Posts tagged with "Florida":

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Now’s your chance to live in a Jimmy Buffett–themed retirement community

Attention, Parrotheads: The furnished model homes of the first Jimmy Buffett–inspired retirement community are nearing completion. The nearly $1 billion development, called Latitude Margaritaville in homage to the famous Buffett ballad, is located in sunny Daytona Beach, Florida. Sited west of the city center between I-95 and LGPA Boulevard, the community is marketed as the perfect retirement enclave for those who crave resort-style living, replete with on-site restaurants, live entertainment, and general tropical vibes. In total, the development promises to build 6,900 beach-bash bungalows for seniors who aren’t quite ready to retire from the raucous yacht rock life. For quieter residents, the on-site private beach club will be a place to “kick off your flip-flops, frolic in the surf and chill in the shade of the cool cabana.” Minto Communities and Jimmy Buffett’s Margaritaville Holdings are developing the project. Houses available are marketed in three categories: the Caribbean, Beach and Island collections, with prices ranging from $235,990 to $358,990. While the square-footage of the homes differ, the nine model homes all feature similar design traits like prominent driveways and garages, sunken entryways topped with Italianate towers, hipped roofs with exposed eaves, multiple gables, and drop-side wooden paneling. If the senior housing search in Daytona Beach proves too competitive, check out the Latitude Margaritaville in Hilton Head, South Carolina, which will encompass over 2,700 acres as well as a 72-acre, 290,000-square-foot “festive retail center.”
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Disney reveals renderings of gondola to connect Florida theme parks

The Walt Disney Company has revealed renderings of a gondola system that's slated to connect its Florida theme parks and resorts. With stations custom-designed around the theme of each property, the Disney Skyliner will connect Caribbean Beach, Art of Animation, and Pop Century resorts to the International Gateway at Epcot and Hollywood Studios. The Epcot station design, for example, will draw on the art nouveau style of the park's nearby pavilions, while the art deco–revival Hollywood Studios station will align with that park's main entrance and bus stations. According to the company, some cabin exteriors will be covered in Disney characters "to give the appearance that a Disney pal is riding along with guests." The project was announced back in July, although the construction timeline has not been announced yet. This is not the only gondola project sweeping onto the boards right now. New York– and Oslo-based Snøhetta is designing a cable car that will ferry riders to the top of Italy's Virgolo Mountain, while London's Marks Barfield Architects and New York's Davis Brody Bond are behind a Chicago gondola proposal that would show off the city's architectural heritage.
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2017 Best of Design Awards for Building of the Year – Southeast

2017 Best of Design Awards for Building of the Year – Southeast: Grove at Grand Bay Architect: Bjarke Ingels Group (BIG) Location: Coconut Grove, Florida Grove at Grand Bay, a pair of 20-story twisting glass towers located in Miami’s historic Coconut Grove neighborhood, marks BIG’s first condominium design completed in the United States. The 98-unit, sold-out development, which was also the first new residential project completed in Coconut Grove in over ten years, has helped lead the rejuvenation of the neighborhood—an area long known for its bohemian attitude and laid-back waterfront lifestyle. On first impression, the design appears to be a purely aesthetic move, conceived from the outside in; but in fact, the shapes of the Grove at Grand Bay towers were generated by inward necessities following an exhaustive study by the firm. The team searched for the ideal form that would allow maximum views for every unit in both buildings, gradually settling on two tornado-like towers to achieve the most effective orientation. “Developer-led housing can often be a bore, but the designers managed to breathe life into it. The client took a risk with the structural system, and the landscaping helps it meet the ground elegantly.”Matt Shaw, Senior Editor, The Architect's Newspaper (Juror)
Developer: Terra Landscape Architect: Raymond Jungles Executive Architect: Nichols Brosch Wurst Wolfe & Associates Structural Engineers: DeSimone Consulting Engineers LEED Building Consultant: The Spinnaker Group
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David Adjaye reveals ‘sweeping’ Winter Park Library design

Sir David Adjaye was on hand last night to publicly present Adjaye Associates’ conceptual design for the new 34,000-square-foot Winter Park Library and adjacent events center. Announced in May, the $30 million project will be built on the northwest corner of Martin Luther King Jr. Park, in the Orlando suburb of Winter Park. In front of a packed crowd of 300 residents and public officials, the firm detailed its approach to creating a space that blurs indoor and outdoor usage while still preserving views of the nearby lake. The library, long and rectangular with enormous arched windows running the length of the building, stands apart from the plaza without blocking sunlight from passing through. The two-story library will have a stage, spaces for children of all ages, and historical components. A shorter, square version of the main building, the events center is angled to the library and cuts a triangular public space between the two that still allows for visitors to see the waterfront at all times. Capable of holding up to 300 people, the events center will also host a dining area on its roof. “It feels like somebody has found the perfect position and placed a beautiful tent,” said Adjaye. By angling the windows and sides of each building upward, Adjaye said that he hopes the buildings will shade the deck area in the summer, while still allowing enough sunlight through in the winter to keep the plaza warm. That same shape, he continued, would allow visitors to walk around the outside of each building while staying dry in the rain. The audience was enthusiastic about the renderings overall, but some had still had their concerns. A parking deck that had been previously mentioned was absent at Wednesday’s presentation. Mayor Steve Leary answered that planners for the city were currently working on adding a 220 car parking lot nearby, including 70 more spots than the city’s required minimum for a project of this size. Describing Winter Park Library as a “community campus” composed of complimentary forms, Adjaye said that he hopes his design will honor Winter Park’s past, present and future while preserving its natural environment. Orlando-based HuntonBrady Architects will be serving as the executive architects on the project, and Winter Park City Commissioners will hold a vote on proceeding with the current design on November 13th.
