Posts tagged with "Foster + Partners":

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How green are Apple’s carbon-sequestering trees really?

Apple is planting a forest in Cupertino, California. When the company’s new headquarters is completed later this year, 8,000 trees, transplanted from nurseries around the state of California, will surround the donut-shaped building by Foster + Partners. The trees are meant to beautify Apple’s 176 acres (dubbed Apple Park). But they will also absorb atmospheric carbon. That’s a good thing. Carbon, in greenhouse gases, is a major cause of global warming. Almost everything humans do, including breathing, releases carbon into the atmosphere. Plants, on the other hand, absorb carbon, turning it into foliage, branches, and roots—a process known as sequestration. That’s why, when architects, landscape designers, and urban planners concerned about climate change talk about their work, they often mention sequestration. These days, seemingly every project that includes greenery is touted as reducing atmospheric carbon. But how much carbon can one tree, or even 8,000 trees, sequester? I’ve spent a lot of time trying to find the answer. Among my sources is a 2016 article from the journal Landscape and Urban Planning titled “Does urban vegetation enhance carbon sequestration?” Its authors, several from the Singapore-MIT Alliance for Research and Technology, examine efforts to quantify the sequestration capacity of urban flora. For example, a study of a Vancouver neighborhood found that its trees sequestered about 1.7 percent as much carbon as human activities produced, while in Mexico City the figure was 1.4 percent. The results were worse in Singapore. Overall, the authors write, “The impact of urban vegetation to reduce greenhouse gas emissions directly through carbon sequestration is very limited or null.” Very limited or null. Another study seemed especially applicable to Apple. In 2009, researchers at California State University Northridge studied carbon sequestration on the university’s 350-acre campus. Students inventoried all 3,900 trees by type and size. Using data from the Center for Urban Forest Research, a branch of the U.S. Forest Service, they estimated the amount each tree was likely to sequester. The average was 88 pounds per tree per year. (By contrast, the average American is responsible for emitting about 44,000 pounds of carbon annually.) Then they compared total sequestration to the amount of carbon emitted by campus sources. (Those sources included the production of electricity to power campus buildings—but not transportation to and from campus.) The result: The trees sequestered less than one percent of the amount of carbon released during the same period. Put another way, the amount of carbon sequestered, at a school with 41,000 students, equaled the carbon output of eight average Americans. Are things better at Apple Park? On the emissions side, there is good news: The new building will rely largely on natural ventilation, reducing the need for air conditioning. (Note, though, that promises a building will perform a certain way often prove overly optimistic.) On the other hand, the campus is being designed with more than 10,000 parking spaces for some 12,000 employees, suggesting that the vast majority of employees will be driving to and from work. And those spaces are in garages that require lights and elevators. And the news gets worse. At Northridge, researchers looked at the trees as if they had always been there. But a reasonable approach to measuring the benefits of Apple’s trees would consider the carbon emitted in growing them off-site, bringing them to Cupertino, and planting them. Driving a flatbed truck 100 miles can release 100 pounds of carbon into the atmosphere—and Apple trees’ require thousands of such trips. And, since it wants the campus to be picture-perfect, Apple is using mature specimens. These are no seedlings; some are so large they have to be lowered into place by crane. And mature trees, because they aren’t growing much, hardly sequester any carbon. (Worse, when trees die, their carbon is returned to the atmosphere.) And keep in mind that many of Apple’s trees were already growing in other locations, meaning the carbon sequestered on the Apple campus would have been sequestered anyway. That suggests that any estimate of carbon sequestration at Apple Park should be reduced by at least half. In the plus column, grass and shrubs also sequester carbon, though not merely as much as trees, with their thick trunks and extensive root systems. So how much carbon will Apple’s trees sequester? The figures used in the Northridge study suggest that Apple’s 8,000 trees will remove some 700,000 pounds of carbon from the atmosphere each year. According to Apple’s submissions to the city of Cupertino, the new campus can be expected to produce 82 million pounds of carbon annually. That means that the carbon sequestered will be less than one percent of the carbon emitted. In short, Apple’s decision to plant 8,000 trees, whatever its other benefits, won’t have a significant effect on the amount of carbon in the atmosphere. The campus, even with a very green building at its heart, will emit more than one hundred times as much carbon as its trees absorb. That doesn’t mean we shouldn’t keep planting trees. But it does mean that, as with so many issues related to global warming, there is no quick fix. Thinking there is could keep us from making the tough decisions climate change demands.
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Foster + Partners–designed Apple store approved for historic Carnegie Library in D.C.

