Posts tagged with "South Korea":

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MVRDV to redevelop Seoul waterfront as sprawling urban park

Rotterdam-based MVRDV is no stranger to the Seoul area. Its 2018 addition to the Paradise City development, dubbed The Imprint, provided an abstract boost for the colossal entertainment complex near South Korea’s largest airport. This month it was announced the firm won a competition for the major redesign of the Tencheon valley and waterfront in Seoul with "The Weaves," set to begin construction in 2021. The Weaves site is located on a large stretch of waterfront land between Seoul’s former Olympic stadium in the Jamsil District and the central business district of Gangnam. In an area dominated by elevated roadways and parking lots, MVRDV plans to turn our attention to the natural landscape, focusing on three major aspects in its design: natural ecosystems, pedestrian access, and space for public programming. “Seoul is taking amazing steps to transform grey and obsolete infrastructure into lively green and social spaces," said MVRDV founding partner Winy Maas in a press release. "The Weaves is a design that introduces natural landscape combined with exceptional, varied access. It also responds to the local identity. Jamsil is known for its history of silk production and the design recalls the tangled silk threads of its past in a unique and playful way. It becomes an intertwining poem where movement becomes landscape poetry.” Major plans include returning the Tancheon river to a more naturalistic state, changing it from a straight canal to a whimsical, meandering stream with retention pools, islands, and aquatic plants to “blur the boundary between land and water.” Additionally, a series of winding paths will allow pedestrian access throughout the site from various points. These graded, intersecting paths will form plazas with cafes and amphitheaters to accommodate vast public programs. Construction of The Weaves is expected to take approximately three years, with projected completion in 2024.
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Parasite reveals class divides through elaborate stage set design

South Korean film director Bong Joon-ho has, in recent years, become an increasingly notable figure among those in the global film community. His latest work, Parasite (2019), expertly straddles the line between art-house and popcorn thriller as it tells the story of a destitute family of four, the Kims, conning a much wealthier family, the Parks, into full employment by posing as unrelated professionals in the service industry and integrating themselves into the richer family's lives. While its protagonists excel at filling each scene with elegant dialogic tension and balletic physical gestures throughout, it is the film's architecture and general production design that ultimately both deepens and carries the film's plot to its tragic resolution (note: this review contains no spoilers). The Kims live in a cramped semi-basement with a casement window at the dead-end of a dreary alleyway as their only natural light source. When Kim Ki-woo, the family's son, is invited to the Park home to interview under the pretense of being a university-level English tutor, he - and us, in turn - are stunned by how the other half lives. He approaches the property via a tidy, narrow street with a fortress-like wall punctuated by a heavy steel door. Ki-woo pushes it open to ascend a sweep of exterior stairs leading to a grand courtyard garden that seems only a dash smaller and less guarded than Versailles. An immaculate modern-style home overlooks the courtyard with streak-free floor-to-ceiling windows, through which Ki-woo sees an expansive, multi-level interior. The spatial layout of the Kims' semi-basement home “really reflects the psyche of the Kim family,” Bong explained in an interview. “You’re still half overground, so there’s this hope and this sense that you still have access to sunlight and you haven’t completely fallen to the basement yet. It’s this weird mixture of hope and this fear that you can fall even lower. I think that really corresponds to how the protagonists feel.” And while the audience is told that the Parks' sprawling home and grounds were designed by Namgoong Hyeonja, a fictional architect that built the home for himself before vacating four years ago, they were, in actuality, an elaborate stage set built specifically for the film. Production designer Lee Ha-joon revealed that the first floor and garden were built in an empty lot, while the austere interior spaces were built on a soundstage. “We had to consider the cinematic factors," Lee explained, "but also had to create a house so real that the audience could accept the idea the characters were actually living in it."  The film cuts back and forth between the opulent simplicity of the Park residence and the tightly-packed squalor of the Kim home as the protagonists argue that rich people are nice because they can afford to be. “Hell, if I had all this money,” says Kim Chung-sook, the family's mother, as she gestures to the cavernous, sparsely-decorated interior of the Park residence, “I'd be nice, too!” Throughout Parasite, wealth presents itself in the form of architectural design that is serene yet equal parts boastful and territorial, while its more prevalent and common opposite is indeterminate, circumstantial and perpetually cluttered. Private, empty space, the film convinces us, is a rare luxury in itself.
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MVRDV's The Imprint mirrors and distorts its surrounding with glass fiber–reinforced concrete