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Rockin’ guitar-shaped Florida hotel celebrates construction milestone

Hoteliers and musicians smashed guitars in Hollywood, Florida to celebrate a construction milestone at the Seminole Hard Rock Hotel & Casino, a $1.5 billion entertainment complex featuring a mega guitar–shaped hotel. The 450-foot-tall hotel will boast more than 600 rooms, around half of the complex's total, plus a 41,000-square-foot spa and a few restaurants. At the tower's base, guests can swim underneath waterfalls in plunge pools, relax in private cabanas, and partake in water sports in a giant artificial lake. Right now, the existing Seminole Hard Rock Hollywood hotel has almost 500 rooms, as well as a casino, meeting space, restaurants, and a lagoon pool. Guitars are a popular motif all over the Hard Rock hotel and restaurant empire, but this is the first of the company's buildings to so closely resemble the actual instrument. Vertical fins up the tower's midline resemble strings, while horizontal banding act as 'frets' (though unlike real frets they extend outward to mimic the curve of the instrument). “It will be the first building in the world that’s truly to scale designed as an authentic guitar,” James 'Jim' Allen, Seminole gaming CEO and chairman of Hard Rock International, told the Sun Sentinal. “So it’s not just an exterior facade, the curving of the building will be identical to an authentic guitar." Though it might be the largest guitar building, it might not be the first. In 1996, architect Glenn Williams designed a Guitar House for himself in Venice, California that was inspired by Picasso's cubist rendering of the instrument. The Architect's Newspaper (AN) has reached out to Seminole Hard Rock Hollywood for more details on the building's design and construction, and will update readers as more information becomes available. Footage from the October 25 event showed workers atop the first few swishy floors. "To do this...to have a guitar shaped hotel—the only thing I'm a little concerned with is it's not a drum!" joked Nicko McBrain, a resident of nearby Ft. Lauderdale and a drummer in the British metal band Iron Maiden. The hotel opening is slated for summer 2019, but the complex's revamp goes way beyond its signature structure. In March, the 5,500-seat onsite theater will be demolished and replaced by Hard Rock Live, a 7,000-seat, $100 million venue. The casino will double in size, too, and the Seminole tribe is adding meeting space and 60,000 square feet of new retail and restaurants. The projects are timed to open before 2020, when NFL championship teams will face off at the Populous-designed (and HOK-renovated) Miami Dolphins stadium. It's a couple of states away, but this jammer should put rawkers in the mood for the hotel's opening:
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Meet Niido, Airbnb’s first apartment complex in Florida

In upcoming months, Airbnb will complete Niido Powered By Airbnb, the company's first independent apartment complex in Kissimmee, Florida. The project's developer is Newgard Development Group, a Miami-based firm run by Harvey Hernandez, who first approached Airbnb with the concept in 2015. Airbnb will not own the buildings, but serve as a "branded partner" to the project. Instead of ignoring the tension between the landlord who doesn't want home-sharing to occur and the tenant who wants to rent out their home for additional income, this program makes the landlord and tenant partners in the home-sharing process.  “The Niido model will provide additional income to landlords and tenants while enhancing the experience for Airbnb guests. Niido eliminates barriers by encouraging home sharing and creating solutions that work for everyone," said Hernandez in a prepared statement. Residents of the 324-unit Niido will have the option of renting out their apartments via Airbnb up to 180 days a year, providing an easy secondary source of income. Airbnb will take its standard three percent fee, while Newgard will take 25 percent and the remainder will go to the tenant. Amenities for the entire complex will be provided through Airbnb Experiences, the company's platform for providing local tours and learning experiences to tourists. Kissimmee, a small city on the outskirts of Orlando, is close to several large amusement parks, including Busch Gardens, Legoland, SeaWorld, and Walt Disney World. Seasonal workers would be among the tenants who might benefit from this program. According to JaJa Jackson, Airbnb's director of global multifamily housing partnerships, every aspect of the complex's design was thought through with the potential for sub-rentals in mind. Though renderings have not yet been released nor an architect named, some details are available to the public. Apartments will feature large common areas and flexible room identities, with offices and other spaces concealing Murphy beds, allowing units to readily accommodate more travelers. Residents will also be able to control the apartment's Wifi and maintenance through a custom Airbnb app. With so many visitors coming and going, an added security feature is a keyless entry system with temporary codes produced only for the duration of a guest's stay, while each room will contain a secure nook where residents can store personal possessions. In Florida and many other states, landlords and the hospitality industry have decried Airbnb for absorbing their profits and bringing unknown guests into shared buildings, among other concerns. To address some of these issues, Airbnb created the Friendly Building Program, which allows building owners to monitor and restrict apartment and home shares while also getting a cut of the service fee. Niido will essentially take this concept and privatize it, reallocating those funds to building management and programs. Hernandez and Airbnb are currently seeking to expand the rent-share apartment complex model to other Southeastern states, with a goal of 2,000 apartments over the next two years.
