Posts tagged with "Glass":
The Lotte World Tower rises from bustling Seoul, South Korea, as a sleek new city icon. For the team behind the 123-story building at global architecture firm Kohn Pedersen Fox (KPF), creating this seamless silhouette meant a challenge of engineering ingenuity—and quite a bit of glass.
“Even though it looks like one big monolithic tower, there are 20 different types of glass on that tower,” explained KPF’s Richard Nemeth, managing principal for the project, which opened earlier this year. The 1,821-foot-tall silhouette was inspired by traditional Korean forms like pottery and paintbrushes, but its multiple functions helped dictate the form as well. Office space is located at the bottom, while the tower tapers in two directions—“think football instead of baseball”—offering smaller spans from core to glass toward the top of the tower, where the residences, hotel, and observation deck are located.At the base, a 100-foot-tall lobby utilizes a gradient of mirrored frits on the glazing to provide shading while accommodating views at ground level; at the top of the tower, frits were used to highlight the diagrid of the belt trusses. The residences utilize laminated safety glass on the inner lite with heat-strengthened glass on the outer lite, while the hotel and office sections use heat-strengthened glass for both. To keep the building from looking like a “giant patchwork quilt,” Nemeth said, the KPF team ensured that the outer lite is always the same thickness, with the reflective coating on the number-two surface. “Then, whatever you do on your inner lite is much less visible to the outside, because it’s inside the reflective coating,” he explained. While the world’s fifth-tallest building includes a number of innovative energy-saving strategies, for many visitors the tower’s crowning achievement is the glass-floored observation deck—the world’s tallest. Cantilevering out, it offers views some 1,600 feet down—with just three layers of 10-millimeter-thick tempered glass with SentryGlas Plus interlayers separating viewers from the ground.
With a theme of “Future Energy,” Kazakhstan’s Expo 2017 is expected to draw more than two million tourists to Astana, the capital city. At the center of it all is the Kazakhstan Pavilion—by Chicago’s Adrian Smith + Gordon Gill Architecture—which is capped with a glass dome 262 feet in diameter and and houses the “Museum of Future Energy.”The form was inspired by expos of the past, like the Montreal Biodome from Expo ’67, as well as Kazakhstan’s president himself, who specifically told the firm he wanted a sphere, said Founding Partner Gordon Gill. But earlier examples failed to complete the circle—Gill’s team wanted to go further.
“We said, ‘If we’re going to do that, let’s do a true sphere,’” Gill recounted. “Instead of segmented glass, we decided to do double-curved, insulated, fritted glass.” While the form posed engineering challenges due to the undefined transition of heat across its surface—which the team solved by using convection to move air throughout the space—fabricating the glass panels proved an engineering feat of its own.
“We thought it was going to be pretty straightforward,” Gill said. “After all, doesn’t every car have double-curved glass on the windshield? But we only found three manufacturers on the planet that could deliver double-curved insulated glass.” Eventually choosing Italy’s Sunglass for the job, together they considered a number of designs, ultimately choosing to utilize a rhombus shape with horizontal members that could be rationalized with the floor line in installation.The building envelope is essentially a glazed unitized curtain wall system. Aluminum mullions, which are supported off a primary and secondary steel frame system that forms an elegant diagrid shell, provide support and thermally isolated connections to the pavilion's doubly-curved insulated glazing units. A perforated enclosure housing a radiant heating system is supported off horizontal mullions. To the exterior, ceramic frit glazing is specified on the outboard laminated lite of the curtain wall, while ultra clear low-iron glass with a low-E coating was included throughout the project. The envelope also features integrated LED illumination and shading systems within the exterior curtain wall mullions.
To maximize views from the inside and reduce the number of glass panels, they opted for a three-meter-sized lite for a total of about 2,900 double-curved spherical panels with an additional 315 double-curved panels to make up the side walls of the wind turbine inlet at the top of the sphere, as well as 388 flat panels with integrated photovoltaics from Ertex.
“There’s a lot of science behind this simplicity,” Gill said. “It seems so straightforward and almost like a one-liner, but it unfolds in front of you as you go through it to reveal a whole litany of sophistication.”
What is it like to whiz through a glass slide 1,000 feet above Los Angeles with nothing to hold on to other than a gray wool mat? The experience is so terrifying one would be forgiven for blocking out the memory entirely—but, thanks to the structural engineering capabilities of Brooklyn-based M. Ludvik Engineering, it is also incredibly safe. “We tested the pants off of absolutely everything,” Michael Ludvik, a structural engineer, told The Architect's Newspaper as he discussed the structural design for L.A.’s newest thrill-seeking-tourist attraction, the Skyslide at OUE Skyspace L.A.