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In Paradise City, a new entertainment and hospitality complex in Seoul, South Korea, MVRDV was faced with a unique challenge: design two contextual, expressive buildings without any windows—one an indoor theme park and the other a nightclub. The two new structures, known collectively as The Imprint, share an architectural language and echo the design of the six other buildings in Paradise City. Despite its theme park name, “Paradise City is not a collection of individual objects like Las Vegas,” noted MVRDV principal and cofounder Winy Maas, “but a real city.”
  • Facade Manufacturer Techwall
  • Architect MVRDV
  • Co-Architect GANSAM Architects & Partners
  • Facade Consultant VS-A Group Ltd
  • Panelization Consultant WITHWORKS
  • Location Incheon, South Korea
  • Date of Completion 2018
  • System Panelized glass reinforced concrete
To make these new buildings fit in with their environment, MVRDV’s solution was to fit the environment over the new buildings. That is to say, the architects virtually projected the facades of the nearby buildings, stretching them across the plazas and over the massing of the new structures—one a simple box, the other a curving box that gives definition to a public space. The facade compositions were “imprinted” in relief onto glass fiber-reinforced concrete panels. The panels, 3,869 of which are unique, were individually fabricated employing the same 3D modeling files used to design the project. Most of the panels were painted white to create high contrast shadows that emphasize the design of the contextual echoes, but a few sections of the nightclub and surrounding plaza are painted gold. These gilded highlights are augmented with exterior lighting and, when seen from the planes landing at the nearby Incheon Airport, look like spotlights shining onto the structure. It’s an appropriate gesture for a project with facades that appear to be pulled upward, offering a peek under the curtain where mirrored surfaces and dynamic lighting suggest the glamorous spaces and experiences that lie behind. MVRDV’s client called the completed Imprint a “work of art,” and indeed, the buildings do evoke dueling works by the sculptor Rachel Whiteread, who is known for her casts of architectural objects and spaces. But can a nightclub in an entertainment complex really be a work of art? Why not? “What, then, is the difference between architecture and art?” asked Maas. “The project plays with that, and I think that abstraction is part of it, but it has to surprise, seduce, and it has to calm down... Giorgio de Chirico would have liked to paint it, I think.”  
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Architect Andrew MacNair sends a giant egg to Korea

The Egg Chapel is located on the side of a small mountain outside of Seoul up the Han River in the W-Zone Park—a “people’s health, love and happiness park”—built and run by the Hi family under the direction of Pastor Song. The chapel was commissioned to be one of the world’s smallest churches—an ecumenical pilgrimage destination to hold small prayer and song services, baptisms, weddings, and musical performances—inside the chapel as well as outside on the front porch. It was made with Jaesung Jung, Lawrence Marek, and Johanna Post. We built it in Bristol, Rhode Island, with old-school, wood, ocean yacht builders Dan Shay and William Harmon in a series of twelve long curvilinear, vertical shells like small Biblical boats. The shells where shipped from Bristol to Seoul via boat through the Panama Canal and were trucked up to the mountain where we erected it together in one month with four carpenters working by hand with no lifts nor cranes—a 10 meter (32 foot) wooden egg standing straight and tall. The egg is topped off with a wooden dome connecting all hulls into one. It contains a front door facing west and one oval oculus window up high facing east. There are two long, thin windows left and right—a vertical one faces south, a horizontal one faces north. When a person goes into the compressed space of the chapel, first one looks up high to the oculus, bending the neck. Then, entering the 14-foot circular floor, the body brings together the two thin windows so that the horizontal window light comes together with the vertical window light, completing a metaphysical cross of energy and light: the human body connects post and arm of the Christian cross. This first Egg Chapel is part of an ongoing life-work, a Merzbau called “Egg City.” This includes work into an alternative “Not Not Architecture.” The Egg Chapel stands as one example. Simply put, the building is made of just two lines: one circle-line in plan, one vertical egg-line in elevation. We did not design it. It is a generic found object made and given to and for us all.
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MVRDV distorts reality in South Korea's Paradise City