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Miami approves two new luxury towers, including one inspired by tulips

Miami is set to get a new set of gleaming mixed-use towers after the city’s Urban Development Review Board approved two plans last week. Behar Font & Partners designed the 73-story Sterling, a 956-foot cloudbuster crowned with arcing glass and steel like an upended ship’s prow. Contained in the glass arch on top is a private floor with amenities for residents only, including a palm tree-fringed pool overlooking the city that resembles a futuristic cruise vessel. The structure will house 362 new apartments for rent, 300 hotel rooms, as well as extensive office and retail space and a restaurant on the 68th floor. The project is located on the corner of North Miami Avenue and 6th Street. The developer behind the project, Turkey-based Okan Group, asked that the building’s shape be informed by their country’s national flower, the tulip. Behar Font delivered: from the side, the building's peak splits into three discrete petal-like forms connected by beams, everything painted dental white. Okan Group bought the property this past spring from a church at a price tag of $18.1 million dollars. At the meeting where the plan was approved, the Turkish consul general in Miami attended alongside the developers. It also marks Okan Group's first project in Florida. Allan Shulman designed the other (yet to be named) development, a 43-floor hotel with a curving facade of blue and green paneled glass, tapering at the top. At its base, the facade cuts away to reveal a white gridded rectangular structure with greenery hanging from its many balconies. The building will house office and retail space, with 270 hotel rooms to boot. Mandala Holdings is the local developer behind the project, and intend to build it near the Resorts World Miami site in the Arts and Entertainment District of downtown.
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Failed bat tower felled by Hurricane Irma is collectively mourned

The architecture left demolished by hurricanes is sometimes difficult to measure in scale and cost, but one structure recently toppled by Irma on Florida's Sugarloaf Key has prompted an entire community's collective mourning. The Bat Tower is well-known for many reasons, chief among them the fact that it contains exactly no bats. It was commissioned in 1969 by a developer named Richter Clyde Perky who was hoping to curtail the rampant local mosquito population by propagating bats (a natural predator) within an artificial roost. Measuring 30 feet tall, the Gothic-inspired, shingled pine and cypress structure was adapted from a set of plans by "city bacteriologist" Dr. Charles Campbell, who developed the roost's design after studying bats in west Texan caves. The interior featured roosting units in a honeycomb pattern, and bats could enter through a tall array of shutters on a dormer-like protrusion. Its construction cost $10,000 in total, which was quite a sum for the time and even today. https://twitter.com/abandonedfl/status/908507959784824832 Campbell's goal was to eradicate malaria by reducing the mosquito population, using bats as the liquidating agent. In contrast, Perky  just wanted to draw recreational fisherman to the Florida Keys, and mosquitos were bad for business. The Tower was meant to function as a natural insecticide offering some relief to the residents of the adjacent travel lodge he built—named, creatively, Sugarloaf Lodge. What followed the Tower's construction was a series of trials in which Perky unsuccessfully tried a number of tactics to lure bat populations to his Chiropteran hotel. To aid in this process, Dr. Campbell supplied Perky "bat bait," a foul compound of guano and the genitalia of female bats meant to draw hordes to the structure. Alas—no dice. The rest of the failed attempts at bat introduction are merely lore; what is sure is that the Tower never succeeded at its goal. Instead, it became a beloved artifact for locals, and was even added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1982. Its pinnacle was also reportedly home to ospreys for some time, a much fiercer predator feasting on fish from nearby waters. For preservationists, the Tower was an architectural rarity: Of the fourteen towers built worldwide from Dr. Campbell's designs, Sugarloaf's was one of just three still standing when Irma's winds razed it to the ground. Some of the others, fortunately, successfully hosted bats. https://twitter.com/CJ___/status/914575429050216449 Upon the Bat Tower's destruction, some locals and tourists have taken to toting away pieces of the tower as souvenirs, to the upset of Katchen Duncan, the tower's proprietor. It is not clear whether a reconstruction is possible or probable, but Duncan has hinted that it is being looked into. "Everyone has a special place in their heart for the bat tower," Duncan explained—and many have made their pilgrimage to the site to pay their respects to a beautiful failure.
