooklyn Daily Eagle. Cuomo has also stressed the need for temporary hospitals in New York City-adjacent counties including Westchester, Suffolk, Nassau, and Rockland. As of this writing, 59,742 cases of the coronavirus have been confirmed in New York, the most of any state. Nearly 800 people have perished from the virus in New York City alone. Over the weekend, a non-Army Corps-initiated field hospital also began to take shape in Central Park’s East Meadow. Designed specifically as a respiratory care unit, the 68-bed Central Park tent hospital is being constructed by volunteers enlisted by the faith-based humanitarian aid organization Samaritan’s Purse in partnership with Mount Sinai Health System. Unlike the field hospital at the Javits Center, which will only provide care to those suffering from a range of health issues that aren’t coronavirus in order to take the mounting burden off of established hospitals grappling with New Yorkers stricken with the highly contagious viral disease, the Central Park facility is dedicated to treating “patients seriously ill with COVID-19,” per a statement released by Mount Sinai Hospital to BuzzFeed News. Back at the Javits Center, the transformation of the 1.8-million-square foot building’s cavernous exhibition halls into a Federal Emergency Management Agency-operated medical facility has been met with a positive response. And for those skeptical that the United States was capable of speedy, China-style turnaround in creating makeshift hospitals, the swift transformation of the Javits Center has proven that the Army Corps, when called upon, can get things done and get them done in an expeditious manner. (New York’s urgent need for ventilators and other supplies, however, is a whole other story.) All things considered, the temporary hospital at the Javits Center appears clean and comfortable. Individual beds contained within semi-enclosed “rooms” are shielded by three temporary walls and a curtained entrance made from seemingly the same materials formerly used to host booths in the space, while floor lamps, folding chairs, medical supplies, and side tables topped with (faux) potted plants complement the spaces. While the transformation doesn't appear to allow for individual treatment areas to include private plumbed fixtures, some online commentators have pointed out that a deficit of toilets at the Javits Center shouldn’t be a problem. “The Javits Center is an amazing facility,” ABC News reported Gen. Todd Semonite, head of the Army Corps of Engineers, as telling reporters at a press conference held last week. “Every 10 feet there's a great big steel door in the floor, you open it up in there is all the electrical; there's cold water, there's hot water and there's a place for sewers, so you can actually do things like sinks, right in the middle of a convention center to be able to make that happen.” Outside of New York City, the Los Angeles Convention Center, which was due to host the AIA Conference on Architecture 2020 in May, is in the process of being converted by the National Guard into a U.S. Department of Health and Human Services-run field hospital as demand for hospital beds in the greater L.A. area begin to surge. Hard-hit Santa Clara County, in the San Francisco Bay area, is also turning a large convention center into a temporary treatment center for COVID-19 patients presenting on-life threatening symptoms. Similar efforts are also planned or already underway at convention centers in Detroit, New Orleans, Baltimore, Dallas, Chicago, Seattle, and elsewhere. To help with this unprecedented effort, the American Institute of Architects (AIA) has launched a special task force to inform and offer guidance to public officials, architects, and healthcare facility operators as they convert existing buildings into temporary medical hubs at a pace never experienced before. The task force, according to a press statement, will develop a COVID-19 Rapid Response Safety Space Assessment for AIA members that includes “considerations for the suitability of buildings, spaces, and other sites for patient care. The assessment will be developed by architects with a wide range of expertise, including healthcare facility design, urban design, public health and disaster assistance.” “On a daily basis, I am hearing from our architects who feel a deep sense of moral duty to support our healthcare providers on the frontlines of this pandemic,” said AIA 2020 president Jane Frederick, FAIA. “As our communities assess buildings to address growing surge capacity, we hope this task force will be a resource to ensure buildings are appropriately and safely adapted for our doctors and nurses.”
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NYC eyes emptied dorms, Javits Center as makeshift coronavirus treatment hubs