MVRDV’s dual-building addition to South Korea’s Paradise City development is a lesson in abstraction. The new structures featuring windowless facades and glowing, curtain-like entry points. The Imprint is the Dutch firm’s idea for an arts and entertainment complex completely made for play. Located 32 miles from Seoul next to the Incheon Airport, Paradise City is a six-building campus with a hotel, casino, and food court on site. MVRDV’s recently completed buildings, designed in collaboration with Gansam Architects, rounds out the site’s masterplan with two new buildings housing a nightclub and an indoor amusement park. According to the design team, the client challenged them to conceive a design with no windows that also complemented the surrounding buildings. To achieve this, they mirrored the facades of the other structures and draped their outlines over the buildings like shadows. The result is an “imprint” or relief pattern, made out of glass-fiber reinforced concrete panels that were formed from individual molds. By emphasizing the window- and door-like shapes imprinted on the exterior cladding, MVRDV was able to create a texture and depth using different reveals and etched lines. While these forms are entirely real, for all intents and purposes they create a powerful illusion. One of the most surprising design elements is the splash of gold paint that overlaps from one corner of the rectangular nightclub and covers nearly one-third of its elongated facade. The architects lifted a center section of that exterior wall to reveal a curtain-like entryway for visitors to pass through once walking up the stairs to the complex. Inside is a psychedelic passage that brings fun seekers through the belly of the building onto the central plaza of Paradise City. The same scrunched entrance to the tunnel is mimicked on the opposite side of the building where it is painted in white. The indoor amusement park, a slightly curved, lower-hanging building, also features the expressive relief pattern that’s imprinted on its neighbor, but is strictly painted in a muted white color. A corner of the building is also lifted that serves as an actual entrance and boasts a chromatic and reflective hallway that leads visitors to the circus that’s inside.
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Morphosis Architects created a cloud-like facade using reinforced fiber modules

  • Architects Morphosis
  • Facade Contractors/Suppliers POSCO (Steel Curtain Wall), ALU EnC (Aluminum Curtain Wall), Korea Carbon (GFRP), Korea Tech-Wall (GFRC), Han Glass (Glass), Steel Life (Interior Liner)
  • Facade Consultants Arup, FACO
  • Location Seoul, South Korea
  • Date of Completion 2018
  • System Brise-soleil system on the main, west-facing facade
  • Products Fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) using one of Kolon’s own high-tech fabrics, Aramid
Magok is an emerging techno-industrial hub located on the outskirts of South Korea’s capital, Seoul. In 2013, The Kolon Group—a multinational corporation and leading Korean textile manufacturer—approached Morphosis Architects for a new consolidated headquarters within the district. The goal? A wholly unique design capable of housing the conglomerate’s diverse divisions while showcasing its array of manufactured products.

After half a decade of design and construction, the 820,000-square-foot Kolon One & Only Tower opened on August 23, 2018.

The project follows Founding Principal Thom Mayne’s preference for hyper-engineered, non-traditional forms. Sloped planes and yawning fissures wave across the facade and interior.

Carbon fiber–reinforced concrete piers, rising at acute and obtuse angles, are the primary compressive support for the structure.

The atrium is a vast space measuring approximately 140 feet tall and 330 feet long and provides inward and outward views. Dubbed “The Grand Stair” by the design team, the centrally-placed path of movement is meant to serve as a quasi-public space and a facilitator of vertical and horizontal circulation. Morphosis has lined the entire height of the atrium with 400 fiber-reinforced translucent polymer panels measuring 30 feet wide. Produced by Kolon, the panels are fastened to the interior structure by stainless steel armatures.

The west-facing facade has a dramatic inflection that defines the structure’s exterior. Morphosis describes the main facade as “an interconnected array of sunshades that form a monolithic outer skin, analogous to woven fabric.” The woven embellishment—featuring the Kolon-produced Aramid, a reinforced fiber with a greater tensile strength than iron—was designed parametrically to balance the interior’s need for outward vistas and shading requirements. Stan Su, director of enclosure design at Morphosis, views the sprawling sunscreen as carrying a “cloud-like plasticity in form while maintaining a remarkably high tensile strength.”

Each knot of “woven fabric” is fastened to the curtainwall with traditional stainless steel brackets that cut through exterior joints to the steel mullions that ring the structure.

While the western elevation is the primary face of the development, the facility was designed holistically. Stan Su states that “the pared-back embellishment of the three other elevations is a response to their interior functions; lab and office blocks comprise what can be considered the rear of the building.” The curtain wall wrapping these elevations largely consists of Han Glass’s low-iron glass and ALU EnC produced aluminum cladding, a measure to match the clear view and visibility requirements of the client.

