Posts tagged with "Glass":

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Add security and safety to schools with new glass and door solutions

This year, on average, there has been one school shooting per week, according to CNN. Enduring, long-term measures to prevent attacks and safeguard schools require legislation and other policy changes that may be out of designers' reach. In the meantime, there are design measures that help make educational spaces safer, namely by preventing entry. Take a look at the following windows and doors designed and tested to protect spaces of learning. Attack Resistant Door Solutions Assa Abloy and School Guard Glass Hardware manufacturer Assa Abloy and safety glass manufacturer School Guard Glass partnered to design an attack-resistant door for schools. When paired together, the Ceco Door with SG5 attack-resistant glazing survives the most brutal blows and even gunshots (see the video above). Stronger and longer-lasting than a security film, the system is easy and affordable to retrofit to pre-existing openings for increased security. CHILDGARD security glazing Global Security Glazing Many schools across the country are not new buildings. Their windows are often tempered glass, which shatters immediately upon impact. CHILDGARD glazing is laminated security glass designed to help both new and pre-existing structures endure the hardest blows. It is a cost-effective alternative to bulletproof glass and easier to install than safety films, which must be anchored to frames. Quick Action Lockdown SSI Guardian In emergencies, seconds matter. This deadbolt classroom door instantly locks when the red button is pressed. When it is safe again or accidentally employed, the door automatically unlocks when the interior handle is turned. NIGHTLOCK LOCKDOWN 1 Nightlock Door Security Devices Sliding into place, this red metal security bracket attaches the door to the floor. There, the lock remains out of reach from the glass windows typically found in conventional classroom doors. The barricade system works with both inward and outward swing doors that are wood or metal. Security Window Film & Attachment System 3M Protect windows with this film that has the wherewithal to withstand an intruder for up to two minutes. If the glass is broken, the system that is anchored to the glass frame will stay attached to the film and protect the glass from shattering. Sponsored Product: Accurate Lock 9100SEC High Security Mortise Lock Withstands 300 times more abuse than the Standard Grade 1 Requirement. Aesthetics no longer need to be compromised to achieve the highest level of security—compatible with a variety of commercial, residential, or specialty trim.
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Add panache with new types of decorative glass

Not a solid, yet not a liquid; glass is somewhere in between. These decorative varieties accentuate the aesthetic qualities of the material, calling attention to its almost supernatural, amorphous condition—a state somewhere between two states of matter.
Channel Bronze Nathan Allan Glass Studios Convex grooves line this kiln-formed glass that is shaped like flowing water. It is available in a maximum panel size of six-by-ten feet and in six profile depths. Detail photo of glass pieces

Rayures Glas Italia

The French fraternal design duo Ronan & Erwan Bouroullec conjured a colorful crystalline modular screen with layered hinged panels. The folds of transparent glass feature horizontal and vertical veins that light filters through in a wonderfully lucid way. The individual panels vary in size, allowing for compositions that divide but don't separate.

Metallic Carvart

Woven metallic threads form a reflective herringbone wall cladding in this new product from Carvart. The effect is created by laminating metal mesh between a mirror and a panel of glass. This mesh can be used for both exterior and interior applications, as well as for acoustic performance.

Linework Skyline Design

Exploring linework and other 2-D geometries, Gensler collaborated with Skyline to develop a collection of five glass patterns. Linework is available in four thicknesses, can be sized up to 72 inches by 144 inches, and is suitable for interiors and exteriors.

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How Amazon achieved crystal clarity in its glass domes

NBBJ designed a trio of connected glass orbs with living walls at the new Seattle headquarters for online retail giant Amazon. According to an announcement on Amazon’s blog, the spherical design—a project seven years in the making—was “chosen due to its natural occurrence in nature and as a nod to historic conservatories, like Kew Gardens.” This atypical meeting place away from the typical office towers provides a treehouse-like environment for employees, complete with terraces, water features, soaring staircases, and wooden decking.

The construction required more than 620 tons of steel supported by a burly concrete base to buttress the triangular insulated glass units fashioned from modularized Vitro glass. The open floor plan comprised three spherical units enveloped in Ultra-clear Vitro Starphire low-iron glass, which allows for higher visible light transmission, heightening views from multiple angles. “Iron is what makes glass appear green," said Andre Kenstowicz, Vitro Glass manager on the project. "Low iron Starphire glass eliminates the 'green' hue of traditional clear glass so the only green that you see is from the 300 species of tropical plants inside of the Amazon Spheres.” There are around 40,000 plants in the project.