With classes and conferences of all stripes being postponed, canceled, and migrated online as the widening coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic brings life in New York City to a grinding halt, two sizable patches of real estate are being eyed by officials as potential locations to set up additional emergency hospital beds. This move would help alleviate pressure on already overburdened medical facilities that are bracing for a deluge of infected patients in need of acute treatment. As of this writing, the number of confirmed cases of COVID-19 in New York City is over 2,000. As reported by Politico, a key locale being considered by city officials as a “medical surge facility” is the Jacob K. Javits Convention Center. Sprawling across 1.8 million square feet on Manhattan’s far West Side, the Pei Cobb Freed-designed Javits Center certainly has the raw space to spare as the twelfth-largest convention facility in the United States. And, for now, it has the availability as well considering that all operations at Javits have been put on pause until April 30. Some events beyond April 30, notably the International Contemporary Furniture Fair, have also been canceled. The Javits Center is a state-run enterprise operated by the New York Convention Center Operating Corporation, which itself is a subsidiary of the Empire State Development Corporation. Omar Bourne, a spokesperson for New York City’s emergency management department, relayed to Politico that Mayor de Blasio’s administration is still awaiting a response from the state as to whether the Javits Center could potentially be used as a temporary medical facility if need be. The Chinese city of Wuhan converted numerous convention centers and exhibition halls into pop-up hospitals during the height of the pandemic there. All of those facilities, as well as the city’s rapidly erected modular emergency facilities, have since been shuttered as the reported cases of the virus in and around Wuhan have gone from a flood to a slight trickle to nothing. Not far from the Javits Center, Madison Square Garden, a multipurpose arena clocking in at around 820,000 square feet, is also being considered as a potential emergency treatment center where COVID-19-stricken New Yorkers would be isolated and treated. The idea is one being floated by Council Speaker Corey Johnson and his colleague, Stephen Levin. In addition to converting Javits Center into a medical facility, Johnson and Levein “also argued that the city and state should transform Madison Square Garden, the home of the ailing Knicks, into a home for the ailing,” wrote Politico. Unlike the state-run Javits Center, Madison Square Garden is privately owned by sports and entertainment behemoth, the Madison Square Garden Company. In addition to gargantuan, glass-paneled convention centers and the home venue of an enfeebled NBA franchise, the soon-to-be-vacated dormitories of New York University are also being mulled as potential temporary treatment centers. As an email statement to NYU students reads: “There are significant indications that the State, as part of its contingency planning, is looking at university dormitories as settings for overflow beds from hospitals.” A small number of NYU students, including certain graduate students, law and medical students, and undergraduates who receive special exemptions are being allowed to stay put in their dorms. Otherwise, students must vacate all campus residence halls no later than March 22. As of March 15, two members of the NYU community, a student and an administrator, have tested positive for COVID-19. Noah Hopkins, a politics student at NYU, detailed the rather chaotic student housing situation in a March 18 op-ed published in The Guardian:
“Over the past few days, the roughly 12,000 students living in the NYU housing system saw the situation escalate around us and heard nothing from administrators. On Monday afternoon we received an email saying the residence halls would be closing on 22 March. We were told all students must vacate their rooms by the 22nd, or within 48 hours if possible.” “Students who already left campus and did not prepare their rooms for checkout have been strongly encouraged to return to New York, collect their belongings then return home. Regarding those unable to return to New York before the closure date, the university has said only that their items will be packed and shipped to them. We have not been given a timeframe for when this might happen, nor have the obvious privacy concerns been addressed.”
Per the Washington Square News, the city’s department of emergency management has not formally requested that NYU—or the City University of New York, for that matter—empty its dorms so that they can be used as treatment facilities. But the possibility that the dorms could, in the very near future, be repurposed into makeshift medical hubs is something that's very much on the table. As reported by Bloomberg, New York Governor Andrew Cuomo is pushing to increase, via executive order, the number of hospital beds within the state by 9,000 although thousands more beds might ultimately be needed as the spread of the coronavirus peaks in the coming weeks. Five thousand of the initial 9,000 beds would be in New York City. Already, around 1,300 additional beds have been set up or are due to be set up at a handful of municipal hospitals in the Bronx, a former nursing home in Brooklyn, and at a chronic care facility on Roosevelt Island. Hotels across the city could also be converted into isolation/treatment centers in the comings days in an effort to boost the number of available beds. On Wednesday, Cuomo announced that a 1,000-bed Navy hospital ship, the USNS Comfort, will be deployed to New York City. The vessel, however, is undergoing maintenance in Virginia and will likely arrive in New York Harbor in weeks, not days, as per Bloomberg.

