After a whirlwind round of conferences and forums this year—from New York, to Chicago to Miami—The Architect’s Newspaper and Enclos made the last stop of the year in Seattle for Facades+ AM. Over 150 attended our December 4th event at the Motif Seattle hotel. Nine speakers brought in diverse perspectives and engaging ideas, with room for productive Q & A. Here's a recap in case you missed it. After opening remarks by co-chairs Carsten Stinn, designer at Perkins+Will, and Mic Patterson, Enclos' VP of strategic development, the first session united three presenters under the theme of complex digital facade collaborations. Speakers included Jeffrey Vaglio, director of Enclos' Advanced Technology Studio, and Joshua Zabel, vice president of business development at Kreysler & Associates. David Sandinsky, senior associate at NBBJ co-presented with Marne Zahner, design engineer at Magnusson Klemencic Associates. They talked about the Amazon domes—more specifically, the conjoined Catalan spheres and their structural steel modules. Session two focused on models, methods, and materials for optimizing facade performance. Energy strategist and consultant Sangeetha Divakar at Perkins+Will presented workplan models for integrating engineers' and architects' work in energy and envelope modeling. Stéphane Hoffman, building specialist at Morrison Hershfield, discussed parametric visualization tools for mapping building energy performance and why architects and engineers should track thermal bridging. Richard Green, Principal at Front, Inc talked about custom fabrication and digital manufacturing. In the final session, Devin Kleiner, Perkins+Will architect, Peter Alspach, principal of environmental and building physics at Arup, and Daniel Brindisi, associate at ZGF Architects, spoke to the real-world effects of facade technology. Kleiner discussed post occupancy lighting evaluations, Alspach presented data on the cost benefits of the carbon life cycle, and Brindisi talked about his firms efforts to maximize daylighting. In the L.A. area or planning a trip to Southern California at the end of January? Catch the latest building envelope developments at the Facades+ Symposium and Workshops in Los Angeles, January 28th and 29th.
Posts tagged with "Enclos":
Wave-like composite facade animates SFMOMA expansion.While visually interesting, the primary facade of the SFMOMA expansion (Snøhetta with associate architect EHDD) was not originally designed to pioneer a new material system. All that changed when William Kreysler visited the architect's New York office. "I went there to meet them about the interior," recalled Kreysler, whose firm—composite specialists Kreysler & Associates—had been called in to advise on the project's vaulted ceilings. "I asked about the exterior, how that was going to get done. They didn't know." Over the coming months, Kreysler & Associates transitioned from interior consultant to envelope fabricator as the facade itself was transformed from a ductal concrete fantasy to a fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) reality. Along the way, thanks to a patent-pending process developed by Kreysler & Associates, the design and fabrication team positioned itself on the cutting edge of high performance building enclosures with the first major use of FRP cladding on a multi-story facade in North America. When a client's representative called to ask if his firm—at that point poised to collaborate with an outside glass fiber reinforced concrete (GFRC) contractor on mold-making—would consider taking on fabrication themselves, Kreysler's reaction was mixed. "I said, 'Yes, I don't see anything particularly complicated about it in terms of fabrication,'" he recalled. "The problem was the fire codes. No one in the [FRP] business had attempted to pass the fire code requirements." Kreysler & Associates had been keeping abreast of the regulatory situation, and had been involved in inserting a new section for FRP into the International Building Code[s]. But the fire code test itself, NFPA 285, is expensive. After further conversation, the client committed to partially fund the test. "We got to the point where I said, 'Okay, I'm willing to put some money at risk here,'" said Kreysler. "We went ahead and did it." Kreysler & Associates' system, which they call Fireshield 285, passed the test, likely becoming the first FRP cladding panel to do so. Having thus paved the way for a more widespread application of the lightweight material to building exteriors, the fabricator's next step was to bid to three facade companies. Of the firms to which they introduced their design, Enclos was the most engaged. By the end of the first meeting, Kreysler & Associates and Enclos had brainstormed ideas to eliminate the secondary structural frame intended to go in front of the weatherproof wall specified in the original design. Soon the group introduced an additional innovation. Enclos is known for its expertise in unitized panel systems rather than conventional walls, explained Kreysler. "We said, 'Maybe we could make our material so lightweight, we could just fasten our material onto the front of the