Like all three domes, the largest is glazed by the contractor Enclos with Vitro’s Solarban Solar Control 60 Low-E coating in double laminate, measuring approximately 90 feet tall and 130 feet wide. All 2,643 panels of glass achieve 73 percent visible light transmittance and a solar heat gain coefficient of 0.40 across the visibly sinuous surface. This film beneath the surface limits the amount of radiation entering and consequently helps the interior to remain a stable, cool temperature.

NBBJ designed this biophilic environment to “inspire creativity and even improve brain function," according to the company’s blog. Luckily the public also has year-round access to the stimulating habitat at the base of the garden in the visitor center. There, in the thick of it, Seattleites can experience biodiversity in the heart of the city.

Architect: NBBJ

Location: Seattle

Structural Engineer: Magnusson Klemencic Associates

Glass Manufacturer: Vitro Architectural Glass

Glass Fabricator:  Northwestern Industries, Inc.

Glazing Contractor: Enclos

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Seven windows that open up new views

Enhance views from inside and outside with windows that have narrow profiles, improved light transmission, and aesthetically pleasing frames.
Clear Vision AGC Glass This low-iron glass alternative allows for the most luminous applications with 92 percent light transmission. It is offered in laminated, bent, silk-treated, heat-treated, and insulating varieties, and can be specified for interiors and exteriors.
Modular Outswing Goldbrecht-Systems Bye-bye, big-framed eyesores! Goldbrecht, the U.S. manufacturer for Vitrocsa, released an outswing window with a sleek, thin profile. The new casement and awning system matches the slender sightlines of the sliding systems already offered by the manufacturer.
Insulated Glass Atelier Domingue
Cut for both commercial and residential typologies, each window is custom fabricated by metal artisans. The design features a low-profile steel frame to support the insulated glass panel.
Direct Glaze Corner Window Marvin Look out of the corner! Sitting flush with the exterior, this window conveniently opens up two sides of the facade at the same time. Many applications are possible, with sizes made up to 76 inches by 146 inches in vertical or horizontal orientations.
OBE PDR-225 Window Wall Oldcastle BuildingEnvelope Prefab-ulous! This glazed window wall system is assembled and sealed in industrial-grade factory conditions, which minimizes labor costs and maintains quality control that might be compromised in on-site assembly. The assembly includes an oversized thermal break completed with an anodized finishing.
400T Series Thermal Curtainwall Tubelite Looking to get LEED Gold? This thermally broken curtain wall is designed to meet the strictest energy codes. The expanded thermal break and thicker gasketing system reduce solar heat gain and condensation.
Furniture-grade finishes Weather Shield Looking to add a bit of color? Weather Shield paired with Sherwin Williams to offer its entire selection of windows or doors in ten new furniture-grade hues for the Contemporary Collection, Premium Series, and Premium Coastal collections. The finish is factory-applied, preventing inconsistent or blotchy post-installation paint jobs.
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Dichroic glass turns a curtainwall into a shimmering veil

Portland-based studio OFFICE 52 Architecture designed the new 109,000-square-foot interdisciplinary Nano-Bio-Energy Technologies Building at Carnegie Mellon University with a glass facade that plays with form, texture, and color. The skin that lines the north wing of the Sherman and Joyce Bowie Scott Hall features a range of vibrant materials: dichroic glass, clear and frosted glass layers, and a micro-thin layer of metal oxide created by a process that echoes the nanotechnology work taking place in the facility. “It all has to do with photons, which is essentially light. We wanted to give the building a timeless quality in terms of the custom nanotechnology-inspired frit motif juxtaposed by the dichroic glass,” said Michelle LaFoe, principal of OFFICE 52.

In effect, Scott Hall’s curtain wall creates spaces that glow with light that has passed through the glass layers and has diffused into a plethora of colors—from warm amber to cool grape to saturated cyan, depending on the wavelength of the light beam. Lending the building an aura of luminance, a rainbow of color changes transpires throughout the day according to the angle the sun moves through the glass. These qualities are created by Schott AG fins—vertical in Narima Orange and horizontal in Narima Blue|Gold. Both are laminated between Vitro Starphire low-iron glass using DuPont’s SentryGlas laminate, a clever combination paired with a custom frit that allows birds (who naturally have a tetrachromatic visual system with a heightened color perception) to see the color in the dichroic glass. Together, the dichroic fin colors and the ceramic glass frit’s printed pattern with a custom subtle gray is what the birds see, ultimately functioning as a safety feature.

