Posts tagged with "London":

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Herzog & de Meuron win commission to design Royal College of Art campus in south London

Swiss Pritzker Prize winning duo Herzog & de Meuron has been awarded commission to design the $136 million Battersea South campus at the Royal College of Arts (RCA) in London. The firm saw off proposals from Diller Scofidio + RenfroStudio Gang, and four other finalists to win the design competition that called for a "strategic design approach to a new centre for the world’s pre-eminent art and design university’s Battersea campus." The 161,460-square-foot scheme will accommodate design studios as well as space for engineering, science, and technology. The scheme aims to coalesce these disciplines as the RCA sets its sights on becoming a STEAM-focused graduate university (Science, Technology, Engineering, Art and Maths/Medicine). The school also wishes to turn its research and knowledge exchange centers into "the domains of computer and materials science, the impact of the digital economy, advanced manufacturing and intelligent mobility." Part of Herzog & De Meuron's design sees the inclusion of a "hangar" space, capable of housing large-scale works and projects as well as interior planting. Pierre de Meuron, co-founder of the Swiss studio, said the RCA had set a challenging brief. He added that the Battersea site in south London offered "an opportunity to rethink the RCA campus and establish the patterns of connectivity and organization that will make a successful building."
Chair of the Architectural Selection Panel (ASP) and RCA Rector Dr. Paul Thompson remarked that Herzog & de Meuron was the "clear choice of the competition jury." Before a final shortlist (listed below) was selected, the RCA had received interest from 97 studios across the globe. The RCA on their website said that Herzog & de Meuron's submission "demonstrated a deep understanding of the potential for Battersea, making new connections and foreseeing the possibilities for sustainable place-making." The six runners-up in the competition are listed alphabetically: Christian Kerez (Switzerland) Diller Scofidio + Renfro (USA) Lacaton & Vassal (France) Robbrecht en Daem (Belgium) Serie Architects (UK/Singapore) Studio Gang (USA)
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Six teams of top global architecture firms battle to light up London’s bridges

Six finalists from the U.K., U.S., and France are competing for a $24.8 million commission which will see their designs be used to illuminate all 17 bridges that span the River Thames in central London. Battling for the dazzling commission is David Adjaye, Amanda Levete Architects (AL_A), Sam Jacob Studio, and Lifschutz Davidson Sandilands from London, along with New York firm Diller Scofidio + Renfro and Lyon-based practice Les Éclairagistes Associés. Initially, 105 teams had entered the Illuminated River competition run by Malcolm Reading Consultants. The winners will see their lighting proposals realized as a permanent installation that aims to "breath new life" into the Thames. Chair of the Illuminated River Foundation, Hannah Rothschild said on the competition's website:
Since the founding of London, the mighty Thames has been the city’s main artery, linking north and south, east and west, encouraging business, activity and recreation. But at night, the river becomes a ribbon of darkness, a place that few enjoy and at odds with the ambition to make London a 24 hour city. This project will bring light, energy, beauty and recreation to the river and at the flick of a switch, transform the city at night.
Despite waxing lyrical, Rothschild's words did not impress critic Oliver Wainwright of The Guardian. "[It’s] simply not true. The river already shines with a series of conflicting color schemes that speaks more of London’s chaotic character than a curated nightly show," he said. Wainwright also poured scorn on Adjaye's proposal, remarking that the 17 pavilions the architect proposes alongside each of the bridges adds "more clutter to the streetscape." The project will be privately funded. So far, though, $11.8 million is still required. It's also worth pointing out that the infamously costly (and not yet built) Garden Bridge by Thomas Heatherwick started life in a similar vein. The shortlisted six's videos can be found below meanwhile images are in the gallery above. Blurring Boundaries Adjaye Associates with Cai Guo-Qiang, Chris Ofili, Larry Bell, Jeremy Deller, Philippe Parreno, Richard Woods, Mariko Mori, Lorna Simpson, Teresita Fernández, Joana Vasconcelos, Angela Bulloch, Thukral & Tagra, Katharina Grosse, Glenn Ligon, Doug Aitken, Tomás Saraceno, onedotzero digital consultants, Plan A Consultants, DHA, Hurley Palmer Flatt, AKT II, AECOM, Arup, Sir Robert McAlpine, Tavernor Consultancy, DP9, Four Communications, Hayes Davidson digital visualizers, Bosch, and iGuzzini.
The Eternal Story of the River Thames AL_A, Asif Kapadia, Simon Stephens, SEAM Design, Arup, GROSS. MAX., Mark Filip, Soundings, and DP9.
Synchronizing the City: Its Natural and Urban Rhythms Diller Scofidio + Renfro with Oliver Beer, Arup, Copper Consultancy, L’Observatoire International, Penoyre & Prasad, Jennifer Tipton, and Transsolar.
Thames Nocturne Sam Jacob Studio and Simon Heijdens with Studio Dekka, Daisy Froud, Elliott Wood, Jackson Coles, and Professor John Tyrer.
A River Ain’t Too Much To Light Les Éclairagistes Associés (L.E.A.), ecqi ltd. and Federico Pietrella in association with GVA Lighting Europe Limited and ewo srl.
Current Leo Villareal with Lifschutz Davidson Sandilands and Future\Pace. Atelier Ten, Beckett Rankine, Bradley Hemmings, Core Five, Futurecity, Greenwich +Docklands International Festival, MBNA Thames Clippers, Montagu Evans, Pentagram, and Price & Myers.
Winners are due to be announced in early December with work on the 17 bridges being completed in phases between 2018 and 2020.
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Here’s what Apple’s headquarters in London’s Battersea Power Station will look like