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COOKFOX, Olson Kundig, Morris Adjmi, and KPF are among the firms reshaping Tampa’s Downtown

COOKFOX, Olson Kundig, Gensler, Kohn Pederson Fox Associates (KPF), and Morris Adjmi Architects, have all been named as some of the nine architects spearheading Water Street Tampa, the $3 billion project that will give the Florida city a skyline. Spread over nearly 50 acres, 18 buildings comprise the scheme which is being backed by Strategic Property Partners—a consortium between Jeff Vinik, who owns NHL’s Tampa Bay Lightning, and Bill Gates’s Cascade Investment. Though first announced in early July this year, more details, such as the architects involved, have been released. Four New York firms are in on the act. COOKFOX will be designing two buildings: an office and a residential block which will sit atop some retail. KPF has been commissioned for a series of apartments and condominiums which will reside above some retail and a grocery store. Morris Adjmi Architects has scooped arguably the largest commission: a 157-key five-star hotel, a range of luxury condos, more apartments, and retail. Gensler, meanwhile, will be behind two office over retail projects. Seattle firm Olson Kundig is also doing a similar project and Baker Barrios, from Orlando, are to design a central cooling facility. Greenery is coming via Tampa-based Alfonso Architects, who are fronting the redevelopment vision for the city's Channelside with a new public park, waterfront shops, and living units. Another Flordian firm, Nichols Brosch Wurst Wolfe & Associates from Coral Gables, are designing a 500-key hotel. Finally, New Haven, Connecticut practice Pickard Chilton are behind three projects that will office and residential over retail. When finished, Water Street Tampa will boast more than two million square feet of offices. In doing so, the scheme will bring the first new office towers Downtown Tampa has seen in almost 25 years. Located on the Garrison Channel and Hillsborough Bay, the project, according to a press release, intends to bridge the city's cultural landmarks, including the Tampa Convention Center, Amalie Arena (where the Tampa Bay Lightning play), Tampa Bay History Center, and Florida Aquarium. This will be achieved via an array of public parks and spaces that lead to the waterfront where the Tampa Riverwalk, and five-mile-long Bayshore path, can be found.
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Disney will recreate this historic Kansas City theater

It is not likely that anyone has first-hand memories of the Willis Wood Theatre. Designed by noted Kansas City architect Louis Curtiss, and built in 1902, the impressive Beaux Arts theater burned to the ground in 1917. One hundred years later, as part of a major announcement at the D23 Expo 2017, Walt Disney Parks and Resorts announced it will be building a replica of the long-gone theater at near Main Street U.S.A. at the Magic Kingdom. The choice of a theater that no one has seen in a century is not random. Kansas City was the boyhood home of Walt Disney. Disney moved to Kansas City at the age of nine from Marceline, Missouri. While the small town of Marceline is the basis for the Main Street U.S.A. area at Magic Kingdom, there are also many references to Kansas City in the middle America–themed amusement park. In particular, signs from Kansas City's Laugh-O-Gram Studio, the studio in which Walt Disney invented Mickey Mouse, can be found throughout. While it is not known whether Disney ever attended shows at the Willis Wood Theatre, historians think it is likely. It is known that 33rd President Harry S. Truman frequented the theater to see Shakespeare plays performed. Built by Colonel Willis Wood, a successful dry goods merchant, the theater hosted live performances until being converted into a movie theater. Today the site of the block-and-half-long theater is home to the Mark Twain tower, a historic landmark in its own right. With no chance of the theater every being rebuilt in its original location, it would seem central Florida will be the place for those looking for turn-of-the-century Kansas City. The real question is whether the new theater's interior will match the reds, greens, blues, and gold that reportedly adorned the original, and whether the large nude caryatids will once again fill the main theater space.
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Here’s the $3 billion project that will give Tampa a skyline

Correction 7/7/17: The article initially stated that Water Street Tampa was spread out over roughly one square mile. It is on nearly 50 acres. A $3 billion project will add Tampa’s first new office towers in almost 25 years and is set to reshape the city’s downtown. The nine-million-square-foot development will take just under a decade to build. Spread over almost 50 acres on the edge of the Garrison Channel and Hillsborough Bay, one of Water Street Tampa's focal points is a new college and medical center via the University of South Florida. But the Morsani College of Medicine and Heart Institute is only part of the package: The development will include 3,500 condominiums and apartments, two hotels with 650 rooms in total, and one million square feet of mixed-use retail threaded between 13 acres of public space. According to a press release, the project will break ground this fall, with the college's ribbon cutting set for a not-too-distant 2019. That building will be the first of the development's 18 buildings to open. So who's behind the project? The developer is Strategic Property Partners, an alliance between Jeff Vinik, the owner of the NHL's Tampa Bay Lightning, and Bill Gates's Cascade Investment. In addition to this mega-project, and sibling projects in the Sunshine State, Construction Dive notes that there's a substantial number of new development in Downtown Tampa. The latest is Lafayette Place, a tri-tower complex near the University of Tampa, that will feature a hotel, apartments, office space, plus restaurants and entertainment programming over 1.8 million square feet. Water Street Tampa is seeking a special wellness certification through the International Well Building Institute (IWBI). Like the WELL building certification, its close cousin, the WELL Community Standard applies to new developments that encourage healthful behaviors, like walking, while mitigating environmental hazards like noise and air pollution that detract from quality of life. It's a relatively new framework, but given how quickly wellness has spread from the crunchy margins to the mainstream, the designation is catching on: In March, Gensler and construction services company Structure Tone scored the country's first WELL office certification for a New York City building. At Water Street Tampa, all buildings will be cooled by a central facility, eliminating the need for cooling towers atop each individual structure. Instead, the developer promises green roofs with views over the water and downtown.
