The first posthumous retrospective of the grand dame of architecture opened at the Palazzo Franchetti last week to coincide with the opening of the Venice Architecture Biennale. A smaller show was quickly re-shuffled after her passing in March into a retrospective featuring an impressive range of material and media. From hand sketches to virtual reality environments, the variety of media is a testament to Hadid: She began her career in an analogue world and later became a leading figure during a transitional moment in digital design. In that sense, the show doubles as a record of techniques adopted within architecture throughout the past four decades. The retrospective encompasses built, under-construction, in development, and unrealized projects, loosely organized in ten rooms by chronology and media. In addition to models and drawings, video interviews and animation sequences supplement the show. It opens spectacularly with a gradated field of parametric tower studies set in the sumptuous hallway of the Palazzo Franchetti. Both the neo-gothic Venetian palazzo and Zaha's architecture respond to a series of mathematical rules and proportions that can be applied at all scales and work together harmoniously. In fact, Hadid has exhibited multiple times in historic spaces in Italy, often to great effect. Several biennales ago, she designed a series of sculptures for the Villa Malcontenta by Andrea Palladio based on the building's proportions. Special attention is given to early projects pivotal to her career, including her first built project from 1993, the Vitra fire station. Even though computers were already used for drafting at the time, the project is mainly represented through hand sketches, hand-cut foam models, and her legendary large oil paintings. The MAXXI Museum of 21st Century Arts in Rome, completed in 2009, shows an evolution of her aesthetic enabled by increasingly available 3D modeling software. The curvy forms of the museum were drawn using programs such as Rhino or Maya, yet the process still includes paper models and hand sketching. In contrast, the projects of ZHA CODE, a unit within the office dedicated to digital design research established five years ago, tend to generate—rather than sculpt—form through code. Instituted as an experimentation and education platform, ZHA CODE projects often do translate into concrete design proposals. One of their realized projects shown at the retrospective is a 3D printed chair designed through a combination of 3D modeling and structural optimization scripts. This combination of technique, which uses both sculpting and generative scripting, points towards an increasing technical proficiency in creating form based on particular functional variables, rather than purely formal ones. As another example, the minimal surface defining the Mathematics Gallery at the Science Museum in London was generated based on airflow around an airplane displayed in the show. One room at the exhibit is dedicated to the documentation of constructed projects and features photographs by Helene Binet. Strangely the black and white photographs of the built projects are among the most abstract representations of space in the entire exhibition. Seeing four decades of incessant production compressed into such a small space is impressive, yet it also makes the absence of the architect the more palpable. Missing the eye of an architect famous for her consistency and drawing disparate things together, the show is vertiginous in its density and variety. It also produces some strange adjacencies and overlaps. Overlooking the grand canal of Venice, the most recent and in-progress projects are represented through large scale, colorful client renderings filling every available square centimeter, only to be topped by a set of VR glasses and large tables covered with models and publications. Perhaps, precisely because of this hurried, unfiltered display, the show becomes an important snapshot of the work produced by an office still under the immediate direction of Hadid. Given the stature of the work and the strong legacy created by the Iraqi architect, the office might become the first architecture super-brand, not unlike fashion brands continue to thrive for decades under different directors, bearing the founder's name. For now, this retrospective allows to marvel at Zaha Hadid’s immense production while already missing her final touches.