With design courtesy of British firm Wilkinson Eyre, images of Apple's new London headquarters inside Battersea Power Station have been revealed. The decision by Apple to move into the vacant Giles Gilbert Scott–designed building was announced late last month but now Apple fans can get a glimpse of what the Californian tech giant will be moving into. As part of the move, 1,400 current Apple employees will start work inside Battersea Power Station. Occupying 40 percent of the interior space, Apple's offices will span six floors within the power station's central boiler house. The original architect of the structure, Gilbert Scott, was renowned for his use of brick and application of art deco styling to his power stations. Following a similar approach to that of Herzog & de Meuron, the Swiss duo who renovated Bankside Power Station (also by Scott and located eastward down the river Thames) into the Tate Modern, Wilkinson Eyre has paid homage to the original structure and its turbine halls. "Retaining the power station’s sense of scale and visual drama is key to the project," the firm said on their website. Battersea Power Station remains the largest brick structure in London since its construction in 1933. "Large volume spaces expose the historic fabric internally and juxtapose new and old construction... The turbine halls are the heroic interior spaces of the power station, and the vast walls of polished tiles in 'Turbine Hall A' were once likened to a Greek temple. The magnificent space is equal in size to the turbine hall at Tate Modern and many of the original finishes and features survive." Three floors of shopping outlets will occupy the turbine halls and central boiler house. Condos will be located above the retail space being housed in two low-level annexes that lay on the east and west wings of the building. In between this, a triple-height "leisure level" will offer space for events as well as a cinema and hotel. Offices, meanwhile, are due to be situated above this. Six stories of office space have been arranged by Wilkinson Eyre around a grand atrium. An icon of the London skyline, the power station's four white chimneys will frame a coterie of contemporary residential villas which surround a garden square on the roof. The chimneys will also include a glass elevator (it is unknown if all four will) which will climb to a viewing deck offering vistas across London. The project is set to cost $1.26 billion, due for completion in 2021.
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Your inner child (and adult designer) will love the new London Science Museum kids science gallery

Whether you're under ten or not, you're lying if you say that having a slide race to test friction doesn't sound fun—not that the word "fun" should detract from the seriousness of the task, which after all, is in the name of science. Like the idea? Well, that's what is now on offer at Wonderlab in the Satoil Gallery at the Science Museum in London, designed by London-based muf architecture/art. Three slides, each offering various friction coefficients, are one of 50 hands-on exhibits at the new gallery. As critic Rowan Moore points out, institutions in the U.K. have often gone too far with flamboyant displays when it comes to science. Exhibits have become overcrowded with gimmicks that obtrusively vie for visitors' attention, usually "displaying digital technology that had a knack of a) becoming obsolete and b) stopping working." At the Wonderlab, though, this isn't the case. Covering 25,000 square feet, the $7.3 million space informs fresh-faced youths on scientific concepts such as light, materials, sound, forces, mathematics, electricity, and magnetism. Each concept is represented by a single hanging object—a brass instrument for sound, a blown glass orb for materialVisitors are encouraged to find their own way around the gallery. A 120-seater theater, designed to emulate that of the scientist Michael Faraday, can be used for classes, meanwhile, 400 handmade oval samples showcasing different materials can be found by the slides. A cage for a Tesla coil also features a 26-feet inhabitable revolving orrery—reminiscent of George Wright of Derby’s painting—that teaches children about the solar system by displaying the sun, earth, and moon. On a smaller scale, the space features bespoke kid-proof furniture: A treasure trail of 25 crystals can be found in the benches and a 16-feet oak tree has been studded with magnets. "These details are a conscious reaction against the generic bright, wipe clean, panelled architecture of many schools and public spaces," said the firm. The gallery is also very spacious. muf described their work as "stripped back" in an email to The Architect's Newspaper. On school trips, the sight of kids tearing across the floor and falling through exhibits just so they can give their friend an electric shock is not uncommon. muf's decision then to remove layers of suspended ceiling and partitions to open up the space is perhaps wise, as it attempts to diffuse the drama and chaos that can erupt in such a space. By doing so, the firm also allows areas for waiting and eating packed lunches—timezones that are notorious for attention spans to waver—to be generously day lit. Teachers will also be thankful for the added openness that gives their watchful eyes wider scope for sniffing out mischief. 200,000 children are set to descend onto Wonderlab each year and muf's design looks set to be a fun, enriching, but stress-free experience for all those who visit.
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Apple to create new London home in Battersea Power Station