The structure is one of the first research-grade clean facilities in the country to be certified LEED Gold, a feat that both partners attribute to the collaborating engineers and fabricators: “Innovation was most easily achieved when we worked together to fabricate custom fins. Collaborating with the engineers (Arup) and the dichroic glass manufacturer (Schott AG) is an example of collaboration to get the best use of the best products,” said Isaac Campbell, principal at OFFICE 52.

Design Architect: OFFICE 52 Architecture

Location: Pittsburgh

Architect of Record: Stantec

Structural/MEP: Arup

LEED Consultant: evolveEA

Curtain Wall Glass Manufacturer: Viracon

Curtain Wall: United Architectural Metals

Dichroic glass fins:  Schott AG

Fabricator: Triview Glass

Installer: D-M Products, Inc.

Insulated glass units fabricator and manufacturer:  Viracon

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A French museum creates romance with a flowing glass tile facade

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With an extensive archaeological collection spanning from the 7th century BC through the Middle Ages, the Musée de la Romanité, located in Nîmes, France (opening summer 2018), presents artifacts from the "romanization" of local society both before and after the city’s Roman occupation. The project, which has evolved into one of the largest contemporary architectural projects in France, is the result of an international competition dating back to 2011. Designed by Paris-based Elizabeth de Portzamparc, the resulting museum establishes a dialogue with an adjacent 2000-year-old amphitheater through a veil-like glass tile screen.
 
  • Facade Manufacturer Pilkington (glass); Emmanuel BARROI (screen-printing); Aurblanc (facade construction model)
  • Architects Elizabeth De Portzamparc
  • Facade Installer HEFI (ROSCHMANN Group)
  • Facade Consultants BET; RFR (facade); Sarl André Verdier (structure)
  • Location Nîmes, France
  • Date of Completion 2018
  • System structural glass over steel subframe
  • Products Pilkington Optiwhite
The building aims to produce this dialogue by being different instead of similar. Seen from above, the museum is organized in a square plan that contrasts with the amphitheater’s curvilinear form. The materiality of the adjacent Roman stone structure and what Elizabeth de Portzamparc’s office calls the “magnificence of vertical arches passed down to us through the centuries,” is answered with a decidedly light assembly of digitally-crafted steel and glass. The result is an undulating, textile-like drapery that seemingly floats over the archaeological context. The Musée de la Romanité’s facade is composed of over 7,000 structural glass units measuring approximately 5-feet-long by 8-inches-tall by less than three-eighths-of-an-inch thick. The glass “strips” were screen printed with 8-inch opaque white squares on their exterior face to maximize legibility and solar shading performance. Each strip was installed individually on site over a delicate framework composed of primary vertical members and secondary horizontal girts. This framework establishes specific undulations based on the curvature of the facade. The mechanical attachments were specially coated to blend in with adjacent finishes to produce an additional level of seamlessness. The lightness of the system is all the more impressive given the site’s location within a seismic zone that extends through parts of southern France. The unique assembly of glass strips, as opposed to a custom molded glass system or more traditional curtain wall, arose from a desire to achieve a visually thin structure and required the design team to manage the weight of the glass assembly. “We finally chose the strip system so as to obtain a background structure as light and less visible as possible, allowing an important economy of raw materials and construction costs in comparison to a molded glass facade, which requires very expensive and heavy bearing structures,” said de Portzamparc. “The result is very lively for its subtlety and its reflections that extend the colors of the surrounding buildings and the sky that changes every hour of the day.” The architects developed the project through a 1:100 scale study model that was based on two parametric aspects: geometry and graphic design. Several tests at full scale also occurred in parallel to the model to study the detailing of key attachment points. The team worked through iterations of translating a fluid digital surface into a contoured assembly of horizontal strips, working to manage gaps between the strips so as to achieve a continuity of the surface through smaller building modules.  
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Seven high-performance glass products to solve wicked problems

The proverb, “people who live in glass houses shouldn’t throw stones,” need not apply to these performance solutions. Equipped with innovative materials and manufactured by clever new techniques, these glass products address structural, safety, thermal, and weather-related concerns.