An Apple store will be realized in the Carnegie Library at Mount Vernon Square, Washington, D.C. after plans were approved by the District's Historic Preservation Review Board (HPRB) last week. Last year, Events DC (the capital’s convention and sports authority) and Apple filed a letter of intent to lease portions of the 63,000-square-foot historic library. That now-approved plan includes restoring the exterior and retrofitting the interior to create retail, office, and exhibit spaces. Apple’s store will be designed by London-based Foster + Partners and the restoration efforts will be undertaken by New York–based Beyer Blinder Belle. Alterations already made to the neoclassical library, including a rooftop over the original skylight and the conversion of a reading room into a theater, will be reversed as part of the restoration process. The north elevation of the building will see a grander, rounded staircase replacing its current one, and a central pillar will be removed to enlarge the entryway and make space for a glass entrance. Other changes include the removal of the partitions in the library’s stacks and the original lay-lights in the Great Hall ceiling to create an atrium. Some of the proposed additions, mainly concerning 12 exterior banners fixed to the facade, are under revision for the quantity and size of the signage. “This new space, which will feature a massive video screen, new wall openings on both levels, and circulation 'bridges' connecting the upper floors, will significantly alter the historic layout and character of the interior,” a report from Historic Preservation Office (HPO) stated in Urban Turf. The current arrangement allows Apple to ‘co-locate’ in the library with the existing tenant, The Historical Society of Washington. Events DC will be able to use non-retail areas for special events. The building was constructed in 1903 and designed by Ackerman & Ross in the Beaux Arts Style; it was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1969.
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Foster + Partners unveil first glimpses of the new Apple campus

Late last month, Apple’s 12,000 employee workforce began to move into the technology company’s new 2.8-million-square-foot headquarters in Cupertino, California designed by architects Foster + Partners, according to a press release. The move-in process will take a full six months to complete, capping off the over eight-year long saga involved in transforming an old parking lot into the so-called “Apple Park” complex, which Apple has dubbed as founder Steve Jobs’s “last product launch,” according to Wired. Jobs initiated the quest to build the new headquarters in 2008, a project that consumed him until his death in 2011. In a statement, Apple CEO Tim Cook praised Jobs’s vision and said, “[Jobs] intended Apple Park to be the home of innovation for generations to come. The workspaces and parklands are designed to inspire our team as well as benefit the environment. We’ve achieved one of the most energy-efficient buildings in the world and the campus will run entirely on renewable energy.” To commemorate the end of construction for the $5 billion project, Apple has released several images of the completed complex, a building that contains the largest operable glass walls in the world, among its other superlative qualities. The donut-shaped office complex is located at the center of a 175-acre wooded site that has been reengineered by a series of earthworks and has been re-planted with over 9,000 specimens of drought-tolerant flora, including fruit trees. As if the building were a spaceship that had landed on its site, the highly-constructed landscape finds its way into the building’s donut hole-shaped courtyard, where it is accessible from the office spaces. The site arrangement comes from Jobs’s penchant for taking country walks in nearby areas; the office’s grounds contain over two miles’ worth of walking paths, among other features.

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The main, four-story building is topped by slightly-gabled roof containing an 805,000-square-foot solar array that provides much of the power for the complex. The arrays are interrupted by a continuous, protruding light monitor that facilitates the building’s passive ventilation strategies. The building is not mechanically ventilated, but instead relies on a combination of convection cooling and thermal massing provided by radiant heating and cooling systems to regulate its internal climate. On one end, the building is punctuated by two pairs of four-story-tall hangar doors—each of which weighing 440,000 pounds—that are controlled by silent mechanical equipment embedded underground. Those apertures convert an interior, two-level yoga studio and cafeteria area into a massive outdoor room. The glass doors—and the curved glass curtain walls along the exteriors of the project—were fabricated by German fabricator Seele Group. The yoga studio and its attendant 100,000-square-foot wellness center will offer healthcare and dental services for Apple’s employees.