Tech giant Apple has its eyes set on moving into Battersea Power Station in south London. Currently vacant, the power station was designed by Sir Giles Gilbert Scott in 1929, completed 1935, and is a much-loved landmark of the capital. Apple plans to occupy 500,000 square feet of interior (40 percent of the space available) with offices, spanning six floors in the power station’s central boiler house. The building has stood empty after 1983 when it was decommissioned, however, its art deco brick decor and iconic quadrangle of chimneys have lived on to become a cultural icon. Gilbert Scott's work was used on the cover of Pink Floyd’s album “Animals” and also in the Batman film “The Dark Knight.” After many redevelopment attempts, including a hotel design by designer Ron Arad and a stadium proposition from Chelsea Football Club, the power station is being redeveloped by a Malaysian consortium. The group is well underway with a project that will see high-end luxury condos, offices, shops and restaurants fill the 42-acre vicinity. Apple plans to have moved in by 2021 by which time employees will have access to the site from the London Underground Northern Line's new extension, as well as from existing overground services from Battersea Park station. The U.K.'s recently appointed Chancellor to the Exchequer, Philip Hammond, commented on the deal, remarking how it is “another vote of confidence in the UK economy.” “Apple’s decision further strengthens London’s position as a global technology hub and demonstrates how the UK is at the forefront of the next steps in the tech revolution,” he said. A spokesman for Apple has said the move would mean "its entire team [could] work and collaborate in one location while supporting the renovation of a neighbourhood rich with history". "This is a great opportunity to have our entire team working and collaborating in one location, while supporting the renovation of a neighborhood with rich history," said Apple in a statement. Meanwhile, Battersea Power Station Development Company’s chief executive Rob Tincknell added: “We are delighted Apple chose to make this their home in 2021. It is a testament to not only the fantastic building but the wider regeneration of the 42-acre site, which offers a carefully curated mix of homes, businesses and leisure amid extraordinary open spaces and new transport links."
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Highlights from London’s first ever Design Biennale

“Utopia by Design” is the theme at this year’s inaugural London Design Biennial. On show at the three-week event are a series of installations from 37 countries, all located inside and around the grounds of Somerset House by the Thames. The show runs until September 27.

The Architect’s Newspaper was in attendance and we've collected some highlights below:

Mexico

The highlight of the Biennal, Border City was designed by Mexican architect Fernando Romero. Drawing on contemporary issues such as immigration, border control, and economic zoning, Romero’s masterplan coalesces employment, trade, and cultural dimensions into the "Border City." Here, the three states of New Mexico and Texas (U.S.) and Chihuahua (Mexico) would join as one singular hub.

Romero makes use of a topographical circular map and projection screens that wrap around the exhibition space. The visually intense installation submerges the audience into a wealth of information including population growth data, demographics, consumption, and resources for the U.S., Mexico, and the world. Phrases like “special economic zones” outline where trade areas would be in Romero’s binational “Border City” as further projections take you through renderings of the fictional city.

Lebanon

Located on the riverside, Lebanon’s installation provides a taste of Beirut for Londoners. While kebab shops are nothing new in the capital, Annabel Karim Kassar’s work immerses audiences into a typical Beirut street scene offering kebabs, Lebanese coffee, and even a wet shave. While the smell of spices waft through the vicinity and local music fills the air, a breeze running off the Thames brings you back home. Lebanon's piece won the London Design Biennale Medal 2016 for the most exceptional design contribution.

Chile

Inside, Chile’s “Counter Culture Room” offers an insight into the utopian dreams the country had under socialist President Allende of the 1970s and how they were very nearly realized. A short film relays how the country enlisted British cybernetics expert Stafford Beer for Project Cybersyn. Beer aimed to use cybernetics as a form of governance, whereby a central control room—one that could be mistaken for belonging to a 1970s sci-fi villain—would oversee the country. It was a cyber management system that would unite workers with the authorities through a flow of information. Though these plans never made it off the ground due to Pinochet's coup, Chilean studio Fab Lab Santiago made four chairs slicing a would-be control room in two. Interesting though the backstory is, visitors can’t feel empowered as the chairs are sadly unavailable for sitting in.

Austria

Austria’s installation symbolizes the fragility of utopias. The kinetic light sculpture comprises a complex arrangement of interconnected earbud-shaped lights. When left still, the whole structure is fully illuminated, however, when moved in any way, lights close to the source of movement dim and turn off. A slight nudge can rupture the delicate ambience that exists, meaning lights out in utopia.