Vacuum IG Guardian Glass

Pictured here in a retrofit at Sherzer Hall at Eastern Michigan University, Vacuum IG is paired with Guardian’s SunGuard coated glass to create a hybrid, low-e, vacuum-insulated glass that provides thermal insulation and minimizes the amount of ultraviolet and infrared light passing through without compromising visible light transmission.

Fireframes TimberLine TPG

FireFrames TimberLine has the aesthetic panache of wood with all the fire performance characteristics that steel brings. Pairing a burly steel frame with a real wood cap cover and Pilkington Pyrostop fire-rated glass, the system effectively works as a radiant and conductive heat barrier.

H3 FeelSafe Casement & Double Hung Sierra Pacific

What do you have to do before a hurricane? You board up the windows! Made from extruded aluminum, vinyl, and solid wood, these windows may not eliminate the need for that altogether, but they do withstand Zone III or IV hurricane-force winds and water damage.

GPX FireFloor Safti

Walk (safely) this way on a tempered, laminated surface supported by a structural steel frame. The fire-resistant flooring system is assembled with no air between the fire-rated glass and the laminated walking surface, alleviating concerns associated with condensation.

Attack-Resistant Openings School Guard Glass and Assa Abloy

Hardware manufacturer Assa Abloy and safety glass manufacturer School Guard Glass partnered to design an attack-resistant door for schools. When paired together, the Ceco Door with SG5 attack-resistant glazing survives the most brutal blows and even gunshots. Stronger and longer-lasting than a security film, the system is easy and affordable to retrofit into preexisting openings for increased security.

Krypton-enhanced glass MI Windows and Doors

Replacing commonly used argon, new krypton-insulated glass effectively decreases the flow of heat from the outside in. The gas lives between two panes of glass, separated by a warm edge spacer system. It is available with MI’s 1650 double-hung, 1650 fixed, and 1685 double-slider triple-pane windows.

NX-300 Kawneer Designed for historic window restorations, the NX-300 thermal window bestows an antiquated look that is updated to meet contemporary performance codes. It is available in a variety of casement outswing, awning, fixed, and fixed over awning configurations.
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Clever operable wall solutions open up outdoor views

Blending indoors without, these openings improve accessibility and reveal sweeping views.

AA 250/425 Thermal Entrances Kawneer

This entrance system is equipped with a discreetly effective thermal break: The corner mechanical fastening and fillet welds minimize airflow.

AWS Terrace Door with ADA Threshold Schüco

This outward-opening terrace door has a new increased profile. When closed, the thermal break efficiently insulates the interior using a triple layer threshold barrier.

8100 series Windoor

Smooth operator! Sliding on one or more tracks, these floor-to-ceiling glass doors can be installed in corners and custom configurations.

Bifold Patio Doors Pella

These bilateral doors open outward so those indoors can enjoy wide-open spaces. The panels fold neatly to adjust to any opening size.

Kitchen Transition Nanawall

Nanawall offers a residential product that creates fluidity between outdoors and indoor kitchens. With the combination of countertop window panels and floor-to-ceiling units, the system seamlessly integrates into a variety of uses.

Pivot Entrance Silvelox

These massive units pivot around a vertical axis with hinges that don’t require welding and open outward from a panel attached to the facade.

Clad-Wood Folding Patio Doors JELD-WYN

This wooden framed solution can be installed to slide, swing, or fold out. It is available as an interconnected three-panel system or in a one-panel configuration.

 

Offered as a complete package including lock body and available in a range of finishes and functions, the G17 Series allows for sleek and modern open-space design.

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Nine operable wall solutions for flexible public and private spaces