Posts tagged with "Venice Architecture Biennale":
"The biggest problem an architect has," said Californian architect Greg Lynn of Greg Lynn Form (GLF), "is getting from the screen into physical space." And so Lynn, who is also a professor of architecture and urban design at UCLA, has been using the Microsoft HoloLens at the U.S. Pavilion for this year's Venice Biennale. Assigned the Packard Plant, a historic half mile-long abandoned car factory in Detroit, Lynn and his firm were tasked reimagining the site. The HoloLens, which is aided by tech firm Trimble's mixed reality technology, allowed Lynn to holographically visualize and navigate the space. "It actually changes the way you think about design" said Lynn, who added that the lens meant he could fully comprehend the scale of the site, something which he achieved by placing twelve Tate Moderns into the area, by virtual means. According to Lynn, the technology also allowed him to make decisions regarding design and spatial qualities much earlier than usual. "Without the HoloLens, I would have been making those decisions three, four months from now, but with the HoloLens, I'm making those decisions at the point of inception" said Lynn. The HoloLens can also be shared with clients, allowing architects to use the language of space to show why certain design decisions were made. "Using this technology I can make decisions at the moment of inception, shorten the design cycle and improve communication with my clients," added Lynn. AN got a chance to test out the device at the Venice Biennale last week. The use of Hololens in exhibition design is very useful in displaying the US Pavilion proposal. Visitors can see the history of the site holographically projected on the physical model, complete with diagrams that display change from year to year, tracking the growth and decline of the Packard complex. The technology also allowed the exhibition to be annotated with information about the design, as well as animations that made it come alive with images of drones and puffing smokestacks. "HoloLens is going to bridge that gap between the two-dimensional and the three-dimensional and physical space.... It's a revolution," Lynn concluded. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=70xDCokzAck If you want to get your hands on a Hololens, they're only $3,000. According to Microsoft’s website, the device features sensors, a processing unit, special high-def color lenses, and built-in speakers. Microsoft is also collaborating with Lowe’s, the home improvement company, to help customers visualize new kitchen or living layouts, finishes, and more.
Switzerland’s own Christian Kerez, in collaboration with curator Sandra Oehy, brings an enigmatic architectural experience to this year’s Biennale’s Swiss Pavilion exhibition, titled Incidental Space. With today’s prolific use of computation in architectural fabrication, Kerez’s design process and complex structure offers a refreshing, mysterious design that cannot be easily decoded. He returns us to the primitive, imaginative, inhabitable space that defies conventional research. Not at all like some emerging-technology users who are sometimes guilty of finding the “functional” aspect of a thing “post-creation,” ascribing something biomimetic "behavior," of losing any relationship to humanistic experience, Kerez used point cloud scanning of dynamic particles—such as sand or sugar—to generate form. This results in a completely organic, random geometry whose physical incarnation creates a unique experience for visitors. Evocative of a grotto-like experience from the inside, this self-supporting fiberglass reinforced concrete shelled structure features walls that thicken where necessary from .4 to 1.5 inches. The exterior’s ornamental crevices resemble a cloud’s backlit tonalities as it reaches the pavilion’s pinnacle skylight. When you enter, Kerez returns you experience to the primitive womb, with a complete change of scale, inviting you to explore barefoot, carefully float, and reconnect to you inner child’s naïve fantasy. The work is anything but a product of architectural construction, but almost becomes total product of our imagination. Commissioned by Swiss Arts Council Pro Helvetica head of Visual Arts, Marianne Burki, Rachele Giudici Legittimo, Coordinator, and Sandi Paucic, Project Manager for Swiss participation at the Biennale, this project was enriched by over 30 international collaborators and students, including ETH and DARCH, and sponsored by industry leaders, Holcim, Marty Design Haus, National Center of Competence in Research Digital Fabrication, and Adunic.