unitized wall panel.'" Kreysler is quick to give credit to Enclos "for seeing the potential and sharing their expertise in building facades so we could work collaboratively to take full advantage of both systems' strengths." With a combined composite-unitized wall panel assembly, one team of contractors could erect the entire rain screen in a single shot. "It would save one million pounds of structural steel, plus the time of going around the building three times," said Kreysler. Not surprisingly, "the contractor liked it, and the owner liked it," he recalled. Only one obstacle remained. "Unitized wall systems are designed to go in straight lines, or if curved, are curved in a radius," said Kreysler. "But if you look at the facade of SFMOMA, it's all over the place." The Kreysler & Associates-Enclos team quickly developed a solution: Kreysler & Associates would fabricate their panels with edges of different depths to bridge the gap between the facade's surface and the flat unitized panel wall. "We were able to create a curved front even though the the wall behind was a nice straight line," explained Kreysler. "From the front of the building you don't see any of the edges—you see this flowing curved line. That was a big breakthrough, and as a result, Enclos really got behind our system." The client was suitably impressed, and Kreysler & Associates won the contract against bids involving GFRC systems. "Even if our price turned out to be higher, the benefits of only going around the building one time, and the benefits of a system considered to be a higher-quality weatherproof wall" won out, said Kreysler. Though the expansion is not expected to open until 2016, Kreysler & Associates' work on the project is finished. The installation went "beautifully," said Kreysler. The 710 unique FRP panels were mechanically fastened and bonded to the unitized wall using a custom aluminum extrusion. The Enclos representatives had been nervous, he recalled. However, "the project manager told me that in the years he's being doing this, it was the most complicated project he's ever done, but in the end this was the most straightforward part of the project." As for Kreysler himself, he has no regrets—quite the opposite. "It was tricky, but it was fun and interesting," he said. "And it was nice to know that we were breaking new ground."
For Enclos' Alex Barmas, true innovation in facade design and fabrication is about more than the latest technological bells and whistles. Rather, it is about exercising creativity despite the restrictions posed by tight budgets, compressed timelines, and aggressive real estate markets. At Facades+ NYC later this month, Barmas will moderate a conversation on implementing innovation with AEC industry leaders including Cutler Anderson Architects' Jim Cutler, Arup's Tali Mejicovsky, Michael Stein, of Schlaich Bergermann & Partner, and Richard Meier & Partners' Vivian Lee. "My intention is to get the panelists talking about the possibilities of producing truly fantastic architecture while constrained by very real-world budgets and schedules," said Barmas. "They have all worked on projects where an intelligent and responsive approach to design, and an intelligence about materials and tectonics have allowed them to deliver great projects under tight constraints. The panel will focus on the commitment and perseverance required to execute and deliver such projects." New York is a hotbed of facade innovation exactly because of the particular constraints at play there, said Barmas. In much of the United States, he explained, the litigious nature of the building design and construction market tends to discourage integrated project deliver. But "the New York market is actually a counterbalance to this. Due to the complexity of building projects, compressed construction schedules, and the need for coordination throughout the design and construction process, projects must take on a more holistic design mentality." At the same time, said Barmas, the drive to build taller and faster for the top of the market "has meant that there are some very interesting building envelopes either recently built, or under construction." As a case in point, he cited BIG's 625 West 57th Street (W57), calling it "a fantastic example of a really interesting curtain wall." All of this is not to say that new technology is not compelling—especially when made a part of built projects. "I'm very excited about the continuing integration of sensors, actuators, and other electrical components with the building envelope to create active and responsive facades," said Barmas. "This seems to be turning into a virtuous cycle where integrated systems are becoming more robust, system integration is improving, and all the parties to a building project are becoming more comfortable implementing these systems. System intelligence and integration enable us to achieve better performance with traditional building envelope components." To hear more from Barmas and panelists on bringing facades innovations to fruition, register today for Facades+ NYC. More information, including a complete symposium agenda, is available online.