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Can Tampa undo its Post-War planning mistakes while embracing its environment? This competition explored how.

The Architect’s Newspaper (AN) has partnered with urbanNext—a multidisciplinary platform for design promoted by Actar Publishers—to share articles on common topics every two weeks. This week, we’re pairing the urbanNext article below with AN’sHow is the New Jersey Meadowlands planning for climate change?” The article below was authored by Shannon Bassett, an architectural and urban designer.
The (Re) Stitch Tampa project was initially conceptualized during 2010 around the advent of the announcement of what was to be the first high-speed rail line in the U.S. The Obama Administration had just announced as part of its “New” New Deal program that the region was to receive $1.2 billion in federal monies earmarked for the construction of a high-speed rail line along the Tampa-Orlando corridor. The program was reminiscent of Franklin D. Roosevelt’s WPA program, during the great Depression, where the federal government funded large-scale public infrastructural projects with the intent of jump-starting the economy. In Florida, such projects included the Rural Electrification Program of rural farms, running wire to over 54,000 farms, and the development of much of the Florida State Park System. [1] Plan Tampa, a post-war coastal American city, was reeling from the worst recession since the great Depression. Arguably, it was also located in one of the regions the greatest impacted in the country by the 2008 economic bust and mortgage crisis. The region had developed around car privileging infrastructures and an economy predicated principally on real estate and its speculative practices. The real-estate bubble had burst hard here, where real-estate speculation and flipping were part of the main sources of the economy. It was not uncommon, beginning in 2007 and continuing onwards, to see hand-crafted signs dotting the on and off ramps of Tampa’s highway infrastructures and byways of the city advertising short-sale, foreclosed houses, or offering flat-out cash for houses. “We buy up houses-$50,000.00 each and 3 for…” [2] By 2011, however, this “New” New Deal in the form of high-speed rail infrastructure had been squashed, and the $1.2 billion of federal monies returned to the federal government. The stymying of the project had been largely due to the prevailing anti-smart and, arguably, anti-urban politics which did not support the funding of public transportation. This was even despite the efforts of mayors in the six cities who would be positively impacted by the high-speed rail system, who self-organized at a local-regional level to accept the federal monies, although in the end they were not able to do so. The aggregated land for the high-speed rail station in Tampa was also left vacant, left to return back to nature. Therein existed other such aggregated plots of land or “land-banking” which had occurred at the height of the real-estate boom, such as on the north end of the Riverwalk, the northern anchor of the competition project site, where the developer had acquired and aggregated land and had then, subsequently, gone bankrupt. The Trolley Barn-Armature Works lay in decay, as a relic of the post-industrial landscape, and the former affluent trolley-car suburb and trolley system which was one of the most successful in the U.S. before it was ripped-up and replaced by the roads of the predominant automobile culture. This aggregated lot lay in urban decay; the ecology and the biodiversity returning back to it and recovering the site’s natural landscape. This urban aggregate added to the 50% of surface parking, as well as to the additional vacancies in the downtown core. The focus of the competition brief shifted, at this moment, to a critical re-thinking of the ebbs and flows of circulation and movement throughout the city, and how these might contribute to a more sustainable development and ecological practices. The competition brief posed the question, how might the re-calibrating of infrastructure serve as an opportunity to re-choreograph the flows and the movements of people and habitat to and from its natural lifeline running through the city, and how might it bring the River into the city? Paradoxically, the recession and the mortgage crisis with its foreclosures, vacancies, and halted development, had actually provided an opportunity to take stock, as well as to critically reassess a legacy during the 20th century of largely unsustainable building and development practices and seemingly unlimited growth, much of which was eating up valuable wetlands and ecologically sensitive lands. Unsustainable land development practices had been catalyzed by the rationalization of the pumping system. Dredging, as well as the canalization of swamplands pushed by real-estate speculation and tourism, had largely trashed the natural environment and its ecologies. Further, the invention of air conditioning had perpetuated the development of housing typologies divorced from their natural systems and local ecologies, dissimilar to Florida’s earlier vernacular housing typologies, such as the Florida Dogtrot. The Dogtrot’s design was more integrated with passive design strategies, such as breezeways as well as the natural Florida landscape. The competition also prompted a re-thinking of the current oppositional relationship of the city to its water, as well as the potential to re-stitch, re-cover and re-claim the landscape of the Post-War Coastal American City through Ecologies. Tampa—the Beginnings of the Post-War Coastal American City Unlike their counterparts to the North, the Sunbelt coastal cities of the south, including Tampa, did not experience the same overarching opposition to the top-down urban renewal planning practices of the 1950s, largely inspired by the Modernist City. During the 1960s, freeway revolts occurred in many American cities, opposing the byproducts of the 1958 Federal Highway Act, which included cutting highway infrastructure through swathes of the city in order to expedite