The results are in at the 15th Venice Biennale of Architecture. The Golden Lion for Lifetime Achievement went to Brazilian architect Paulo Mendes da Rocha. Paraguay's Gabinete de Arquitectura, led by Solano Benitez, brought home the Golden Lion for Participant for the masonry arch that stood at the entrance to the Central Pavilion. Nigerian-born Kunlé Adeyemi, leader of Dutch practice NLÉ and visiting faculty at Columbia GSAPP took home the silver for his Makoko Floating School, which has been seen on the internet for the last couple of years, but made a cameo behind the Arsenale this year in Venice after floating down the Grand Canal. It was a fitting update of Aldo Rossi's 1979/80 Teatro del Mundo, reimagined for this Biennale. Golden Lion for Lifetime Achievement: Paulo Mendes da Rocha Golden Lion for Best Participant: Gabinete de Arquitectura Silver Lion for Participant - Kunlé Adeyemi/NLÉ Golden Lion for Best National Participation: Spain Pavilion Special Mentions for National Participations: Japan Pavilion, Peru Pavilion
Alejandro Aravena, curator of the 2016 Venice Architecture Biennale (themed "Reporting from the Front"), claims that this 15th architecture exhibition wants to “offer a new point of view” and is about “listening to those who are able to gain perspective and are in the position to share knowledge and experiences, inventiveness and pertinence with those of us standing on the ground.” Yet except for several young Americans, there are seemingly no “new points of view” from America that address urban issues and contribute to the international debate. The lone U.S. representative is Auburn University’s Rural Studio; it takes nothing away from their profound and important contribution to say it offers little that's new or urban. The largest number of official delegates in Aravena’s Biennale comes from Europe (86), Mexico and South America (22), and rest from global developing countries. The United States has never dominated the biennale—it began as an Italian and European event—but has always had significant representatives (excluding, of course, those in the U.S. Pavilion). Aaron Betsky curated it in 2008 as well. Is Aravena (who has taught at Harvard from 2000-2005) unaware of developments in American architecture? Or does he simply believe the most exciting new ideas are emerging from developing countries? Paralleling the 2015 Art biennale, does he think it's time to focus on work from the southern hemisphere? The President of the Biennale Paolo Barrata, who has a significant presence in the formulation of biennale's direction, claims that the image of this biennale (a woman on a ladder gazing across a desert horizon) is the counterpart to the one chosen for the 2015 art biennale. That biennale—"All the World's Futures"—was curated by Okwui Enwezor. Enwezor wanted to open the event to artists in under-represented developing countries (also largely from the southern hemisphere). Barratta also claims that previous architecture biennales were “characterized by an increasing divergence between architecture and civil society” and the 2016 edition would examine whether there exist “phenomena that show trends that run in the opposite direction.” He promises this biennale seeks "positive images” of change geared toward civil society. It's worrying that the U.S. has so little influence in this global debate. Are American architects providing solutions that emerge only from our unique codes and industrialized materials? Or are the solutions offered so corporate in nature that they cannot have applications outside the developed world? A partial answer to this question might be hinted at in the 2016 U.S. pavilion; we will be reporting on that tomorrow.
At this year’s Venice Biennale, the title and theme "Reporting from the Front" charges architects from around the world to present projects that “make a difference” on the front lines of the world’s current challenges. A range of topics—refugee immigration, militarized space, social housing, spaces of education, and more—are addressed throughout the show. Though the discussion varies, one concept seems to pervade the show: the novel or uncommon use of materials. The study of material usage isn't outside normal architectural practice. However at this particular Biennale, the conversation surrounding materials, form, and space is taken to an extreme. This is most prevalent throughout the portion of the show that is specifically curated by head curator Alejandro Aravena. The central pavilion and the Arsenale, the two major spaces of Aravena’s show, are filled with projects that present the literal physicalness of materials. This focus on materials is first evident in the main entrances of both spaces. To discuss waste, and take an inward look at the Biennale itself, Arevena reconfigured thousands of pounds of plasterboard and steel studs from the 2015 Art Biennale. The plasterboard was broken and staked into masonry-style walls; the steel studs hang on end from the ceiling. Continuing into the central pavilion, the space opens up to reveal a soaring brick masonry arch by Paraguay-based Solano Benítez. Rather than a typical brick arch, the bricks were configured into thin members, giving the arch a lightness and seeming fragility. Subsequent rooms engage other materials in similarly unconventional ways. Epic bamboo structures and living plant walls are presented by Colombia-based Simón Vélez and Vietnam-based Vo Trong Nghia, respectively. In an exhibit entitled Mud Work! by Germany-based Anna Heringer, a full scale mud structure is built in the center of the gallery. The material studies continue into the Arsenale. As with a handful of other projects, China-based Wang Shu looks at local and traditional building technologies in a series of brick and tile vignettes. International building consultants Transsolar’s contribution is completely composed of light and a thin vail of artificial fog. An entire space is dedicated to a series of sunlight beams coming through the roof of the building into the dark space. Polish architect Hugon Kowalski works in a material nearly polar opposite of Transsolar’s in his garbage and trash-filled exhibit. In more than one case, small structures are built with board-form concrete or simply stacked bricks. Metal scaffolding is utilized in multiple exhibits as well. As a whole, the show is decidedly tactile. There is a great deal to touch and many spaces have a decidedly strong, yet not necessarily unpleasant, smell. Though not completely devoid of models and drawings, most of these typical modes of representation are presented in the National Pavilions, of which Aravena has much less influence. The significance of this strong emphasis on material practices could be read in many ways. Without a frame of reference outside the exhibition, visitors might focus on a proliferation of traditional building techniques and materials. Considering a broader context though, one could easily question the definition, and engagement, of what Aravena defines as the “front” of architectural issues around the world. If Aravena’s assessment is accurate, perhaps we should be expecting to see more and more architect-designed “vernacular” in the coming years.