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The complex also contains a 1,000-seat performancetheatere that will be named for Jobs. The theater is capped by a 20-foot tall, 165-foot wide glass cylinder and by a carbon-fiber roof. Designs for the theater were reportedly heavily influenced by Jobs’s sensitivities and will be used for the company’s future product launches. Construction and landscaping improvements will continue to wrap up on the complex as the employees slowly filter in over the following months.
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Check out the new drone footage of Apple’s Campus 2 headquarters

Two new drone videos of Norman Foster's Apple headquarters have been released, giving an insight as to how construction is coming along. The footage from Matthew Roberts and Duncan Sinfield covers the goings-on at the soon-to-be 2,800,000-square-foot offices at "Apple Campus 2" in Cupertino, California. Flying over the site, you can see the huge circular shape that dominates the vicinity and has since become the campus's defining feature. Atop of the ellipse is an extensive array of solar paneling which, apparently, is roughly 65 percent complete. To speed up the construction process, wide atrium doors have been opened up fully to allow workers easy access to the site. Other elements of the program, though, cannot yet be so clearly seen. For example, a 1,000-seat auditorium is due to be constructed, as is an on-site power plant facility and fitness center. Though muddy now due to the rain Cupertino has been seeing of late, the center of the campus will feature a tree-filled garden for campus staff. The first trees, in fact, have just been planted. This is Roberts's eleventh update using drone footage. He has been tracking progress on the site monthly since March last year. Sinfield, however, has posted 19 videos dating back to June 2015. Apple Campus 2 employees are expected to move into the facility later this year. This article appears on HoverPin, a new app that lets you build personalized maps of geo-related online content based on your interests: architecture, food, culture, fitness, and more. Never miss The Architect's Newspaper's coverage of your area and discover new, exciting projects wherever you go! See our HoverPin layer here and download the app from the Apple Store.
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Foster + Partners breaks ground on San Francisco’s second-tallest tower

Foster + Partners, and Heller Manus developers Oceanwide Holdings broke ground last week on the Oceanwide Center in San Francisco, a mixed-use project that, when completed, would become the city’s second-tallest tower. The project, a 2.4-million square foot complex consisting of condominiums, office space, and a hotel, occupies a 1.4-acre site and has been designed to contain public spaces in a pair of adaptively-reused historic structures along the ground floor. The complex will be composed of two towers: a primary 850-foot, 75-story tall structure containing 1,010,000-square-feet of office space and 111 condominium units and a 605-foot, 54-story tall tower containing a 171-room Waldorf Astoria hotel and 154-condominium units. The taller tower is demarcated by a large-scale, diagonally gridded truss system that climbs the height of the tower, creating a crenelated cap at the apex, while the shorter tower features a gridded facade filled with rectangular, punched openings. The gridded structure of the larger tower meets the floor to create a giant, open-air, landscaped plaza. The tower complex joins a series of other projects, including the Pelli Clarke Pelli Architects—designed Salesforce tower, the Heller Manus Architects—designed 181 Fremont, and the Handel Architects—designed Millennium Tower, are transforming the Transbay area of San Francisco. The new tower district is rising around the Transbay Terminal, a new multi-modal transit hub also designed by Pelli Clarke Pelli Architects. The first phase of the terminal is due to be completed in late 2017. Controversy erupted this year when the nearby Millennium Tower began to sink, a result of the fact that the tower is built on a concrete slab supported by 60- to 90-foot deep friction piles and not, as would be more structurally-appropriate for the area’s soil conditions, end-bearing pylons. As a result, the tower’s foundation does not actually reach the bedrock below the city and the tower has not only sunk 16-inches into the ground, but has also tilted between two- and six-inches toward the northwest. To avert a similar problem, Oceanwide Center is designed to be supported by foundation piles that drive down up to 400-feet below ground and connect directly with bedrock.   Oceanwide Center is due to finish construction in 2021.
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Foster-designed Apple store proposed for historic Carnegie Library in D.C.