commuters out to the suburbs. The post-war suburbs had been federally subsidized in the form of inexpensive mortgages to returning war vets from World War Two. Jane Jacobs, author of the seminal text, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, successfully organized her community to oppose and subsequently defeat Robert Moses’ attempt to bulldoze part of the West Village in New York City with a cross-town expressway infrastructure. Further, grassroots community opposition to urban renewal projects and the bulldozing of Boston’s historic West End and Scollay Square, as well as New York City’s Penn Station, lay the groundwork for the bottom-up preservation movement of cities and their historic fabric beginning in the 1950s. It also ushered in the establishment of the National Park Service in the U.S. Tampa’s period of urban renewal happened later, in the 1960s and 70s. Unlike their northern counterparts, many of the community leaders in the districts designated for urban renewal actually embraced it, as opposed to attempting to fight it, such as in Tampa’s Ybor City. As Tampa historian Emanuel Leto writes, “these projects were also motivated, in part, by racial divisions within urban communities, and the desire for segregation in districts and enclaves of the city.”[3] The erasure of one such community known as “the Scrub,” was one of the three major urban renewal projects carried out by Tampa in the 1960s as part of the Federal Urban Renewal program. Its name came from its natural landscape, referring to the territory outside of the protected Fort Brooke boundary which was settled by white settlers, and referred to the small brush-like vegetation of scrub and Florida brush. The area was settled by freed African-American slaves and the neighborhood had a vibrant music scene, including Ray Charles and Ella Fitzgerald. The inhabitants were relocated to public housing and the city became largely zoned as single use as part of the CBD (Central Business District), with highway infrastructure cutting through the urban fabric, carrying people out to the suburbs in the wetlands and the reclaimed swamplands, which lay beyond a middle landscape of trolley suburbs, largely vacated. Tampa as the Ecological City Prior to the period of urban renewal which radically transformed the urban space and fabric of Tampa, the settlement of the area had a much more intrinsic relationship to the landscape and its natural ecologies, living more symbiotically with the Tampa Bay natural estuary. Historical natural atlases and guides of Tampa from the turn of the 20th century boasted in their descriptions of Tampa’s natural landscape, as well as its estuary. “People came from miles around to eat the fish and oysters out of the Tampa Bay.” Such sites as Sulphur Springs, located further north up the Hillsborough River were, in fact, natural springs where people came from afar for their natural healing powers. Other sites of intrigue included an alligator farm adjacent to the natural spring. The site became contaminated and trashed in the middle part of the 20th century, however, although ecological remediation and recovery is currently being undertaken in the area by the City. Competition Brief The competition brief is premised on a critique of the failings of the post-war American City, the prevailing traces and conditions of which can be seen in Tampa. The brief also calls for resilient design strategies, which address its coastal location, as well as the re-articulation of its land-water edge between the city and the water. It proposes possible design strategies, which might begin to de-construct, de-engineer, as well as to de-laminate the previous infrastructures that are part of the legacy of these predominantly short-sited planning strategies. The competition framed a re-thinking and re-programming, as well as the re-articulation and re-consideration of the possible occupation of infrastructures operating at a large-scale. (Re)stitch Tampa serves as a research platform. The publication serves as a useful toolkit and handbook for disseminating design strategies which both design for resiliency, as well as addressing the conditions which are resultant from the failings of the policies around the post-war American city, and their unintended consequences. Designers are trained to be strategic, innovative and tactical in design, as well as having the ability to synthesize multi-scalar systems, and to conceptualize multiple scenarios for different conditions. The brief also encouraged designers to work across a spectrum of design scales, while addressing issues of recovering a landscape. Arguably, the state of Florida and its coastal cities will be some of those the worst impacted in the U.S. by sea level rise and climate change. Whereas human settlement and inhabitation in these locations initially co-existed in a much more symbiotic relationship with their natural landscapes and ecologies, the natural geography of this territory writ-large has been significantly impacted and altered by a manufactured landscape. Design strategies can also build on new modes of design representation, employing mapping as a process of design research. The competition brief challenged designers to develop schemes addressing the perceived failings of the post-war American city, offering solutions for the vacancies from previous failed urban renewal programs, and the ensuing urban decay and flight from the city. Perhaps, most importantly, it is the ability of design to act in a milieu not possessing the political will or agency to address the pressing issues of sea-level rise and climate change in coastal cities. The schemes should offer design strategies, which lie in more symbiotic relationships between city and nature, including the Hillsborough River and the Tampa Bay and its estuary. It should be noted, however, that recent trends currently show, in fact, the population to be actually increasing as migration flows of the Baby Boomer retirement generation move to Sunbelt coastal cities seeking warmer climates and cheaper housing prices than those available in the North.