Infrastructure: The Architecture Lobby National Think-In

Day 1: AIA Sessions Friday, 6/22/ 7a.m.-7p.m. At Javits Center, NYC This Think-In is divided into two parts over two days: active engagement with relevant session at the AIA National convention to ensure substantive dialogues on professional issues on Friday, June 22; and Think-In panel discussions on Saturday, June 23 at Prime Produce that examine the theme of Infrastructure. Infrastructure is the network of systems necessary for an organization to function. When those systems are degraded enough, the defining functions of the organization fail. The Architecture Lobby has selected this theme for its first National Think-In to generate a way forward and rebuild our discipline’s infrastructure. Check this space for more details soon!
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35 booths not to miss at the AIA 2018 Architecture Expo

The AIA 2018 Conference is almost here, and architects are already flocking to New York City for one of the biggest architecture events each year. The AIA Architecture Expo will be happening on June 21-22. The theme this year is "Blueprint for Better Cities," featuring materials that have a controlled ecological footprint. More than 800 leading brands and manufacturers will exhibit their cutting-edge technologies in the 200,000-square-feet gallery at the Javits Center. If you are planning your visit to the A’18 Expo, be sure to visit our editors’ picks of manufacturers and brands (which are also our distinguished sponsors). AkzoNobel - 449 Avenere Cladding - Swirnow - 4366 Bison Innovative Products - 4344 C.R. Laurence - 1945 Cambridge Architectural Mesh - 1715 Florim - 215 FunderMax GmbH - 662 GKD-USA, Inc. - 957 Graphisoft - 105 greenscreen - 828 Guardian Glass - 1003 InsiteVR - 1374 IrisVR - 1362 J.E. Berkowitz - 1981 Kawneer - 556LL LaCantina Doors - 1329 NBK North America - 4703 PlanGrid - 4006 PPG - 4225 Rieder North America - 4631 Rigidized Metals - 4540 ROCKWOOL - 1411 SageGlass - 4737 Shildan Group - 2657 Specified Technologies - 735 Swisspearl - 1562 TerraCORE - 4353 Tournesol Siteworks - 4630 Tremco Commercial Sealants & Waterproofing - 4937 Unilock - 4835 Viracon - 1767 Vitro Architectural Glass - 1631 Vitrocsa/ HIRT Windows, divisions of Goldbrecht - 2531 W&W Glass, LLC/Pilkington Planar Structural Glass - 1681 YKK AP America - 507
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Regional Plan Association calls for a new Port Authority Bus Terminal at the Javits Center

The Regional Plan Association (RPA) has published a report that calls for major changes to how transit is operated between New Jersey and Manhattan. In 25 years, the report explains, daily commuters into Manhattan from New Jersey increased by 70,000 to 320,000. "Our current system of trains, buses, subways, ferries, and roads does not have enough capacity to serve another 72,000—let alone another 150,000," said the RPA. The report goes adds that while rail journeys from Penn Station have almost tripled, bus travel is where major growth has taken place, increasing by 83 percent. As a result, the RPA's biggest proposal is for a new Port Authority Bus Terminal (PABT) at the base of the Javits Center. This $3 billion project would not mean destroying the current PABT in Midtown, it said, but it would create an additional bus hub to relieve the Midtown terminus. "The ramps connecting the Lincoln Tunnel and the PABT are immovable and any solutions must keep them in place," the RPA argue. "Any other building site large enough for existing and expanded PABT operations will be enormously expensive; and any relocation will put the PABT passengers further from their destinations and the extraordinary subway connections they now enjoy." While having some bus routes into Hudson Yards is a good idea, access to the #7 train may not be adequate from a capacity perspective. Secondly, that train doesn't go anywhere useful for those coming into Manhattan—it's a line that primarily services Queens. The RPA, however, had other points to make, notably stressing the importance of the Gateway Project. "The new tunnels must be in place before the existing tunnels fail. Simply put, this is the highest infrastructure priority for the nation." Furthermore, the RPA called for Gateway to be turned into a through-running service, no longer terminating at 7th Avenue, but going onto Sunnyside Yards in Queens by going eastward under Manhattan. Planning consultants ReThink Studio also have a scheme similar to this. Keeping with rail travel, Vishaan Chakrabarti and PAU's proposal to move Madison Square Gardens to an adjacent site was praised by the RPA, creating what it called a "beautiful train station." All in all, this plan would be executed in phases. These phases were outlined and can be found below.
Phase One Build gateway tunnels and a bus terminal in the basement of the Jacob Javits Convention Center. Phase Two Build Gateway East with through service at Penn South. Constructing Penn South with fewer, wider platforms and two new East River tunnels would increase throughput at Penn Station by 30% and greatly expand rail service for New Jersey Transit, Long Island Rail Road, and Metro North riders. New direct rail service into Penn Station for Bergen and Monmouth counties would reduce travel times and shift bus riders to rail in these under-served counties, relieving highway congestion and pressure on the bus terminals. Phase Three Build new tail tunnels to expand service and meet future capacity needs
The report in full can be found here.
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Lendlease and Turner win $1.5 billion contract for Javits Center addition