The Carnegie Library at Mount Vernon Square, a historic building next to Washington’s Convention Center, is likely to become the home of a flagship Apple store designed by Foster + Partners of London. Events D.C., the convention and sports authority for the District of Columbia, last week entered into a letter of intent with Apple to lease portions of the 63,000-square-foot library, which is under its jurisdiction. If negotiations are successful, the development will reimagine the historic site for the 21st century, while remaining consistent with its original purpose. The plan calls for the tech giant to renovate the 1903 library at 801 K. Street N. W. and pay market-rate rent to operate a store designed by Foster + Partners, which was founded by Norman Foster and also designed Apple stores in San Francisco and London. “This is an extremely important repositioning of an iconic building—a building whose original purpose was about community, information and sharing of knowledge,” said Max Brown, chairman of the board of Events DC. "Amid rapid change in our city, we are confident the space can become a true blend of the square’s past and future.” “We are excited that Apple is interested in joining our growing tech ecosystem,” said Washington Mayor Muriel Bowser. “The store’s proposed location… will link D.C.’s rich history to our continued economic renaissance, will demonstrate the strength of our retail market, and will tell companies across the globe that the District is open for business.” According to Events DC, the proposed arrangement calls for Apple to lease portions of the library’s ground floor and basement levels under a 10-year lease, with two five-year options to renew. Events DC will have certain rights to use non-retail areas of the library for special events, and Apple will “co-locate” in the library with its existing tenant, The Historical Society of Washington. “A partnership with Apple would be a tremendous opportunity for Events DC, for the Historical Society, and for the District,” said Gregory A. O’Dell, president and chief executive officer of Events DC. “Not only can this new partnership cement the Shaw neighborhood as a convention and entertainment district in the city, but it can also drive economic impact with substantial revenue opportunities. Designed by Ackerman & Ross in the Beaux Arts style, the Carnegie Library was one of thousands of libraries funded by steel industry titan Andrew Carnegie, and it was the first fully-integrated public building in Washington, D.C. In 1999, Congress granted $2 million and a 99-year lease to the historical society to use the building as a history museum about Washington, D.C. After $20 million worth of renovations funded by local donors, the library has served as the home of the historical society’s exhibits, public programs, and renowned Kiplinger Research Library since 2003. The area around the library has seen rapid growth in recent years, with the opening of the Marriott Marquis Washington and a series of new restaurants, stores and housing developments. In 2014, Carnegie Library was considered as a new home for the International Spy Museum, which had outgrown its current location at 800 F. Street N. W. But the museum and its architect, MGA Partners, wanted to build additions to the existing structure and their plan was turned down by historic preservationists. Now that Events D. C. has shown support for Apple’s project, plans still must be approved by the National Capital Planning Commission and Washington’s Historic Preservation Review Board before construction can begin. It would be the second Apple store in Washington, after one in Georgetown.
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Renderings revealed for Foster + Partners’ new tower at Hudson Yards

Today the developer of Hudson Yards has revealed designs for the Far West Side's newest tower.

Related Companies and Oxford Properties Group unveiled the icy cloudbuster for 50 Hudson Yards, designed by global firm Foster + Partners. The 985-foot, 58-story structure covers an entire city block.

“50 Hudson Yards is envisaged as a vertical campus in the heart of Manhattan that is eminently readable at city scale with three distinct blocks stacked one above the other,” said Nigel Dancey, Foster + Partners' head of studio, in a statement. “Crafted from a simple palette of white stone and glass, the building’s primary structure has been pushed to the edges to create large-span flexible floorplates. It aspires to define the workplace of the future, bringing to the fore the practice’s values of innovation and creativity by producing a positive work environment that seeks to fulfill the needs and expectations of a demanding workforce.”

When complete, the 2.9 million-square-foot building at 33rd Street and 10th Avenue will be the city's fourth largest office tower. When the building opens in 2022, principal tenants like the financial company BlackRock will enjoy outdoor terraces and private "sky lobbies," as well as access to 30 Hudson Yards' outdoor observation platform.

The New York Times reports that New York State is giving Blackrock, a company with more than $5 trillion in assets, a $25 million tax break to stay in the state and move into the shiny new tower.

Construction is expected to begin next year on the white stone– and glass-clad building. In the renderings, glass windows are framed by stone while dark-outlined floors peek out from behind the glazed facade. Column-free floorplates that span a minimum of 50,000 square feet per floor are able to accommodate 500-plus people, and workers on some floors will enjoy expansive outdoor spaces, the result of periodic setbacks.

“Covering a full city block, the building is highly permeable at ground level, allowing it to engage fully with its urban location," Norman Foster, founding principal of Foster + Partners, said in a statement. "Designed for a sustainable future, the building makes an important contribution to the regeneration of the far west side of Manhattan.”

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AN speaks to Norman Foster as “Building with History: The Exhibit” opens at the Hearst Tower

Designed by Norman Foster, the Hearst Tower on 57th Street and 8th Avenue celebrated its tenth anniversary last week. To mark the occasion, the British Pritzker Prize-winning architect was on hand to give a talk on the tower while also overseeing the opening of Building with History: The Exhibit which showcases 28 scale models of projects both past and present from Foster + Partners.

At the talk (which was held with ELLE DECOR Editor-in-Chief, Michael Boodro), Foster discussed his architectural philosophy, in particular to the "social agenda" deep rooted in modernism's ideals, something which Foster was captivated by when he was younger and said today, "still burns." With the new technology now available at modernists' disposal, Foster argued that architects today can now "literally do more with less."