Not part of the official Biennale, The Architecture Lobby to premier booklet at the New Zealand Exhibition
The Architecture Lobby is the most progressive architecture non-profit organization in the United States. It should be in the Arsenale and part of Reporting From the Front. That is not happening, so the Lobby has scrambled to participate in two collateral events. The Architecture Lobby will debut its edited booklet, Asymmetric Labors: The Economy of Architecture in Theory and Practice at the 2016 at the New Zealand Exhibition (Palazzo Bollani, Castello 3647, Venezia). This afternoon event will take place from 15:00-17:00, Friday 27 May 2016. Later that day, the Lobby will participate in Architects Meet in Fuoribiennale (Palazzo Widmann, Calle Widmann, 30121 Cannaregio, Venice).
This is the first time in the Venice Architecture Biennale's 15 seasons that a "nation in exile" has been invited to set up a pavilion alongside established nation-states. The Western Sahara Pavilion, organized by Manuel Herz with the National Union of Sahrawi Women, engages the culture of the Sahrawi, an ethnic group from the disputed territory that was forced to flee into neighboring Algeria during a war with Morocco and Mauritania in the 1970s. Today, between 48,000 and 194,000 Sahrawis live in Algerian refugee camps, unable to return to a territory whose sovereignty is recognized by only 40 nations worldwide. As temporary spaces of exception turned into permanent places of residence, the Sahrawis adopted and invented novel sets of urban and architectural practices. Rabouni, the first camp established in 1976, became a capital of the semi-sovereign, displaced nation: The city contains a parliament, national archive, museum, and other institutions that confer permanence. For the tent-shaped pavilion, over 30 women wove tapestries that depict buildings, maps, and conditions in the camps. The organizers of the pavilion argue that by shaping space in this way, refugees are using institutions as tools for social liberation. Organizing via government is not a new or radical method of self-determination, but pavilion organizers hope that their presence in Venice with internationally recognized countries will invigorate debate around sovereignty, deterritorialization, and shaping space in an increasingly post-national world.
There is always much to make one feel angry and discouraged and the Venice Architecture Biennale (more on that later). But then something unexpected and magical happens to save the day and remind us why this event (and city) is so special and worth coming to every year. NLÉ's Makoko Floating School project is well known, but a new one was constructed for the Biennale and floated down the Grand Canal to be stationed at the Giardini. In this case I was not able to be a witness to this floating event, but I ran into photographer Iwan Baan in the Arsenale and he forwarded this to me. I could not resist sharing this video. Thank you, Iwan!