These indoor applications allow for flexibility, creating hybrid public and private spaces for a party of one—or just a party. PlybooDoor Krownlab This barn door–style system opens on a rolling track mounted on a trolley bracket. Each panel features small slats that help to absorb sound while adding a decorative architectural element. This system is offered in six natural wood finishes and available in sizes customizable down to a fraction of an inch. Pivoting Shoin Lualdi Fashioned from a glass-and-aluminum profile, this pivoting partition system creates indoor environments pleasing to pass through and view from afar. It can be integrated with operable and fixed panels and is available in a palette of woods, metals, and glossy and opaque lacquered colors. glassBOX–F Carvart This glass cubicle system incorporates multiple glass panels that slide to-and-fro. It incorporates a front panel on a plane that is steadily secured by an overhead bar. Views from the other side are obstructed by a privacy trim that lines each door and divider. Acousti-Seal Continuously Hinged Automated Wall System Modernfold This hinged partition is connected to create one complete system: a continuous interlocking panel. The setup time is speedy with the help of an electric motor that triggers opening and closing with a simple push of the touchpad. Series 600 Hufcor A clever set of multiple moveable flat panels lets the user choose what area of the wall to shut or open. Available in 3- and 4-inch thicknesses, the welded steel frame makes the system great for very tall ceilings. Fireframes with Pilkington Pyrostop TGP Narrow steel profiles support Pilkington Pyrostop fire-resistant glass, creating seamless modular glass systems for offices and other commercial applications. The doors can be assembled as single or double leaves. LC Privacy Glass Innovative Glass Creating on-demand privacy with the flip of a switch and a voice command, this glass comes equipped with digital technology that instantly changes the face of the glass panels from transparent to frosted. Accordion Folding Wall PK-30 System The panel suspension located in the middle of the partition allows the door to slide without a bottom guide channel track, which means space will appear seamless when the door is open. SPW4S Raydoor This Folding End opening system comprises opening panels that neatly stack to the side, allowing easy passage between the screen areas. It can be installed as a single or pair of doors and is offered in laminate and veneer finishes.
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35 booths not to miss at the AIA 2018 Architecture Expo

The AIA 2018 Conference is almost here, and architects are already flocking to New York City for one of the biggest architecture events each year. The AIA Architecture Expo will be happening on June 21-22. The theme this year is "Blueprint for Better Cities," featuring materials that have a controlled ecological footprint. More than 800 leading brands and manufacturers will exhibit their cutting-edge technologies in the 200,000-square-feet gallery at the Javits Center. If you are planning your visit to the A’18 Expo, be sure to visit our editors’ picks of manufacturers and brands (which are also our distinguished sponsors). AkzoNobel - 449 Avenere Cladding - Swirnow - 4366 Bison Innovative Products - 4344 C.R. Laurence - 1945 Cambridge Architectural Mesh - 1715 Florim - 215 FunderMax GmbH - 662 GKD-USA, Inc. - 957 Graphisoft - 105 greenscreen - 828 Guardian Glass - 1003 InsiteVR - 1374 IrisVR - 1362 J.E. Berkowitz - 1981 Kawneer - 556LL LaCantina Doors - 1329 NBK North America - 4703 PlanGrid - 4006 PPG - 4225 Rieder North America - 4631 Rigidized Metals - 4540 ROCKWOOL - 1411 SageGlass - 4737 Shildan Group - 2657 Specified Technologies - 735 Swisspearl - 1562 TerraCORE - 4353 Tournesol Siteworks - 4630 Tremco Commercial Sealants & Waterproofing - 4937 Unilock - 4835 Viracon - 1767 Vitro Architectural Glass - 1631 Vitrocsa/ HIRT Windows, divisions of Goldbrecht - 2531 W&W Glass, LLC/Pilkington Planar Structural Glass - 1681 YKK AP America - 507
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Ian Ritchie advocates for subtlety and organic geometries in glass architecture

On April 19, for the afternoon keynote of The Architects Newspapers Facades+ conference in New York, architect Ian Ritchie discussed his decades-long involvement in forward-looking glass architecture. Beginning with the tongue-in-cheek statement, “Glass is the answer; what was the question? the British architect detailed the technological specifications and design considerations behind his projects. Ranging in size from personal residences to convention centers, the projects convey his expertise with manufactured materials.

As head of his own practice, Ian Ritchie Architects, Ritchie’s process is influenced by a range of fields, from neuroscience to poetry.

Ritchie began with one of his earliest projects, the self-constructed Fluy House (1976). Composed of a prefabricated set of materials, including a lightweight steel frame and pre-cast concrete floor slabs, Ritchie described his early curtain wall as glass acting as a windbreaker, a thin protective barrier between shelter and the sites surrounding countryside.

Ritchie also described projects he worked on as a founding partner of the engineering firm, RFR Engineers. For example, he talked about unique projects such as engineering I.M Peis Louvre Pyramids, which entailed the creation of a full-scale Kevlar mockup and the use of "phantom fixing to insure the transparency of the glass structures final design.