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See what won the Carbuncle Cup for Britain’s ugliest building of the year

"The worst building amongst a swathe of mediocrity," read one. A "grotesque Jenga game of rabid, rectilinear blocks without the promise of collapse," read another. Compliments for BUJ Architects' Lincoln Plaza have been hard to come by. Today, the collection of housing units in east London's Docklands was dealt a hammer blow in being crowned the winner of this year's Carbuncle Cup, British architecture's least-wanted design award. Comprising two towers of dwellings with a cylindrical hotel mixed into the program, the ill-fated development has been the subject of severe scorn for the 2016 iteration of Building Design's (BD) Carbuncle Cup awards. It is the fifth London building in a row to claim the trophy in the awards' tenth successive year. Lincoln Plaza was selected from a shortlist of six projects built in the UK, three of which were in London. Last year, Rafael Viñoly’s car-melting 20 Fenchurch Sreet (a.k.a. The Walkie-Talkie Tower) took the prize. “When you look at the crazy patterns, pick and mix colors and gimmicky balconies you can see that it lacks poise, foundation or clarity of vision," lamented Julian Robinson of the awarding jury. "Its neighbors aren’t great but this is just an unmitigated mess.” Meanwhile, BD editor Thomas Lane was equally critical. “This is the worst building amongst a swathe of mediocrity," he said. "South Quay is rapidly turning into London’s Carbuncle Cluster.” The derision didn't end there either. One reader even went so far as to say that the building's balconies “are an open invitation to commit suicide.” Critic and member of the jury panel Ike Ijeh described Lincoln Plaza further: "31 stories of bilious cladding are piled one on top of the other to create an assortment of haphazardly assembled facades that are crude, jarring and shambolic." He went on to add:
Essentially, this building is the architectural embodiment of sea sickness, waves of nausea frozen in sheaths of glass and colored aluminum that, when stared at for too long, summon queasiness, discomfort and, if you’re really unlucky, a reappearance of lunch as inevitably as puddles after a rainstorm.
Incidentally, the much-maligned flats in question range from $1 million to $1.2 million. The developers behind the project, Galliard Homes, describe it as a "striking new landmark against Canary Wharf’s dazzling architecture." They go on to add: "Offering breathtaking views, first class facilities, and superlative living accommodation in a location of international status, Lincoln Plaza is set to provide one of the most prestigious and sophisticated new landmarks on Canary Wharf’s iconic skyline." Ijeh, though, was not impressed with this description.
Were anyone in any doubt as to the sheer level delusion and gall that has gripped London’s luxury housing market, then this asinine quotation should settle the matter once and for all. Lincoln Plaza is actually in South Quay and not Canary Wharf but what better way of showing contempt for your local context than by insinuating it is actually located in your flashier neighboring district that is more likely to be familiar to your target Malaysian investors? But, of course, this development does not show contextual contempt by words but by actions and it is these architectural actions and not the aforementioned “views” that are truly “breath-taking.” Lincoln Plaza is a putrid, pugilistic horror show that should never have been built. In its bilious cladding, chaotic form, adhesive balconies and frenzied facades, it exhibits the absolute worst in shambolic architectural design and cheap visual gimmickry. The only thing “sophisticated” about this scheme is the sheer level of artistry that must have been orchestrated in order to convince the local authority to award permission.
Paul Finch, editorial director of the Architects' Journal—a rival to the publication that runs the not-so-coveted trophy—called for the competition to be ended last month. He also wrongly predicted, as did many, that:
Those who control the [Carbuncle Cup] seem to know next to nothing about commercial architecture, hate it, campaign against it and only keep quiet when a self-evidently ‘good’ architect, like Eric Parry, wins a commission to design the tallest tower in the City of London, demolishing the rather good [Aviva] tower in the process. The predictable tone of the [Carbuncle Cup] nominations is echoed by the predictability of the results. The judges don’t get out much, so the focus is generally on London. If you can attack a big name, all the better, hence the ludicrous abuse poured on the Cutty Sark project by Grimshaw. Commercial uses are a red rag to a bull, hence the campaign against another ‘winner’, the Tesco store with apartments above at Woolwich, a brave and successful attempt to revive a benighted town centre,  which I supported while sitting on the design review panel which assessed the plan... My real objection to the [Cup] is that it is the product of mental idleness rather than genuine thought about the way in which architecture both absorbs and reflects culture, economics, fashion and the myriad other elements which inform the way we now live, work and play.
Catherine Slessor, also writing in the same publication, however, made the case for the Carbuncle Cup:
Some might regard it as a cheap exercise in tabloid trolling that takes no account of the complexities and contradictions of the design process, in which architects are merely hapless pawns, buffeted by bad clients, bad briefs and bad legislation. Yet who could argue against the guilty pleasure of witnessing the pomposity of the great and the good being pricked or the hubris of provincial nonentities witheringly exposed? After all, these purveyors of ordure are paid for what they do. And, unlike genuine ordure, bad buildings cannot be swept away.
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Herzog & de Meuron, Studio Gang, and DS+R among those shortlisted for new Royal College of Art campus in South London