The long-awaited addition to the Jacob K. Javits Convention Center now has a design-build team. New York's Empire State Development (ESD) has selected Turner Construction and Lendlease, an Australian company, to design and develop a $1.5 billion expansion of the Javits Center, New York City's largest events space. Renovations will add 90,000 square feet of exhibition area, a 55,000-square-foot ballroom, 45,000 square feet of meeting rooms, an outdoor events pavilion that can hold up to 1,500 people, and a 6.75-acre green roof. In all, the new and old buildings will host a combined half-million square feet of exhibition space. ESD, the state economic development authority, owns the property, which hugs 11th Avenue between West 34th and West 40th streets on Manhattan's Far West Side. Crucially, improvements will re-route some 20,000 trucks off surrounding streets each year, a move that is expected to improve traffic and pedestrian flow in the immediate area. Faster loading and unloading will also free up 20 additional days for more events at what is now the United States' busiest convention center. When expansion plans were announced last yearGovernor Andrew Cuomo pegged costs at around $1 billion, though later estimates moved that figure higher. The state will pay $1 billion of the total cost, and the rest of the project will be bond-financed. Tishman Construction (an AECOM subsidiary) is overseeing the first phase of work to ready the site for a new building. That work began in September 2016, though at this time, there's no set construction timeline for the project overall.
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New York's enormous Javits Center could grow $1 billion larger with Cuomo's plan and FXFOWLE's design

As part of a package of proposals for his 2016 agenda, development on Manhattan's West Side will intensify. Governor Andrew M. Cuomo recently revealed a $1 billion plan to expand the Jacob K. Javits Convention Center. The expansion, designed by New York–based FXFOWLE, calls for adding 1.2 million square feet of event and meeting space, as well as a four-story, 480,000-square-foot parking garage to house the 20,000 or so tractor-trailers that bring event supplies to and from the venue each year. The Javits Center, between West 34th and West 40th streets along 11th Avenue, is one of the nation's busiest convention centers. The state estimates that the convention center generated $1.8 billion in economic activity in 2014. Cuomo's proposal would add 1.2 million square feet of space to the 2.1 million-square-foot venue, increasing its size by 50 percent. Upgrades include 500,000 square feet of uninterrupted event space, as well as a 60,000-square-foot ballroom. The parking facility will improve pedestrian safety by diverting trucks from the streets surrounding the Javits Center into a central delivery area with 35 loading docks. The venue is aiming to up its current LEED Silver certification to LEED Platinum with energy-saving upgrades. 2014 renovations added a 6.75 acre green roof, new flooring, and a new facade. A 34,000-square-foot solar energy array, the largest on any public building in New York, will be installed to complement these upgrades. Additionally, a terrace with a 2,500 person capacity will be built to take advantage of sweeping Hudson River views. Construction is expected to begin in late 2016. See the gallery below for more images of the planned renovations.
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Governor Cuomo unveils ambitious plans to overhaul New York's Penn Station