In recent years, architects and fabricators in the field of facade design and construction have formed new collaborative relationships through the design assist model of contracting. Under design assist, the fabricator contributes their know-how throughout the design process, not just during building. A couple of factors have encouraged the shift to design assist. On the one hand, "the recent increase of building skin complexity has been a driver of this new way of working," explained Enclos’ Luke Smith. "But I think budget and schedule demands have also played an important role." Next week, Smith will moderate a panel on design assist contracting, "Delivering Complexity," at Facades+ LA. With panelists Bill Kreysler (Kreysler), Paul Martin (Zahner), and Kerenza Harris (Morphosis), Smith will explore several case studies of architect-fabricator collaborations, and will examine the benefits and challenges of these new alliances. (Smith is also leading a dialog workshop, "Material Explorations: The Resurgence of Wood," on the second day of the workshop.) Because design assist encourages early and frequent communication between architect and fabricator, said Smith "all of the involved parties feel invested in the project." Collaboration also improves the likelihood that a design is actually built. "Working together toward a buildable solution can often mean the difference between whether a project moves ahead or not," said Smith. "At Enclos we’re seeing that the discrepancy between design intent and budgetary restrictions can be minimized through early involvement on a project." As for the criticism that design assist removes control from the architect, he argued, "given the intricate knowledge required, the facade is no longer simply a byproduct of design, but is a specialty of its own." Smith and the rest of the panel will focus on two examples the group knows well: Morphosis' Emerson College Los Angeles Center (with Zahner), and Snøhetta's San Francisco Museum of Modern Art. The museum expansion, said Smith, "has been a great opportunity for Enclos, partnering with Kreysler, to explore solutions with Snøhetta from a very early stage of facade conception." Regarding the future of design assist, "increased communication between the two 'sides' of architecture and construction will only benefit everyone in the long run," said Smith. "Whether we need to collaborate on all projects is another question. Where we really see the process take center stage is when a new challenge arises." To hear more about design assist from some of the AEC industry's top experts in building envelope design and construction, register today for Facades+ LA. More information, including a complete symposium agenda and lineup of tech and dialog workshops, is available online.
When the new Fulton Center opened this weekend—after seven years of delays and cost overruns that lifted the project’s price tag from $750 million to $1.4 billion—New York City got two things: a modern upgrade to its transportation network and an iconic piece of architecture. With new well-lit concourses, pedestrian tunnels, escalators and elevators, and more intuitive transfer points between nine subway lines, Fulton Center will drastically improve the transit experience for the 300,000 people who pass through it every day. But even with these significant improvements, all anyone is talking about is the center's eye-catching glass oculus and its hyperboloid Sky Reflector-Net installation. Step inside the station, and you'll understand why. The 53-foot-diameter structure was commissioned by the MTA Arts & Design program and created by James Carpenter Associates with Grimshaw Architects, Enclos, TriPyramid Structures, and ARUP. It is comprised of 952 aluminum panels, 224 high-strength rods, 112 tension cables, and 10,000 stainless-steel components that work in tandem to fill the station with natural light. The full effect of the design can only be experienced from within the station—standing across the street from Fulton Center, which appears as a steel and glass headhouse, the oculus and Sky Reflector-Net could be mistaken for a massive vent. The upper floors of the rotunda, which are set directly underneath the oculus, will soon be ringed by shops and restaurants. The 66,000 square feet of commercial space is connected to the station through a prominent glass elevator that is wrapped in a spiral staircase. But as dramatic as all of these large gestures are, the center is completed with the MTA's standard-issue, black and gray finishes. The handrails, doors, flooring, and even garbage cans are what you would find at any other station. The station's subdued color scheme, though, is broken up slightly with the light blue glass tiles that clad the station’s below-grade corridors. In these subterranean spaces, the choice of tile, and the decision to set overheard fluorescent bulbs at an angle, shows the impact that designers can have when deviating—however slightly—from the norm. Spread throughout the new Fulton Center are over 50 digital screens that make up the MTA’s “largest state-of-the-art digital signage media program.” When AN visited the Fulton Center, some of those screens were quickly switching between video art and ads for Burberry. And then back again. The completion of the Fulton Center also comes with the $59 million renovation of the adjacent, 125-year-old Corbin Building. The refurbished space, which boasts a stately exterior, is incorporated into the circulation of the center. Exiting through the Corbin Building–side exit, you can see the wings of the nearly $4 billion, Calatrava-designed World Trade Center Transit Hub. When that station opens next year, it will connect to the Fulton Center, and quite likely overshadow it. The bulk of the funding for this project ($847 million) came from a Congressional appropriation which was aimed at rebuilding transit networks in Lower Manhattan after September 11. An additional $423 million came from President Obama's stimulus act. The MTA also provided $130 million in funds.