The Royal College of Art (RCA) in London has a unveiled a shortlist of seven invited studios that will compete to design the school's new $140 million campus in Battersea, South London. The list features practices from Europe and the U.S. including Swiss duo Herzog & de Meuron, Chicago-based Studio Gang and Diller Scofidio + Renfro (DSR) from New York. Organized by Malcolm Reading Consultants, who claim that the college is set to "embark upon the most exciting phase of development" in its 179 year history, the RCA will align itself into being a primarily science, technology, engineering, arts, and mathematics-based institution. As a result, it aims to coalesce these disciplines to "create transformational impact in such areas as connected cities; robotics, the internet of things and intelligent mobility; sustainability, mass migration and city design." Specifically, this will include the expansion of the RCA's "research and knowledge exchange centers into the domains of computer and materials science, the impact of the digital economy, and intelligent mobility." The shortlisted practices are:
  • Christian Kerez (Switzerland)
  • Diller Scofidio + Renfro (U.S.)
  • Herzog & de Meuron (Switzerland)
  • Lacaton & Vassal (France)
  • Robbrecht en Daem architecten (Belgium)
  • Serie Architects (UK/Singapore)
  • Studio Gang (U.S.)
"At the centre of the Battersea South vision are the practices of artists and designers," said Dean of Architecture Dr. Adrian Lahoud. "The project should support and inspire their work, offering an incredible opportunity to explore new frontiers in learning and research in art and design." Malcolm Reading, competition director, added: "This is a dazzling list of architectural thought-leaders who have connected with a project that will create a renewed sense of place in this part of Battersea.  We very much look forward to the teams’ analyses of the brief at the second stage of the competition." The selection panel members include:
  • Dr. Paul Thompson (Chair)
  • Professor Naren Barfield
  • Richard Benson
  • Dr. Adrian Lahoud
  • Professor Judith Mottram
  • Baroness Gail Rebuck
  • Alan Leibowitz (lay member of Council)
  • Professor Ricky Burdett (lay member of Council)
  • Professor Rachel Cooper OBE (lay member of Council)
  • Paola Antonelli
  • Marcus Cole (student)
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Jorge Otero-Pailos mixes art and architectural preservation at the Palace of Westminster

The Palace of Westminster, which was rebuilt following the destruction of the original medieval building in 1834, is home to the U.K.’s parliamentary proceedings in London. A UNESCO world heritage site, the palace is in a constant state of renovation and preservation. As one can guess, cleaning the premises is a quite a task, though much of the dirt, grime, and dust amassed over the decades has either been long since been swept away, forgotten, or left dormant.

In light of this, Spanish artist, architect, and conservationist Jorge Otero-Pailos has his eyes set on retaining some of Westminster's dirty history (interpret that metaphorically as you please). Open until September 1st at the Houses of Parliament is The Ethics of Dust. A nod to John Ruskin’s 1866 publication by the same name, the site-specific installation is located in Westminster Hall, the oldest part of the complex. An admirer of Gothic architecture, Ruskin pioneered the movement for architecture conservation and warned of the damage pollution could do, but also the damage that could be done if cleaning was to be carried out.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yqv5_pCCS-U

Now, however, more sophisticated cleaning tools are available, and Otero-Pailos has been able to carry out his work. Latex was sprayed onto the building's wall then delicately peeled off to lift the dirt finally cleaning the wall that Ruskin had coined, “that golden stain of time.” A translucent recreation of the hall's internal east wall, the 164-foot-long sheet holds hundreds of years of surface pollution and dust with remnants from the Great Stink of 1858 to WWII; the smog of 1952 and beyond.

The project was commissioned by art U.K. producers Artangel and hangs from a hammerbeam roof 91 feet above. Backlighting and natural illumination from the Palace's grand windows allows visitors to inspect all the dirt that has been collected from the wall in fine detail. During this process, Otero-Pailos worked alongside Parliament’s official restoration and stone cleaning project for more than five years, such was the extent of the dirt residue.

Late last year, The Architect's Newspaper reported that Allies and Morrison, BDP, HOK and Foster+Partners had been shortlisted among a group of nine firms for a major refurbishment project at the Houses of Parliament in Westminster, London. You can read more about The Ethics of Dust here.

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The Brexit promises instability and challenges for Europe’s architecture industry

It takes something of considerable magnitude to shift the global limelight from the U.S. presidential election. However, it appears Britain has done just that. The U.K. voted to leave the European Union and the largest trading bloc in the world, of which it has been a member for nearly half a century.

Economists and financial traders have frantically responded; The Architect’s Newspaper surveyed firms for their reactions and examined the outlook for the U.K. and Europe's architecture scene. Before the vote, many of the leading U.K. architecture practices—including Thomas Heatherwick, David Adjaye and David Chipperfield, among others—all pledged their support for remaining in the European Union. 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0tItgGcWVHw

In terms of pure economics, share price fluctuation—notably of construction firms and developers—is one good indicator of industry confidence. When the market opened for the first time post-referendum, shares of Barratt Developments PLC, the biggest U.K. house builder by sales, fell as much as 32 percent, while shares of Persimmon PLC, which is the largest builder by market capitalization, dropped by 40 percent. Developers too were also wounded, with Derwent London dropping by 18 percent while British Land and Great Portland Estates saw share prices drop by 16 percent.