"The most interesting buildings always have a certain sense of theater... [and] celebration," he continued. "In this building, it is about turning an impossible problem into a celebration." Foster explained how the challenge of placing escalators along the site's orthogonal axis was resolved by orientating them diagonally. The theatrics of the space was further amplified through artist Jamie Carpenter's adjacent waterfall.

Building with History exhibits Foster's focus on circulation on varying scales: From the small-scale infrastructure solutions of the Hearst Tower, Imperial War Museums, and Reichstag, to the pedestrianization of Trafalgar Square. Building with History is filled with more than just models, though. Plans, sections, and photographs detail many buildings' progressions through the design process.

Speaking to The Architect’s Newspaper after the talk, Foster discussed infrastructure in light of President-Elect Donald Trump’s speech. “Human nature is about crossing boundaries,” he said. “Even though I am an architect and passionate about designing individual buildings… over the years I have become more and more sure that [infrastructure] is the main priority and that architects ignore it at their peril."

“This exhibit brings back many memories about the inception of Hearst Tower,” Foster continued. “Walking into the building a decade later, you immediately note the flourishing sense of community, and it takes me back to the very earliest days of the project.”

Building with History runs until April 15, 2017. 

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Foster + Partners reveals plans for Miami towers set to be the city’s tallest

British firm Foster + Partners has submitted new plans to Miami city authorities for what—if approved—will be the tallest building south of Manhattan along the East Coast. Officially known as "The Towers" (really?) the project sees two rectilinear structures rising up from the Brickell waterfront, with the tallest of the pair reaching 1,049 feet. In compliance with density constrictions from the City of Miami’s Miami 21 zoning code, the two towers will hold 660 living units—a 16 percent decrease on the initially proposed 787. The structures' heights, however, have not been an issue with Federal Aviation Administration: The organization has already granted the project approval.

At the building's base, car parking areas have been divided in two and are encased by retail areas and more living units. This layout diverges from the standard singular "monolithic" car parking podium typical to Miami (car garages are a big deal in the city). According to the firm, this "frees up space at the ground level" and "creates an engaging public realm." Furthermore, The Towers' relationship to the site at street level sees restaurants, cafes, and art gallery spaces laid out inside a tropical garden. 56,800 square feet of the 2.5-acre scheme will be publicly accessible.

“The base of the building continues the axis of SE 12th Terrace, drawing life back to the bay. It is a civic response to the city’s enlightened vision, and will make an important contribution to Miami’s public spaces," said Norman Foster, chairman and founder of Foster + Partners. As both towers rise up, the structure has been stepped back and thinned to allow sufficient daylight to enter the vicinity around the base while preserving views out to sea. With that height in such a location, though, comes the issue of high winds. To counter this, strategic planting and adjustable louvres that can be lowered over a central plaza will act as wind breakers. To cope with extreme weather conditions, belt beam bracings (also used to support bridge apartments that span the tower floor plates) will tie the towers together ensuring they can withstand hurricanes.
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Renderings revealed for Foster + Partners’ Waldorf Astoria in San Francisco

Renders have been revealed of what the Foster + Partners design for the Waldorf Astoria hotel in San Francisco could look like. Located in the South of Market (SoMa) district of the city, the building will sit on Mission Street between 1st and Eckert streets. The 21-story tower will also lie next to the Oceanwide Center tower designed by the British architecture firm, due to break ground in November this year. The tower is part of a two million-square-foot complex that will boast retail and spaces, the interiors of which—and indeed the whole interior of the building—will be designed by Santa Monica–based hospitality design firm Hirsch Bedner Associates. John Vanderslice, global head of luxury and lifestyle brands at Hilton Worldwide (the firm that manages Waldorf hotels), told Condé Nast Traveler that "San Francisco needed a proper luxury hotel." He went on to say that the "project is ground zero for luxury there" adding how the hotel will have "north of 250" rooms with a quarter of these being suites. Numerous restaurants are also due to be included in the programming of the scheme however, no mockups have yet been proposed with no chefs currently named either. The project will also be one of cluster from Foster + Partners in the vicinity. In 2014, the firm proposed a coterie of high-rises for the area and planning permission was granted this year. The building will also become San Francisco's second tallest tower, behind the Salesforce Tower. Meanwhile, rising to 905 feet, the tallest of the group will be located on 50 1st Street and contain 34 stories, with offices on 19 plus 111 residential units. Another tower, due to be 300 feet shorter, will offer 169 hotel rooms with 154 units being housed in the top 33 floors. Speaking of the projects in 2014, Norman Foster described the development as "incredibly exciting in urban and environmental terms," adding that "bringing together places to live and work with the city’s most important transport hub, the project further evolves a sustainable model of high density, mixed-use development that we have always promoted."
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Foster + Partners and SCAPE unveil plans for massive office complex on the Red Hook waterfront