In a bid to secure LEED Gold Certification, Morphosis added a number of sustainable and environmentally-friendly interventions; Kolon One & Only Tower is decked with a green roof, solar photovoltaic panels, and geothermal heating and cooling mechanisms. Additionally, Morphosis reduced concrete use by 30 percent through a bubble deck slab system which uses plastic balls as a form of reinforcement. Further projects by Morphosis Architects will be discussed during Facades+ LA October 25-26.
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South Korea’s disposable Olympic stadium has no roof or heating

As the 2018 Winter Olympics in PyeongChang, South Korea dazzles with massive drone displays and American triple axels, spectators in the main Olympic stadium have been left out in the cold. The $109 million, pentagonal stadium has 35,000 seats but no roof or heating elements, and will only be used four times before being torn down. The decision to build a low-cost arena designed for planned obsolescence isn’t a crazy idea. With the total cost of the games approaching nearly $13 billion, keeping a 35,000-seat stadium running when PyeongChang County only has 40,000 residents was prohibitively expensive. Even the International Olympic Committee (IOC) has warned that Olympic venues can be become “white elephants” after the games end, as they historically have within other hosting cities. Although the South Korean government had hoped the Olympics would turn the snowy and mountainous PyeongChang into a winter sports destination for tourists, enthusiasm within the country for winter sports has been particularly muted. Because no viable alternatives were proposed, PyeongChang Olympic Stadium was designed to be disposable and will only host the opening and closing ceremonies of the Winter Olympics and the Paralympic Games before being demolished. Cutting costs by leaving out a roof might have worked during the Summer Olympics, but at half a mile above sea level, PyeongChang is one of Korea’s coldest areas, and this year’s lows are breaking records. Polycarbonate walls were installed at the stadium’s top levels to shield spectators from the wind, but guests were given blankets, heating pads, and raincoats to keep warm and gas heaters were installed between the aisles. Seven people were repeatedly treated for frostbite after an hour-long opening event in November, where temperatures hovered around 12 degrees Fahrenheit, though they had risen to the low 20’s by the time of the opening ceremony proper. Disposable, temporary, and even movable stadiums have been in demand lately, as cities around the world grapple with the challenges (and costs) of repurposing single-use venues once an event ends. Qatar recently unveiled their Ras Abu Aboud Stadium, which uses removable shipping containers as building blocks so that the arena can be moved after the World Cup. The 2018 Winter Olympics closing ceremony will take place on February 25, 2018, while the Winter Paralympics will run from March 8 until March 18.
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Asif Khan pavilion brings a slice of outer space to the 2018 Winter Olympics

As excitement around the 2018 Winter Olympics in South Korea builds for the February 9th opening ceremony, London-based architecture firm Asif Khan Ltd. has revealed a pitch-black pavilion sponsored by Hyundai Motor. Coated in Vantablack VBx2, the world’s blackest black paint, the exterior of the parabolic pavilion is lit with thousands of point lights and resembles a field of floating stars. “From a distance the structure has the appearance of a window looking into the depths of outer space,” said Asif Khan in a press release. “As you approach it, this impression grows to fill your entire field of view. So on entering the building, it feels as though you are being absorbed into a cloud of blackness.” Vantablack’s impenetrable darkness is based in its structure, as the paint is made of tangled carbon nanotubes that trap light on a microscopic level. At 32 feet tall and 114 feet long on all four sides, the monolithic Hyundai Pavilion is the largest continuous nanostructure in history. It also represents the first architectural application of Vantablack. While the original iteration of Vantablack paint was so fragile that it could only be installed under laboratory conditions, VBx2 suspends the coating in a spray solution and can be directly applied. The resultant structure, though the walls are curved inwards, has been seemingly rendered as a flat void and stripped of its volume; inside the effect couldn’t be more different. Playing on the theme of hydrogen, in reference to Hyundai’s foray into fuel cell-powered vehicles, the interior of the pavilion is a stark white and anchored by an interactive water installation. As visitors walk around the interior, water drops are elongated as they flow through channels carved into the floor and pool at a central drain. “The water installation visitors discover inside is brightly lit in white. As your eyes adjust, you feel for a moment that the tiny water drops are at the scale of the stars,” said Khan. “A water droplet is a size every visitor is familiar with. In the project I wanted to move from the scale of the cosmos to the scale of water droplets in a few steps. The droplets contain the same hydrogen from the beginning of the universe as the stars.” The usage of Vantablack has been a contentious topic in the short five years it’s been around. While Anish Kapoor made headlines after claiming the exclusive rights to the pigment’s use, Asif Khan has been working closely with the researchers behind Vantablack since 2013 and has previously proposed using it for a variety of projects. The Hyundai Pavilion will open to the public alongside the Olympics on February 9, in Pyeongchang.
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This facade is made entirely of plastic baskets