About a month prior to the referendum, architects and industry leaders held a panel discussion and came to the resounding conclusion that a "Brexit" would not be beneficial to the industry. David Green, director of Belsize Architects and former head of the European Division of the Bank of England, spoke of how procurement of labor and materials would be hindered by being outside the E.U., thereby inflating pricing.

He also added how the recognition of professional qualifications is “critical"; more decisions post-Brexit will be needed to set a common standard. The same quandary of materials standards would also apply. Jason Prior, chief executive of building and places at AECOM, commented that "Whether it be an Italian facade system or German tiles, those components can be used across the E.U. without any hinderance.”

As for now, the U.K. is still in the European Union, and the referendum was only advisory. Still, to reject the result would be politically challenging, if not impossible. The next step is to invoke Article 50, which essentially presses the red button on leaving the E.U. The process gives the U.K. two years to negotiate an exit deal. Provided that many of those who voted to leave cited immigration as their motivation, the free movement of people and labor may be tricky to maintain.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1BMRq96sAwk

The British construction industry relies on Eastern European builders and tradesmen, coming most notably from Poland and Lithuania. David Thomas, chief executive of Barratt Developments, said “If you ask any house-builder what their main challenge is, they say it’s labor availability.” That labor supply, of course, could be maintained if Britain negotiates access to the single market (the European Economic Area) in an approach similar to Norway, whereby freedom of movement is still permitted.

Currently embroiled in the midst of a housing crisis, the U.K. government has been urged by the Federation of Master Builders (FMB) "to not turn off the free-flowing tap of European migrant workers;" the FMB added that twelve percent of British construction workers are of non-U.K. origin. "They have helped the construction industry bounce back from the economic downturn, when 400,000 skilled workers left the industry," the FMB said.

Another complication of Britain's impending withdrawal is that Scotland now has a strong mandate for a repeat referendum on their own independence. In 2014, 55 percent of voters from an 85 percent turnout chose not to leave. For the E.U. referendum, only 67 percent of the electorate turned out to vote, but should Scotland's First Minister Nicola Sturgeon's calls for independence be successful, England would lose a wealth of timber stock, notably Scots Pine, which could make meeting England's housing demand even more tricky.

Former London Mayor and leading protagonist of the Leave campaign, Boris Johnson, has said that Article 50's enactment “will not come in any great rush." Johnson, who is the bookmaker's favorite to be the next Prime Minister, also added that his only aim is for Britain to "extricate itself from the E.U.’s extraordinary and opaque system of legislation.” However, this notion was recently rebuffed by an E.U. diplomat who said “You cannot have your cake and eat it.”

Meanwhile, the Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA) spoke of how architects bidding for public contracts in the E.U. would probably not be hindered. "For architects bidding for public contracts in the EU, no immediate changes are likely," they said. "E.U. law expressly forbids any weight in a procurement decision being given to the country of origin of a bid for a public contract. As such, access to public contracts for U.K. bids is not dependent on the U.K.’s membership of the E.U."

Here's what some of the leading figures in Britain and Europe had to say on the referendum result:

Rogers, Stirk Harbour and Partners

“Where do we go from here?" Richard Rogers' practice has asked. "We now face a difficult period of great uncertainty. All those questions left hanging by those leading the drive towards leaving the EU will now have to be answered. This will take time (years) and in the interim requires great adaptability and resilience from us all."

OMA

Renier de Graaf has said in a statement: "In a world where the most pressing issues inevitably exceed the size of nations, interdependence between nations is a fact. When problems escalate, so must inevitably the arena in which they are addressed. An institution like the E.U. is born out of the knowledge that in the face of the bigger issues we are all minorities. Countries in Europe have a choice: they can either realize or ignore the fact they are small. Yet small they are. All. Including Britain."

Allies & Morrison

In a statement to The Architect's Newspaper the firm said: "More than a quarter of our staff come from other E.U. countries. Over the course of our careers, we have enjoyed, been stimulated by and come to rely on their intelligence, broad education and warm experience. We remain committed to employing the best people from around the world."

Co-founder Graham Morrisson said: “Over the course of our careers, we have enjoyed, been stimulated by and come to rely on the intelligence, broad education and warm experience of the many architects from the E.U. that we have had the privilege to employ." Fellow co-founder Bob Allies, added: “More than a quarter of our staff come from the EU and the thought of losing that easy access to such a rich seam of talent is a consequence of the vote that will take a long time to adjust to.” David Adjaye Associates “We are truly disappointed with the outcome of the referendum," said Adjaye's office in a statement. As an increasingly international business, which benefits from a global pool of talent (and in particular from within the E.U.), we were hoping to remain."

3D Reid

“I fail to see how the Leave vote can be a good thing, certainly in the short term, but the truth is we simply don’t know what this means in the long term," said Graham Hickson-Smith, Director, 3D Reid. “The impact on sterling says it all. An out vote is bad for business." Skanska

Swedish construction firm Skanska issued a statement to AN: "Skanska acknowledges the choice made by the people of the U.K. to leave the European Union. Now the result is known, there will inevitably be a period of uncertainty as the country adjusts to the outcome of this very important decision. We will continue to assess the longer-term implications of the result on our business. However, we do not envisage any significant changes in the near future.”