Thor Equities has released renderings of a Foster + Partners–designed waterside office complex in Red Hook, Brooklyn. The four-story, timber frame buildings will host 600,000 square feet of workspace divided over open-plan, 100,000-square-foot floor plates, plus 23,000 square feet for restaurants and retail. The 7.7-acre development will offer the public waterfront access via an esplanade and courtyard, and harbor views from rooftop terraces. New York–based SCAPE/Landscape Architecture is executing the landscape plan. The project, says Thor, is designed to meet the needs of TAMI (technology, advertising, media and information) tenants. It's a somewhat nebulous definition, but according to a 2014 report by real estate services company Cushman & Wakefield, the sector is the strongest force behind activity in New York, ahead of even the financial sector. One of the neighborhood's challenges, though, is the lack of subway service: The F/G at Smith-9th Street is about 13 blocks away. The developers anticipate that workers will arrive by foot, water taxi, or bike, and that tenants will offer employees alternative transit accommodations, like shuttle bus service to the subway. Melissa Gliatta, Thor's chief operating officer, was bullish on other options. Gliatta trumpeted the transit potential of the Brooklyn-Queens Connector (BQX), a proposed streetcar that would run through Red Hook and could begin service in 2023, although the contentious, developer-driven project is still in its nascent, public input phase. Thor's press release for the development assumes a done deal: "A planned Brooklyn-Queens streetcar will also serve the neighborhood." (Dang, well, so much for that stakeholder consensus.) Academics like Adam Friedman, the director of the Pratt Center for Community Development at Pratt Institute, voiced concerns about this, and similar developments taking shape in the borough. Speaking with Bloomberg News, Friedman noted that developers need to "pace themselves," lest new properties sit vacant. "Every developer thinks that theirs is the one that is going to be successful. That’s just the nature of the culture.” Construction is set to begin this summer. Not cost estimate is available as of yet.
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Foster + Partners-designed flagship Apple store opens in San Francisco

British architect Norman Foster has seen his firm's new flagship Apple store open in San Francisco. Located at Union Square, the new store features 42-foot high sliding glass doors that open out onto the 2.6 acre plaza "creating unprecedented urban permeability." Built to set a precedent for all following Apple stores, Foster's building replaces the old outlet which opened in the city twelve years ago. The design was realized working alongside Apple’s Chief Design Officer Jonathan Ive and Senior Vice President of Retail and Online Stores, Angela Ahrendts. “This is an incredible site on Union Square and a chance to create a new public plaza. We have created the most inspiring and stimulating space imaginable, blurring the inside and outside,” said Stefan Behling of  Foster + Partners. “It is possible to experience Apple's extraordinary products and services while taking in the buzzing Union Square on one side and relaxing in the contemplative quiet of the new plaza on the other.” The flagship store is one of three Apple stores designed by Foster + Partners; the two others are in Turkey and China. The Union Square store is also close to Apple's headquarters at Cupertino, which are also being designed by the firm. This latest store however, represents a shift in approach to the retail typology that Apple is adopting. A new learning zone called the "Forum" will become a space for entertainment and teaching. The new space was awarded a prime location on a mezzanine, open to most of the store and against a video wall. At the back of the Forum is the "Genius Grove," a space filled with trees where Apple Genius employees will be on hand.
Glass sliding doors are used on both sides of the store. To the rear, an open public space has been filled with art and offers Wi-Fi. Seating and vegetation form a gathering space outside the store. Meanwhile, the Ruth Asawa fountain, a well-established piece of historical San Franciscan heritage, has been relocated to the steps that lead down to Stockton Street. In 2013, Foster + Partners' design had to be revised after their original plan hadn't catered for the fountain. This space is also flanked by a standing of trees and a 65-foot-by-50-foot green wall planted with Ficus Repens plants. This is split by a waterfall on the west side which also forms a backdrop to the  fountain. Behind this, and well hidden away, is the "Boardroom" which will be used for meetings and business purposes.