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In a district slated for redevelopment in Naju City, five miles south of Gwangju in southern South Korea, a vacant building scheduled for demolition is the site of a temporary architectural facade installation that minimizes the separation between interior and exterior. German and Korean–based architecture firm Hyunje Joo_Baukunst designed a cladding system that tiles 1,500 semi-transparent plastic baskets covering over 4,000 square feet of building envelope. The resulting effect is a translucent hazy skin that allows diffuse sunlight and silhouettes to seep into the interior.
  • Facade Manufacturer Dongam E&C
  • Architects Hyunje Joo_Baukunst
  • Facade Installer Munhyung Lee, with Lee Seok-hee, Sang Ho Lee, and Yoon Sangbo
  • Facade Consultants n/a
  • Location Naju-si, South Korea
  • Date of Completion 2017
  • System brise-soleil screen attached to existing structure
  • Products UV-coated HDPE baskets, steel cable wire, steel frame
The baskets, relatively standard commercially-sold products, were manufactured by a Korean factory from high-density polyethylene (HDPE). For this project, the baskets were UV coated to ensure durability throughout the installation. HDPE is a common plastic material used in everything from rigid containers and hard hats to flexible bags and house wraps. It is a widely recycled material, and the architects intend to reuse the individual baskets upon dismantling the installation. Hyunje Joo, the artist-architect responsible for the project, installed a steel subframe to the existing building facade and connected individual baskets to this frame using steel cable ties. Joo said the intent was to create an economical, flexible, light, and recyclable architectural element. “The surface minimizes the separation between the inside and outside, as light and silhouettes beyond the space show through. Over the course of the day, changes show on the surface of the wall due to the diffusion and reflection of the material. The passage of time is more actively sensed from both inside and outside, as these light effects stimulate our senses.” Naju City, the site of the project, was designated an “Innovative City” in 2007, and since has seen ecologically sensitive development attracting several public offices from Seoul. Despite the temporariness of the installation, the visual and spatial effects achieved with a three-dimensional semi-transparent perforated material are noteworthy and the architects say the success of this project will be carried on through future projects. “We intend to reinterpret the possibility for the boundary of the wall using new materials,” they said.
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Moon Hoon designs four bright pink pool villas in South Korea

Last month, we covered the fingerprint YDP Tower, a residence planned for Seoul, South Korea. The architect, Moon Hoon of the South Korean firm MOONBALSSO, has designed another colorful and playful project: a series of candy-colored pink pool houses in Miryang, South Korea. Miryang (also called Milyang) is a land-locked city in the south with lots of natural splendor—valleys, two rivers, and the Yeongnam Alps rising in the distance. MOONBALSSO’s pool villa project is in the countryside, a little over 30 miles north of the port city Busan, the second largest city in South Korea after Seoul, known for its giant beaches. The pool villa site—about a third of an acre—is “mainly a flat piece of land on a gentle hill with irregular property lines,” says Moon Hoon. “It is rather isolated which provides an ideal situation for private pool villas for weekend and holidays.” The series of four neon, bubblegum pink pool villas share external dividing walls. The walls are extra high to provide ample privacy. Three of the pool villas each feature a one story house, with lots of glass. At one end, the fourth villa is two stories, with room for more residents or guests. The interiors are all white, in sharp contrast to the bright pink surroundings. The pool configurations are each a bit different, but all have views of the verdant rolling hillside beyond. “Angled walls and floating double walls and girders add sculptural quality to a spatial experience of expansion and visual pleasure,” Moon Hoon says. “The bright pink adds to the festive nature and holiday atmosphere. The greenery surrounding the pool villa emphasizes the pink even more…a contrasting existence, helping to make each other more vivid….” We’re guessing Elle Woods would be an instant fan of the playful and bold aesthetic.      
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Moon Hoon designs fingerprint tower in Seoul, Korea