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What’s on at this year’s London Festival of Architecture

The 2016 editionof London's yearly architecture festival, themed "Community," will boast more than 200 events including talks, conferences, open studios exhibitions, and installations. Curated by director Tamsie Thomson, the festival focuses on the relationship between London's growth and the housing crisis, immigration, climate change, and technology. Having been running for just less than a week, AN takes a look at the highlights. Open Studios June 9-12: Studio McleodRIBA Incubator Open Studio and Farrells June 16-19: SCABALAckroyd + AssociatesOrdinary ArchitecturevPPR and Publica June 23-26: GrimshawAllford Hall Monaghan MorrisJohn McAslan + Partners and Cullinan Studio
Man About The House Playing at numerous venues of architectural significance across the capital, Australian comedian Tim Ross and musician Kit Warhurst's performances will to showcase the value of interacting with architectural heritage. Locations vary from Ernö Goldfinger's Modernist dwelling in Hampstead Heath (James Bond writer Ian Fleming loathed the house so much he based a villain on the architect) to Australia House on the Strand. Best to hurry as tickets for this are selling out fast but can be purchased here. Homes Not Houses: Putting Wellbeing First June 9 Public think tank The Legatum Institute's Architecture of Prosperity program will inaugurate their Housing the Mind publication with a panel discussion. The discussion will address: "How do we design new homes or regenerate in a way that maximizes individual prosperity? Are the economics of new housing developments trumping community wellbeing?" Urban housing study group Create Streets will also be in attendance to launch their latest piece of research that analysis the connection between specific components of the built environment and measurable wellbeing. More details can be found here. Futuro: 1960s Design Principles Today June 9 Visit Finnish architect Matti Suuronen's space-age dwelling, The Futuro House, faithfully restored and located on Central St. Martins' rooftop. A discussion will look at the innovative principles of '60s spatial design and what relevancy they have today in a world dominated by technology. More details can be found here. The Great Architectural Bake-off June 11 Local architects, engineers, and designers are invited to join in the festival fun by constructing distinctive, edible recreations of iconic buildings in The Great Architectural Bake-Off. Proof, that this event is worthwhile will be in the pudding. More details can be found here. Papers: Festival of the Art & Architecture of the Refugee Crisis June 12 A diverse array of people including refugee artists, musicians, poets, chefs and builders will engage in talks on the creative and urban culture which born out of Europe's refugee camps taking place at the Barbican throughout the day. More details can be found here. Nairn's Journeys + Interview with Jonathan Meades June 13 Screenings of some of British architecture critic Ian Nairn's documentaries showcase unique critique and advocacy of placemaking within the built environment. The films will be followed by a discussion between Jonathan Meades and Douglas Murphy on architecture and television. More details can be found here. Affordable for Whom? Role of the Architect in the Housing Crisis June 14 In line with the Royal Institute of Architects' (RIBA) exhibition At Home in Britain: Designing the House of Tomorrow Dick van Gameren of Mecanoo, Jamie Fobert and Ken Baikie of Peabody discuss what can be learnt Europe in relation to the British obsession with homeownership. More details can be found here. Creative Discipline June 17 How is new housing made and paid for? Should we aspire to own it, or is there another way? Bored of events tackling tough questions on the housing crisis? Fear not, this drop-in session run by London architecture firm SCABAL will feature a board game to help those in need. Participants will contribute to the game's creation and be able to spend the day asking and answering questions. More details can be found here. Open Garden Estates June 18-19 Take a tour of the social housing estates across London that are currently endangered by developers, local authorities and housing associations. The weekend-long event offers a rare glimpse into the public and private gardens of residents while providing insight into how the estates's have impacted their lives. Talks from architects gardeners and residents will also be on offer. Best to take this chance before the Housing and Planning Bill comes to fruition.... More details can be found here. The Hive June 18 - November 30 Rising 55 feet, The Hive will be glowing with a myriad of LED lights that respond to changes in its environment. The multi-sensory aluminum structure will plunge visitors into chaotic life of bees using lighting and soundscapes that react to sensors placed inside a real bee hive. The Hive is an award-winning design by British artist Wolfgang Buttress, which was the creative interpretation of the theme ‘feeding the planet, energy for life’ for the World Expo 2015 in Milan (1 May to 31 October). From June 2016, it will be re-imagined in the setting of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. More details can be found here. The House June 24 This specially-commissioned spectacle marking the 400th anniversary of The Queen's House, and its forthcoming reopening this year featuring dance, digital projection, music, narration and pyrotechnics. The production will bring together the talents of BAFTA award-winning video artist Tal Rosner, Olivier award-winner Sharon D. Clarke, multi award-winning composer Dan Jones, boundary breaking Avant Garde Dance, and German outdoor theatre company Pan. More details can be found here. The People Build June 25 Courtesy of French artist Olivier Grossetête, audiences will be able to watch and take part as temporary structures are erected from the ground through the power of the people at the Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park. Watch a time-lapse of how the event panned out in Norwich two years ago.   More details can be found here. Concrete at the Crossroads June 26 With an introduction from Joseph Watson, London Creative Director of the National Trust, Britain’s post-war townscapes are explored in three films featuring Basil Spence, Patrick Nuttgens and Jonathan Meades More details can be found here. Architecture: You Ask the Questions June 27 Razia Iqbal of the BBC chairs the headline panel discussion for this years festival. The discussion will address housing, infrastructure and heritage, to the pressures shaping London’s skyline and the city’s development over the next few years. More details can be found here. Knoc'd 'em in the Old Kent Road June 28 Frowned upon for being the cheapest street on the Monopoly Board, Old Kent Road has now been declared an opportunity area, but for whom and for what? If a talk on Peckham's possibilities doesn't entice you enough, then a "spontaneous" kazoo choir playing the classic music hall song “knock’d ‘em in the Old Kent Road" most definitely will. More details can be found here. Solid Timber House / Vertical Timber City June 28 The Solid Timber House / Vertical Timber City conference looks beyond the various individual tall timber structures emerging around the globe to the next logical development in the application of advanced timber technology: that of whole urban districts built to increasing heights & density in which engineered timber products are utilised to create truly sustainable autarkic (energy self-sufficient) communities. More details can be found here. Open City and the London Housing Crisis June 30 How can London build the homes required to house its ever-growing population? Should we be thinking of homes in terms of volume rather than floor area? Does every apartment really need a balcony? In short, how can we accommodate the spatial needs of London's residents without compromising quality of life? More details can be found here.    
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Herzog and de Meuron’s Tate Modern expansion set to open June 17