The lead-up to New York State Governor Andrew Cuomo's State of the State address feels like a government-backed encore of "The Twelve Days of Christmas." Instead of lords a-leaping and swans a-swimming, Cuomo brings infrastructure upgrades a-plenty in his 2016 Agenda. The governor promised funds to the Gateway and East Side Access tunnels, the Javits Center, new Metro-North stations in the Bronx, the MTA (wi-fi a-comin'!), and an airport on Long Island. Arguably the biggest proposal is the Empire State Complex, a $3 billion redevelopment of New York City's Penn Station and its surroundings. The plan seeks to make Penn Station, which sits beneath Madison Square Garden, less of a hellhole—nice, even. Built to accommodate 200,000 daily riders, the station now serves 650,000 people per day. Channeling public sentiment, the governor ripped on Penn Station in his announcement. "Penn station is un-New York. It is dark, constrained, ugly, a lost opportunity, a bleak warren of corridors. [It's] a miserable experience and a terrible first impression." The governor's plan calls for enhancing connectivity between the station and the street; providing wi-fi; and reducing congestion by widening existing corridors, creating better wayfinding, and improving ticketing areas. As hinted at in previous proposals, the massive, neoclassical James A. Farley Post Office, at Eighth Avenue between 31st and 33rd streets, could be converted into the "Moynihan Train Hall," a sun-drenched waiting area for Amtrak, Long Island Rail Road, New Jersey Transit, and MTA passengers. A pedestrian tunnel underneath Eighth Avenue will connect the train hall with the main station. With this 210,000-square-foot addition, the size of the station will increase by 50 percent. The governor reviewed possible redesign scenarios. In one, Madison Square Garden Theater would be demolished to make way for a block-long entrance to Penn Station, facing the post office. In another, a glassy entrance, with skylights, would be constructed on 33rd Street. The street would be closed and converted into a pedestrian plaza. A third, more minimal scenario would add entrances at street corners and mid-block. In 2013, the Municipal Art Society (MAS) hosted a competition to rethink Penn Station. MAS highlighted designs four firms—Diller Scofidio + Renfro, H3 Hardy Collaboration Architecture, SHoP Architects, and Skidmore, Owings & Merrill (SOM)—for an improved Penn Station. In addition to improved passenger flow, each proposal imagined the station as a civic hub and neighborhood anchor. The governor said that this would phase of the project would be completed first. The rest of the overhaul could be complete by 2019, an amazing feat in a city where infrastructure improvements can drag on for decades. The Empire State Development Corporation, the MTA, Amtrak and the LIRR will parter with private developers to spearhead the project. $2 billion will go towards the Empire State Complex, while $1 billion will go towards "retail development" on 7th and 9th avenues. $325 million is expected to come from state and federal governments. The rest of the project will be privately funded, in exchange of revenue generated by commercial and retail rents. Cuomo will be issuing invitations to private developers, with an April 2016 due date. Currently, Vornado Realty Trust manages land around Penn Station, though it's unclear whether this relationship will continue.
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Archtober Building of the Day #22> Jacob K. Javits Convention Center

Archtober Building of the Day #22 Jacob K. Javits Convention Center 655 West 34th Street FXFOWLE Epstein Designed by Pei Cobb in the early 1980s, the Jacob K. Javits Center had fallen into a considerable slump in the years following its debut. Plagued with structural problems, today’s Archtober tour leader and head of the building’s extensive overhaul, Bruce Fowle, began in the center’s Crystal Palace by showing photos of the space before his firm’s massive undertaking. He highlighted two of the worst features of the original structure—the dirty, impossible-to-clean glass and extensive water damage. Almost immediately after opening, large canvas “diapers” were constructed to catch the ever-leaking roof, costing the center nearly one million dollars a year to alleviate the constant influx of water. Bruce Fowle further explained that the original Javits' glass was too highly reflective, creating either a problematic glare or a dark, “Darth Vader” appearance. Later, the NYC Audubon Society identified the structure as the number one bird killing structure in New York City. To mitigate both the aesthetic and environmental problems with the existing glass, FXFOWLE Epstein reviewed many glass mockups before deciding to apply a “frit” or glazed dot pattern to the panes, reducing the avian death rate by 90 percent and giving the space a significant solar energy reduction. Another problem with the old structure was the fact that the original building plan did not include a viable way to clean much of the glass. As a result, some of the panes went without cleaning for more than twenty-five years. FXFOWLE Epstein solved this problem by installing catwalks throughout most of the Crystal Palace, both inside and outside of the building, so that repairs and cleaning could take place on a regular basis. As the tour proceeded to the North Concourse, Bruce Fowle pointed out the renovation to the concrete exposures. Cracked and yellowed after years of layering convention signage, FXFOWLE Epstein brought in experts to create a repair formula. The result was a ceramic material that brightened the concrete but allowed it to retain its original look. The tour concluded with a behind-the-scenes look at the new green roof. As the second largest green roof in the United States, tour participants happily traded a few very windy and drizzly moments for stunning view of the city and its surroundings. Looking toward the future, FXFOWLE Epstein has partnered with Drexel University to install a climate monitor that measures the roof’s water and soil content, and examines the impact of the roof on the building’s energy load. Future testing will determine how much FXFOWLE Epstein’s reimagining of the Javits will impact the ambient temperature in the entire neighborhood and possibly serve as a catalyst for green retrofitting for New York City’s future. Hit the books tomorrow with a visit to New York University’s School of Professional Studies!

Rochelle Thomas received an M.A. in American Studies from Columbia University and is the Membership Assistant at the AIA New York Chapter.