Architect Moon Hoon of Moonbalsso, who's based in the Gangnam district in Seoul, South Korea, is known for his sculptural, whimsical designs like the Wind House featuring a duck-head robot shaped observatory tower to the commercial-residential hybrid project dubbed K-pop Curve. And then there is a Star Wars-inspired house. One of his latest projects, the YDP Tower, is slated for a Seoul neighborhood south of the Han River. It looks like a tube of lipstick covered with a swirling fingerprint—if we’re being sedate and G-rated—or perhaps it resembles the medieval round structures mainly found in Ireland that are thought to have been used as refuges or bell towers. (We’ll leave other associations for you to imagine.) And no, it is not an office building for some futuristic tech company, as this writer first thought after viewing the renderings for the first time. Part of it will serve as a residence for a South Korean actor. “The penthouse at the top is where the client is going to reside (four floors). “The bottom four floors will be studios for rent,” Moon Hoon said. “The building has a high piloti (surrounding buildings are three to four floors high). The first floor will begin at the neighbors’ rooftops.” The ground level is reserved for parking, with prominently-displayed stairs and an elevator. “The project aims at providing a dynamic house with a roof garden and studios with high ceilings with bare interiors so that new tenants can design it for themselves,” Hoon explained. Perhaps Moon Hoon is like a modern day Friedensreich Hundertwasser—the Austrian architect and artist who designed playful, colorful buildings like the Hundertwasserhaus, that was originally an apartment building in Vienna (and reportedly a pro-bono project for Hundertwasser). Moon Hoon is also an artist, with drawings exhibited at the Venice Architecture Biennale that won the Golden Lion Prize. On the unusual residential design, Moon Hoon said: “The client wished for a unique tower with some curves. We provided various schemes and the one with the client's fingerprint as a facade and structure won his heart. At the moment we are collaborating with structural engineers. The tower will most likely be a double skin building with a hybrid construction method—steel and concrete mix. The fingerprint facade will be a metal finish screening a curtain wall behind it...”. Currently the project is in the design development phase and Hoon expects groundbreaking will start this fall or early spring 2017.
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Sustainability Expert Juan Betancur Talks Integrated Facades

In a high-performance building, argues Juan Betancur, director at Adrian Smith + Gordon Gill Architecture, the envelope must never be an afterthought. Rather, it should be a material expression of the overall environmental strategy. “The key to what we’re doing with energy and sustainability is: how do the systems become the facades themselves?” he said. “If we make it part of the building, it’s an integrated systems solution.” Betancur will outline his firm’s approach to sustainable facade design in a dialog workshop at next week’s facades+ Chicago conference. “Off the Grid: Embedded Power Generation/Net Positive,” led by Betancur with panelists Anthony Viola (Adrian Smith + Gordon Gill Architecture) and Craig Burton (PositivEnergy Practice), will focus on two very different examples of Adrian Smith + Gordon Gill’s recent work: the Federation of Korean Industries (FKI) office high-rise in Seoul, South Korea (2013), and the 174 hectare campus for EXPO-2017 in Astana, Kazakhstan (2017). In the workshop, Betancur will walk participants through the design process, beginning with site analysis. “The first thing we do is understand the weather data, and get an understanding of what we can do on that particular site,” he explained. “We have our basic toolkit of ideas and systems that can be used both in facades and in buildings overall. Then we begin to take a specific building and see how it works. We see how the building has to be manipulated to take advantage of these conditions.” Technology plays a critical role in enacting the designers’ sustainability strategy. “We work back and forth with the manufacturers,” said Betancur, exploring, for instance, the application of photovoltaics to a spherical structure. “We look for new technologies, and ask how we can alter them to fit what we’re trying to do, and balance that with economic conditions.” In some cases, as at the Wuhan Greenland Center (2016) the scale tips toward passive rather than active systems. “We’re balancing first costs and life-cycle costs,” said Betancur. In addition to providing a more elegant design solution, integrated facades are easier for clients to digest, said Betancur. In some cases, as in Seoul, local officials require energy offsets. FKI’s owners signed on to an energy-generating design, he explained, “not because they wanted to, but because the government forced them to.” Other clients prefer solutions that privilege first-cost over life-cycle savings. “The way we approach the basic principle of sustainability is to try not to talk about it as a separate item,” said Betancur. “If we start talking about it as an additive process” clients are likely to balk, he said. Instead, “we say: ‘Here’s an entire building.’ They never think of it as a separate thing, if we can make it work financially.” To sign up for a dialog workshop or to learn more about facades+ Chicago, visit the conference website.