Next, in talking about the design of Reina Sofia Museum of Modern Arts circulation towers and the Messe-Leipzig Glass Hall, Ritchie described how unique engineering devices such as externally suspended and grid-worked glass panels bring the tectonics of design and engineering into public view while creating open and accessible spaces.

In line with his firm’s straightforward forms, Ritchie was critical of the contemporary trend of hyper-engineered glass facades with multiple curves and contortions, asking, "Is architecture intelligence or indulgence?" Instead, he emphasized the natural, biological forms that influence his creative process and, ultimately, his firms output.

Ritchies drive to bridge the highly technical, manufactured character of glass with natural objects and processes was also highlighted by his presentation of the firms recently completed, 150,000-square-foot Sainsbury Wellcome Center.

Located in Londons Fitzrovia, a central city district surrounded by architectural conservation areas predominantly comprised of Georgian architecture, Ritchie saw the Sainsbury Wellcome Center as a melting ice block spilling into the surrounding neighborhood." To fulfill this analogy, the firm opted for translucent cast glass with vertical, corduroy-like detailing that imitated the stone rustication and brick-and-mortar facades of the surrounding area.

Ritchie concluded with a call for architects to recognize that current glass design and architecture may be surpassing contemporary engineering capabilities. In his view, too many architects are acting as sculptors, an approach that will fail to make glass warm and haptically friendly to the public.

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Swiss office retrofit features a sophisticated glass skin

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A new renovation and extension to the Swiss Société Privée de Gérance (SPG) features a complex facade composed of four layers of glass. Designed by Italian firm Giovanni Vaccarini Architetti, the sophisticated building envelope offers a new aesthetic identity for the office headquarters while achieving energy efficiency.
  • Facade Manufacturer Stahlbau Pichler
  • Architects Giovanni Vaccarini Architetti; Fossati Architectes SA (Technical direction)
  • Facade Installer Metal Glass Sagl
  • Facade Consultants Stahlbau Pichler (facade consultant); BCS SA (facade engineer); SIMOS (facade lighting design); Wintsch&Cie (structural, electrical, and mechanical engineering)
  • Location Geneva, Switzerland
  • Date of Completion 2017
  • System double skin curtain wall
  • Products custom screen-printed glazing blades with aluminum attachments
The facade is composed of a double skin envelope, which allows the envelope to be naturally ventilated. A perimeter ventilation system paired with an interior forced air system reduces overall energy demands on the building by addressing thermal extremes at the facade. Vertically oriented glass fins treated with a frit coating are employed as a solar shading device. Stahlbau Pichler, the project's facade consultant, worked with the architectural team to develop the enclosure system's steel structural components which support the glass fins. The composition of glass and steel establishes a rhythmic composition that blurs light reflections, materiality, and the profile of the building. The facade system relies on repetition to produce these complex aesthetic effects. In a press release, principal Giovanni Vaccarini said the team’s design process was inspired by weaving: “Weaving is the first step in composing... the weaving is a rhythm of signs, an abstraction of meanings, figures, and suggestions.” Here, a triple-layer glazing assembly offers thermal protection, while the fourth layer of glazing is offset to establish a ventilated cavity space. Within the assembly, micro-perforated shading similar to Venetian blinds offer regulation of daylight. Outboard of the building envelope, the brise-soleil screens are composed of screenprinted glass. Stahlbau Pichler’s engineering helped to minimize visual distractions of the glass fin anchoring system. Their work also managed the 100-ton glass weight, a primary concern due to the structural constraints of the existing building.
The effect of the facade can also be experienced from the interior, where Vaccarini says the assembly produces what he called an augmented window. “From the outside, the ‘thick’ surface of the screenprinted glass panels and the steel become a volume and define the very body of the architecture, whose outlines dematerialize into a pulsating material entity sensitive to color changes in the surrounding area,” Vaccarini said. “Our perception of the building is continuously transformed. The overlapping visions we have of it, from both the inside and out, produce a kinetic effect.” At night, the effect is intensified when glass panels and the edge profiles of custom-profiled aluminum anchors are lit by a bright white LED lighting system designed by SIMOS. This graphic further softens the perimeter surface of the building, producing what the architects call a visual reverberation effect.