OUE Skyspace is part of a Gensler-designed, $60 million overhaul of the public areas of the 1,018-foot-tall, Pei Cobb Freed & Partners–designed U.S. Bank Tower; the renovations include a new ground-level plaza and lobby and, on the 54th floor of the tower, a snaking labyrinth of “digital interactivity” spaces, with moody hallways, panoramic video displays, and movement-sensitive light installations.The real big-ticket item, however, is the OUE Skyspace $8-per-ride Skyslide, a 1¼-inch-thick glass-panel slide that exits the building’s envelope at the 70th floor, curves out over the city 1,000 feet below, and swoops back onto an outdoor terrace at the 69th floor, where the rider is unceremoniously dumped onto a red, padded mat. Ludvik explained, “The majority of the glass is tempered and laminated with a special structural interlayer called SentryGlas [made by Kuraray], which is the same product used for hurricane glazing in Miami-Dade County. We also have some glass with a complex bent geometry, where tempering was not possible, so we chemically strengthened the glass to be as strong as steel.” It is no wonder that the slide, located as it is in a seismically active region, atop a building designed to sway as many as 30 feet during an earthquake, was engineered with a complex array of articulated, “soft touch” connections, containing ball joints that allow the slide to move independently of the massive building, that can carry a purported 40,000 pounds of pressure per connection (that’s the weight of a New York City subway car). “It would be scary as hell, but the glass wouldn’t break,” Ludvik said of the unlucky experience of riding the slide during an earthquake. “There is a system of pins which allow the glass to pivot and to be undamaged by the building’s inelastic seismic movements, plus a 2.4 g-force seismic acceleration capacity, all with a large factor of safety. This thing is a machine as much as a structure.”
Since each sheet of glass requires a structural joint that not only creates a point of potential structural weakness but, for the slide user, also the opportunity for a bumpy ride, Ludvik and his team designed Skyslide using Nastran, a stress analysis software used by NASA, to include as few pieces of glass as possible. They also worked with a complex, multinational team of fabricators to complete different portions of the slide. Renowned, China-based industrial-glass manufacturer North Glass fabricated the straight run of the slide, while the Italian company Sunglass crafted the curved portions.
Also important to the design of the slide were maintenance and cleaning operations, concerns about which resulted in the installation of operable windows along the tower’s facade facing the inboard side of the slide, so a traditional window-washing rig can reach it. “I will let you know how it all works after they hang me off the side for the first maintenance inspection,” Ludvik said.
Structural Engineering Services M. Ludvik EngineeringStructural Glass North Glass Sunglass SentryGlas by Kuraray
With the ability to create up to three variable tint zones within a single pane, Lightzone controls sunlight to optimize daylight, maintain views, and prevent glare. It also provides a lot of design freedom for building envelopes because it is available in myriad geometric shapes, sizes, colors, and zoning patterns. It also reduces overall energy loads by up to 20 percent and peak energy demand by up to 26 percent.
Lamberts Glass Bendheim
The first channel glass to receive bird-smart certification, Lamberts glass has been scientifically proven to be visible to birds. Not only is bird strike jarring to occupants, but it is also estimated that up to a billion birds a year are killed in the U.S. alone due to collisions with glass buildings.
CrystalBlue Guardian Industries
CrystalBlue can be combined with many SunGuard low-E products to provide a range of energy performances along with high visible light transmission, now with a blue color. It is available coated and uncoated at 6 millimeter thickness in a variety of sizes.
As a pioneer for glass in oversize formats up to 10.5 by 49 feet, sedak’s new insulating glass line automates the production process completely, leading to high-quality fabrication that can easily be reproduced. Additionally, large scale translucent units can be printed fully covered with the roller coater technique or with a digital flat bed printer, allowing for complex, colorful designs.
Low-E Coated Acid-etched Glass Walker Glass and PPG
PPG’s Solarban low-E glass is paired with Walker’s collection of acid-etched finishes, including bird-safe AviProtek glass, to expand the range of aesthetic and performance options available for energy efficient, environmentally progressive glass.
SolarSmart Innovative Glass Corp
A heat-blocking, self-tinting smart glass that darkens in response to solar heat gain to keep interiors cool, lowering energy usage and costs. The hotter the glass gets, the darker the glass will tint—it is 100 percent solar activated, requiring no power, wires, or user involvement.