The Competition The competition had both national, as well as international participation, bringing forth the best practices for designing for resiliency in coastal cities from all over the world. The invited jurors, prominent theorists as well as practitioners in urban design and landscape urbanism—Margaret Crawford, Juhani Pallasmaa, Chad Oppenheim, Chris Reed and Charles Waldheim—discussed the opportunities for the envisioning, as well as the re-thinking of these urban landscapes. Juror Charles Waldheim lectured broadly about the agency that the Design Ideas Competition possesses, and the pivotal role that it continues to play in redefining urban design and theory, citing such seminal examples as the competition for the Parc de la Villette in Paris’s nineteenth arrondissement, a former slaughterhouse. Both Bernard Tschumi’s project, as well as the OMA scheme for Parc de la Villette, reconsidered the re-programming of the urban condition through the programming of the landscape of a thickened surface, as well as the juxtaposition of programmatic bands with indeterminate and flexible programs. As Waldheim discussed, more recent design competitions, such as that of the Downsview Park competition, an international competition for an urban park design for a former military base in Toronto, Canada, have focused on the integration of ecologies and habitat into design schemes. So did the naturalization of the Mouth of the Don competition, also located in Toronto. Here, the previous infrastructure of the Don River was softened and re-naturalized at its mouth where it empties out into Lake Ontario, thus creating an urban estuary, as well as catalyzing a re-thinking of the co-existing natural habitat with landscape systems. The Competition Schemes Many of the competition schemes featured here investigate resiliency as a design strategy. The winning schemes distinguished themselves by addressing the issues of the competition framework, including landscape recovery, in addition to the contemporary urban issues in the post-war Coastal American city such as designing with vacancies. This also included the de-engineering of infrastructures from the failed paradigms of post-war city planning policies, at the same time as layering resiliencies and ecologies into strategic planning and frameworks. The competition entries, which are featured here, are analyzed and considered for their contribution to new and more flexible frameworks of urban design and planning design for the Post-War Coastal American city through Ecologies. The winning schemes for (Re)stitch Tampa distinguish themselves by challenging existing planning norms through ecological urbanism. Schemes also examine alternative methods of representation and process in urban design. The featured schemes address the city through the three mutually reinforcing lenses, which framed the competition, those of ecology, infrastructure and connectivity. Landscape infrastructure becomes the underlying structure and connective tissue of the urban system. The schemes also critique the single-use zoning, of the modernist, post-war city. Winning Schemes 1. Flowscape—A Vision for a New Urban Estuary proposes the de-engineering and re-programming of the previous regimes of historic infrastructures, resulting from poor-sighted urban policy decisions. Its underlying concepts propose the re-calibration of the historically oppositional relationships between land and water, in addition to critiquing the previous regimes of decades-old infrastructural projects and their resulting fragmentation of cities. It also proposes the reclaiming, as well as the re-assigning of new and layered programs between the interface of the city and the water. The scheme introduces an urban bayou along the underside of the Crosstown Expressway along its right of way. It affords a large-scale re-stitch in a swapping out of parking on the land for an ecological system. Thus, the bayou is connected to the Tampa Bay natural estuary, the city, and the Shipping Channel. Here, design strategies engage ecological processes in their frameworks. This scheme creates urban marshlands that integrate liquid programs into the city, as well as integrating both urban, and ecological relationships within the city. This scheme re-organizes and aggregates the surface, re-stitching the forgotten layers of the city, creating a layering of programs, as well as new flows and movements. Soft-infrastructure can accommodate flooding.
The strategies used here address the disinvestment of the public realm, as well as integrating flood protection onto the city grid and its systems.