As AEC professionals who have practiced in different cities know, each place has its own unique architectural culture. That is one of the lessons Mic Patterson, VP of Strategic Development at Enclos, has learned during his years of involvement with the Facades+ conference series. “Instead of holding one annual conference, we’ve been doing three a year in different cities,” said Patterson. “My observation is that each of those has been different.” The newest event in the Facades+ stable, Facades+ AM, was inspired in part by a desire to bring the conversation about high performance facade design to more locales. The inaugural Facades+ AM four-hour program takes place next week in Seattle. “Everywhere makes sense to talk about building envelopes,” said Kerry Hegedus, architect at NBBJ and seminar chair of Facades+ AM Seattle. At the same time, he added, “in Seattle, we have a great architectural community that can be very experimental and, most importantly, aspirational. We need a forum like this to share these thoughts and developments.” A prime example of the seaport city’s aspirational architecture is the Bullitt Center, the subject of one of three panels at Facades+AM Seattle. Designed by Miller Hull and often referred to as “the greenest office building in the world,” the Bullitt Center embodies a no-holds-barred approach to sustainable design. “The Bullitt Foundation is that missing link the profession needs to evolve to a new, higher density, sustainable future,” said Hegedus. “We will find, I suspect, that this is not just a skin, but an integral part of the strategy of how this living building became a success. We need to build on this project’s great success.” But while some of the Facades+ AM program next week will be specific to Seattle, much of the discussion will hold value for designers and builders working in different contexts. More importantly, the lack of a script makes way for spontaneous, collaborative problem-solving. Speaking of another panel, on innovations in facade design and construction, Hegedus observed: “The beauty of this format, with this wildcard ‘Facade Futures,’ is that we don’t know what is going to come out of this.” To learn more about Facades+ AM or to register, visit the event website.
Frank Gehry's Walt Disney Concert Hall in Los Angeles, Scott Johnson's Museum Tower in Dallas, and Rafael Viñoly's Vrada Hotel & Spa in Las Vegas have at least one thing in common. All three provoked the ire of their neighbors when glare from their reflective facades raised sidewalk temperatures, blinded drivers, or—as in the Museum Tower case—jeopardized the nearby Nasher Sculpture Center’s collections. Glare is increasingly a problem in facade design, says Curtainwall Design Consulting president Charles Clift, in part because of the tools contemporary architects have at their disposal. "The conclusion I came to is that the digital age of architecture has allowed designers to create anything they can imagine, but with that comes some unintended consequences." Clift and other experts in high-performance envelope design, including George Loisos (Loisos + Ubbelohde) and Luke Smith (Enclos), will dig into the problem of glare in a symposium panel at this month's Facades+ Dallas conference. Nasher Sculpture Center director Jeremy Strick, David Cossum of the City of Dallas, and the Dallas Morning News' Mark Lamster will join them to discuss the reflectivity challenge within the local context. The conversation will continue on day 2 of the conference at the "Curating Daylight: Effective Control of Interior Illumination & Issues of Exterior Reflectivity" dialog workshop (led by George Loisos and Susan Ubbelohde), which meets at the Nasher Sculpture Center. Advancements in building materials offer one solution to the glare challenge, which exists in tension with the demand to reduce thermal gain. "An easy way for the facade to accomplish sustainability goals is to use highly reflective glass, but obviously that rejected glare goes back into the environment," said Clift. Happily, innovations by today's glass manufacturers, including low-e coatings, boost performance, reduce glare, and allow a decent amount of visible light transmission. External or internal sunshades can also do double duty as thermal barriers and glare blockers. But both specialty glass and shading structures come at a cost, and are often the first to go when the budget gets tight. "A lot of the time, the issue of glare has been taken into account in the design process, but it’s one of the first components that might get value-engineered out," said Smith, who will moderate the panel. Municipal-level regulation is another possible fix for the reflectivity problem. Clift reports that some Dallas builders he’s talked to are confident that the market will sort things out. They say that the Museum Tower/Nasher Sculpture Center debacle "is such a bad situation that a savvy developer won’t do that in the future." Smith is not so sure. "This is an urban problem, but as soon as the city tries to step in, people say, 'No, this has nothing to do with the city,'" he said. "I think the problem is getting worse because density is increasing in cities, and right now glass is predominantly the building material of choice." Dallas, he notes, is the perfect place to explore the glare issue. "The city’s going through a regeneration: the place is coming back. Plus, it’s sunny, and they like glass buildings." To hear more from Smith, Cliff, and the other panelists about the problem of glare, register today for the Dallas Facades+ conference. The complete lineup of symposium speakers, dialog workshops, tech workshops, and networking events can be found on the conference website.