In 1995, Jacques Herzog and Pierre de Meuron burst on to the scene winning commission to design the Tate Modern art museum in London. Their design, which saw the adaptive reuse of Giles Gilbert Scott's Bankside Power Station prompted surprise, not for what they did, but for what they didn't do. Retaining the industrial 20th century factory aesthetic, the building has come to compound the Tate's image as an artistic powerhouse under director Nicholas Serota. 4.2 million brinks comprise the building's facade, however, inside a vast central hall adds a theatrical aspect to the building. Speaking to architecture critic Rowan Moore of The Observer, de Meuron said that the hall was “not in the brief, there was no requirement to have it, but it was given by the building. It created a wholly new way of showing art.” http://uds.ak.o.brightcove.com/1854890877/1854890877_26518417001_Herzog-BC-640-ws.mp4 - “I don’t want to sound arrogant,” added Herzog after more than twenty years of reflection, “but that was a stroke of genius.” Whether you agree with him or not, him and de Meuron's success has garnered them international acclaim and now their latest foray at Bankside is taking shape. Due to open on June 17 this year, the firm's $377 million Tate Modern extension—known as the Switch House—will see a 60 percent increase in floor space for the institution. With work having started in 2007, the "extension" would have taken longer and cost more than their original work for the Tate.

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"In the proto-Blair era they were considered minimal, rarely straying from straight lines and right angles," writes Moore, though the Switch House instead relies on an oblique style showcased on a scale reminiscent to the likes of Claude Parent. Rising 213 feet to counter the iconic Bankside chimney and accommodating 11 floors, the angular structure will utilize a perforated brick lattice to match the existing structure.
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- Unlike with Scott's former power station, where Herzog and de Meuron made use of vertical fenestration, their new addition to the Tate will employ horizontal windows that partially wrap round the structure. The aspect of reuse however, will be maintained. Oil tanks that were originally used for the power station prior to its decommission in 1981 will become "closely associated with the new building" to preserve and further the rugged rough-edged charm that its sister structure has.
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A "vertical boulevard" will also be included in the extension. Coined as such by de Meuron, the space is essentially an oversized staircase that provides circulation to the new galleries embedded in the original power station. Larger space for temporary exhibits has also been catered for meanwhile the inclusion of the "Tate Exchange" will facilitate group discussion in seminar spaces and a Media Lab. “High attendance is fantastic for a museum but not always for you as a visitor,” said de Meuron. “Sometimes you need to be more quiet and peaceful. You need different experiences and different speeds, a variety of activity. The stairs are wider than we need them; we want to invite people to have a different kind of experience than to rush from one gallery to another. I am curious to see how people walk about it.”
Alternative circulation is a prominent them within the extension's design. New galleries will incorporate dead ends and others will be solo spaces all to prompt, as Moore explains, "random patterns of exploration, and unpredictable combinations of eddies and stillness." http://players.brightcove.net/e2d28453-3b98-45ec-a753-6574d2b2e050.mp4 Rising up through the building, a Members Room, Level 10 restaurant, and public terrace on the top floor will act as social hubs while offering expansive views over the thames, and as fellow critic Oliver Wainwright points out, into the pricey flats of Richard Rogers' Neo Bankside residences.