2. Stitches and Fabrics, another winning scheme featured here, offers a proposal for not only a singular scheme, yet for a number of possible different scenarios, which are flexible, operating within the framework of the post-war coastal American city. Schemes plan for a shifting landscape, through both flexible, as well as indeterminate programs, where design has the agency to address uncertainties. The proposal identifies points for individual stitching to occur. These stitches, when aggregated or combined, have the agency to become activated as part of a larger, scalar proposal. In their overall totality, they have the agency to activate new programs within the city. Strategies include those of infill, as well as the introduction of tidal zones and aquatic typologies within the city grid. The scheme reclaims infrastructure for other uses, introducing layered programs within these substrates. 3. (re) stitch Resilience is an elegant design strategy which pays homage to the intrinsic relationship and symbiotic siting of the initial human settlement in the region with respect to its fragile eco-systems and their natural resources. The design’s overarching intent is to make the city more resilient to sea level rise, in addition to creating a public water space in the River which registers the changing water levels. An archipelago design strategy addresses the current vacancies in the urban fabric, which are aggregated through the recovering and reclaiming of the landscape. A floating public square acts both as a public space and as a scaffolding for layered programs and ecological services. It also acts as storage for storm water and purification systems. PARK in lots re-introduce layered programs, which engage both the water, as well as the integration of urban and ecological systems and the transformation of infrastructures. It creates different matrices of green infrastructure, in addition to re-naturalizing the post-war coastal city.
Conclusions (Re) Stitch Tampa, as a research platform, fundamentally questions the prevailing frameworks and methods of traditional urban design practices. It also challenges traditional city planning strategies, which design cities through a weightier approach of buildings, which also employ single-use zoning. The schemes featured here and resulting from the competition, reintroduce the River as the new spine and lifeline of the city while creating new and layered programs along it. This resonates with design strategies of flexibility and open-endedness for programming. It also integrates performative design aspects through a re-working of the river’s infrastructure. It begins with a new spine for the city, as well as the re-introduction of new ecologies which reconnect the city to the water. The projects emerging from the (Re) Stitch Tampa project have the potential to have a life beyond the competition itself. They offer a tool-kit of possible design strategies for architects, planners, and city planning agencies, as well as the constituents, stakeholders, and developers vis-à-vis public place-making in the post-war coastal American city. This publication should be used as both a toolkit, as well as a handbook which affords an alternative insight for both designing, as well as recovering cities and their landscapes. These include tactical strategies, designing for resiliency, flexibilities, which engage multiple readings and possibilities. As initiated by the competition brief, connective urban landscapes and ecological infrastructure have the agency to function as the underlying framework. The featured schemes here robustly address the competition charge, designing frameworks with ecologies, as opposed to a singular proposal. Within this framework, these strategies can act as catalysts for the economic redevelopment of the city, in addition to calibrating the reconnection of the city to its nature, while ameliorating its current fragmentation. Other notable coastal cities in Florida, such as Port Charlotte, south of Tampa, have adopted more progressive design strategies for their land-water edges, which might also serve as useful precedents. After Hurricane Charley in 2004 severely impacted Port Charlotte, the city engaged a strategy of acquiring land through rolling coastal easements, land banking and compensating those property owners with the properties impacted. The vacated land became part of a public trust for the city of parklands and areas for coastal replenishment and building for resiliency. As a strategy, the design is more flexible and that allows the city to replenish their valuable wetlands, which can mitigate storm surge. In a milieu where there does not exist the robust political will to address these increasingly critical issues facing Florida’s coastal cities, as well as other coastal cities within North America and the world, it is the charge of designers, trained in stewardship, who must be tactical in their design gestures and strategies, with an overarching agenda for the greater public realm. Epilogue-DIY (Do it Yourself) (re) stitch Tampa There were a number of significant public space projects which were actually implemented shortly after the (Re) Stitch Tampa awards ceremony on April 12, 2012. The city received a significant TIGER (Transportation Investment Generating Economic Recovery) federal grant, which in part was used to finish the remaining segment of the Tampa Riverwalk, which has recently just opened. Additionally, a green pedestrian right of way is being implemented along the right of way under the Crosstown Expressway. The abandoned Waterworks Park industrial building on the northern anchor parcel of the Riverwalk was adaptively reused as a restaurant, and the natural spring there as well as a city park. Ulele Spring was recovered and connected to the River, in addition to undergoing a significant shore-softening strategy and habitat restoration. Its warmer water temperatures serve as a destination for the manatee, which swim up the Hillsborough River from the Tampa Bay Estuary into the downtown core. Perhaps most inspiring is The Tampa Green Artery project, a grassroots, bottom-up organization with a mission to complete a 22-mile planned, perimeter trail throughout Tampa. Through the aggregation of vacancies and other opportunities, this dedicated group continues to connect the neighborhoods of Tampa and various public spaces with off-water and close to water trails. This is an excerpt from (Re)Stitch Tampa. Riverfront-Designing the Post-War Coastal American City with Ecologies, 2017. For further information, visit [re]stitchtampa.org.

This article originally appeared as Tampa as the Ecological City. Living with and Inhabiting the Estuary and the Swamp in urbanNext. You can find additional Honorable Mentions and Selected Proposals there. [1] Gary R. Mormino, “WPA in Florida”, FORUM (The Magazine of the Florida Humanities Council), Issue 25-Nov./Dec. 2005. [2] Empirical observation of the author. [3] “Manuel Leto, Cigar City Magazine.