Climate change and extreme weather events have made resilience a watchword among AEC professionals. In this video from our partners at Enclos, filmed at facades+ NYC in April, Gordon Gill (Adrian Smith + Gordon Gill), Edward Peck (Thornton Tomasetti), and James O'Callaghan (Eckersley O'Callaghan) talk about designing and engineering building skins to meet present and future environmental challenges. Resilience will take center stage at the facades+ Chicago conference July 24-25. Early Bird registration rates have been extended through Sunday, June 29. For more information and to register, visit the conference website.
In an environment of escalating demands and expectations for high-performance building envelopes, the need for innovative responses from AEC professionals is ever increasing. But as new building materials, fabrication techniques, and design technologies ceaselessly emerge into the marketplace, the architectural possibilities become dizzying. At Facades+ PERFORMANCE, the nation's premiere conference for high-performance facades, we strive to keep you up to date with the latest strategies and tools that are revolutionizing the built environment. Join us for two days of cutting edge workshops, panels, and symposia presented by the industry’s leading innovators, and become part of the movement that is transforming the built environment. Be there as Mic Patterson of Enclos is joined by Keith Boswell and Anwar Hakim of SOM to discuss the process of innovation and the application of emerging building technologies in their afternoon dialog-workshop, “Innovation and The Building Skin.” Space is limited, so reserve your seat today to take part in this and other exciting programs at AN and Enclos’ Facades+ PERFORMANCE, coming to Chicago, October 24th-25th! "Innovation is no accident," said Patterson in a statement, "it is a creative act requiring discipline, deliberation, and strategic planning; the key is learning to implement and manage the process of innovation." With decades' worth of experience in the study and promotion of the design, fabrication and instillation of advanced facade technologies and structural glass facades, Patterson has dedicated his career to realizing the future of the building skin. After founding ASI Advanced Structures in 1991 and pioneering the use advanced facade technologies in the US, Patterson joined up with Enclos in 2007 when they acquired ASI. He has since worked to establish the Advanced Technology Studio of Enclos in Los Angeles, a think-tank tasked with developing innovative technical and structural solutions to match the ever expanding geometric complexity and performative demands placed upon today's most dynamic facades. "Today's building programs involve unprecedented demands on the building skin, demands that are driving step-change in facade systems and technology. Innovation is the necessary industry response to these drivers of change. When I consider the current crop of projects we are involved with I am struck by how different they are from the work we were doing five, or even three years ago. Recognizing these differences highlights the trends that are shaping the future of our industry." Join Mic Patterson has he discusses his experience delivering elegant, economic, high-performance facades amidst the revolution of formal complexity and material diversity that is transforming the AEC industries, and learn the tools to necessary to compete on the crest of innovation. Register today to take part in this and other exciting workshops, panels, and symposia, offered only at Facades+ PERFORMANCE!
Launched in 2012 in collaboration by The Architect’s Newspaper and Enclos, the Facades+ conference series is heading back to Chicago for two days of architecture symposium and workshops with a brand new theme: Performance. On October 24th and 25th, keynote speakers Stefan Behnisch of Behnisch Architekten and Gerardo Salinas of Rojkind Arquitectos, as well as a host of recognized architects, innovators, and engineers will engage attendees on the subject of facade design within the last five years, specifically sustainable, yet aesthetically pleasing construction. Day one hosts a symposium of panel speakers and networking opportunities. And during day two, attendees make the choice between tech or dialog workshops, both intimate groups with hands-on training and personal discourse. Registration is now open for both days and early bird rates apply until September 27th. Partnering with YKK AP, Facades+PERFORMANCE in Chicago offers dialogues, workshops, and opportunities for networking for professional architects and designers The conference addresses an increasingly current issue within an era of climate change and environmental responsibility. Day one of the symposium will offer two keynote addresses and a variety of environmentally-themed architectural panels. Presenters in attendance represent YKK AP, Buro Happold, Thorton Tomasetti, Eckersley O'Callaghan, Studio NYL, among others. Students can earn eight AIA Continuing Education Units for attending this day's events. In keeping with the theme of Performance, panel topics include: Innovation, Climate Responsive Design, Material, Complex Façades, and Client Perspective. On the schedule for day two are intimate group workshops, either tech or dialogue based. In tech workshops, design engineers from firms like Mode Lab, Thornton Tomasetti, and CASE provide one-on-one training in cutting-edge architectural facade design technologies. In dialog workshops, participants set their own daylong schedule to attend creative-thinking sessions where architectural and engineering firms present their own work as case-studies. Coordinators for these workshops include Gehry Technologies, Enclos, SHoP, Cricursa, and more. Comprehensive, interactive, and present, Facades+PERFORMANCE is a symposium not to be missed. Register here before September 27th for early bird rates.