One of the more intriguing parts of the 15th Architecture Biennale in Venice is the addition of three "special pavilions." One is the Applied Arts Pavilion, which is home to the exhibition A World of Fragile Parts, a joint collaboration of La Biennale di Venezia and the Victoria and Albert Museum (V&A). It was conceived as a 21st century version of the plaster castings that were made by the museum in the 19th century for the Cast Courts, which opened in 1873, to showcase the most grandiose plaster casts (including the famous Trajan’s Column in Rome). In the face of recent catastrophic events, such as the cultural destruction by militant groups, and environmental disasters brought about by climate change, curator Brendan Cormier is asking, "What do we copy and how? What is the relationship between the copy and the original in a society that values authenticity? And how can such an effort be properly coordinated at a truly global and inclusive scale?" With exhibition design by London's extraordinary Ordinary Architecture, the sprawling exhibition contains a number of plaster relics from the V&A, in addition to contemporary artists' works that deal with copying. The Other Nefertiti by Nora Al-Badri and Jan Nikolai Nelles, from 2015, is an illegally-obtained 3D scan of the bust of Nefertiti. The original has been held at the Neues Museum since its unveiling in Berlin in 1924, despite pleas to return it to its Egyptian home. The pair of artists secretly scanned the bust using a staged Kinect Xbox controller. #NefertitiHack is an "ethical art heist" and resulted in the files being downloaded and printed for display at the exhibition in Venice. Sam Jacob Studio is displaying a 1:1 scanned replica of a shelter from the Calais ‘Jungle’ refugee camp. The CNC-milled synthetic stone sculpture elevates this ad-hoc object of survival into an artwork. The mark of the machine is left, and parts of the tent are rendered in low-resolution, with the digital faceted geometry intact. Institute for Digital Archaeology (IDA) responded directly to the ISIS crisis, producing a copy of a part of Palmyra’s destroyed Triumphal Arch, which was destroyed in 2015. IDA used a computerized stone cutter to print the digital model that was created using photogrammetry, where hundreds of images are processed to produce a 3D file. It is part of the Million Image Database, an effort by the IDA to document world heritage through the distribution of special 3D cameras to volunteers around the world. “The increasing accessibility of 3D scanning and printing couldn’t be timelier in the context of cultural preservation, as the threat of destruction and damage of our global material heritage rises. A World of Fragile Parts poses questions related to the legitimacy, ownership and significance of copies while highlighting their preservation value as they allow for physical, but also for cultural, emotional and political survival," said Cormier.
The Venice architecture biennale has released a list of 19 official collateral events taking place around the city during the biannual (in even years) event. It’s a fascinating list of projects, installations, national design programs, and it’s diversity shows why this is still the best event in the architecture calendar. But there are also dozens of unofficial events worth checking out. Here are two: Building in Paris by Frank Gehry at the Esapce Louis Vuitton (Calle del Ridotto 1353, 30124 Venezia) and Zaha Hadid at the Palazzo Franchetti on Campo Santo Stefano. The Gehry exhibit claims to “retrace the story of Frank Gehry’s dream through a selection of scale models themed by program, project design, interior spaces, “icebergs,” and glass sails. This exhibit also features an installation by Daniel Buren that incorporates the glass roof of the Esapce Louis Vuitton. The Zaha Hadid exhibit is a retrospective of the late, spectacular architect and was quickly assembled by Patrik Schumacher as a memorial. Both of these are on view through the run of the biennale, November 29th. Building in Paris May 27 – November 26, 2016 Monday – Saturday, 10:00am - 7.30pm, Sunday, 10.30am - 7.30p Espace Louis Vuitton Venezia, Calle del Ridotto 1353, 30124 Venezia #FondationLouisVuitton Zaha Hadid May 27 – November 26, 2016 Monday– Sunday, 10:00am - 6:00pm (10 euro entry fee, group rates available) Palazzo Franchetti
Peter Cook, Patrik Schumacher, Odile Decq, and more will gather at this year's Fuoribiennale in Venice
If you're in Venice for the 2016 architecture biennale, don’t just stay in the Arsenale or Giardini. Some of the most compelling events again this year take place in various out-of-the-way (bring your GPS) venues. A format of public discussions has developed that opens up to various audiences and themes like Robert White’s Dark Side Club, which began at midnight and featured spectacular dinners. The most public and accessible of events like these were begun by Luigi Prestinenza’s Fuoribiennale and are always staged at Palazzo Widmann on Calle Widmann (30121 Cannaregio). This year it begins on Thursday May 26 and runs through the day and, on Friday May 27, ends with a party celebrating the Frank Lloyd Wright School of Architecture at 19:30. Fuoribiennale usually promotes and supports the work of young architecture practices and the positions of young critics and, again this year, the afternoon of Friday May 27 will devoted to featuring these groups and practices. AN will be speaking in the evening with Peter Cook, Patrik Schumacher, Aaron Betsky, Hani Rashid, Benedetta Tagliabue, Nanne de Ru, Hans Ibelings, Angelo Costa, Sophie Lovell, Dagmar Richter, Carlo Ratti, Lola Sheppard and others. For more information on the Fuoribiennale, visit this link here.