Glass-clad, cable-net structures are one of today's leading forms of high-transparency facade technology. Since 2009, Enclos has been an authority in the design, engineering, fabrication, and assembly of custom curtain wall systems and structural glass facades. The company has published a number of reports about building skin systems. Volume 1: Skylights of the Facade TecNotes Series focuses on glass in overhead applications and the unique opportunities it brings. On September 11th, Enclos’ Mic Patterson will join AN to discuss glass facades at GlassBuild America: The Architects Forum in Atlanta. Mr. Patterson will share several examples that show how optimal transparency and aesthetic elegance can work together. He will discuss projects such as 51 Louisiana in Washington, D.C., two existing buildings that have been joined by a glass-clad atrium, and Station Place: Security & Exchange Commission Headquarters, also in Washington, D.C., which consists of a 55-foot-long and 60-foot-wide skylight. Mr. Patterson has lectured internationally on various aspects of advanced facade technology and is the author of Structural Glass Facades and Enclosures.
This is second of a two part interview of Ken Yeang one of the earliest thinkers and designers in the field of sustainable architecture. The interview was conducted by Mic Patterson of Enclos who will be introducing Yeang at The Architect’s Newspaper’s Facades+PERFORMANCE conference on July 11 in San Francisco. Mic Patterson: Your work clearly demonstrates that concepts of bioclimatic design are readily scalable from the residence to the skyscraper to the urban environment. How do the considerations of bioclimatic design apply at the scale of building subassembly or the the building skin? Ken Yeang: At the sub-assembly level, we have developed devices such as the 'raincheck' wall being a glazing façade system that lets in ventilation but keeps out rain. Another device we are working on is a 'solar chimney' that uses a double-glazed glass-shaft to naturally ventilate internal spaces. MP: Many of your designs include an expansive use of glass, often a challenge with respect to solar control and energy performance. What are the considerations for glass use in your bioclimatic design process. KY: It sounds facile, but giving joy and happiness to occupants is an essential aspect of why we are architects. Much of our work is about "enabling users' dreams come true" by design. One way to give spaces a feeling of cheerfulness is the enabling the simple enjoyment of daylight as it enters a space or as it brightens up a space in the morning – which the use of glass combined with façade design and roof-light devices can achieve. In addition solar control can be achieved with various solar shading systems. Enhanced energy performance can be mitigate using double glazing or 'low-e' glass.Finally we cannot overlook the opportunity to look out from the inside, to create vistas are aspects that glass enables. MP: What are the predominant drivers of your design process beyond climate and ecology? KY: Our overarching objective to advance the field of ecodesign and ecomasterplanning. The first driver is a committed pursuit of innovation and invention in the advancement of this field of endeavour. Discovering a new idea (the 'eureka' moment) is the buzz in what we do. We see innovation not just at the level of 'product' but at 'processes' (the way things are done) and at the level of 'premises' (the principles or theory of why things are done). Everyday in every project, we are searching for ways to innovate. This can be achieved at various levels and at product, process and premises (e.g. at the level of architecture, at the level of urban design and master planning, at the macro level of economics, business and industry, at the micro level of subassembly, etc.). The second driver is aesthetics being the pursuit of an 'ecoaesthetic' – essentially asking, "what does an ecodesign or ecoarchitecure or an ecomasterplan look like?" I believe that ecodesign deserves its own aesthetic that It should look like a 'living system'. We are always asking ourselves, what should a 'constructed ecosystem' look like?