Posts tagged with "displacement":

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L.A.’s Little Tokyo combats displacement with summer arts series

The Little Tokyo Service Center (LTSC) has announced its Little Tokyo Summer Arts Series, a series of free, all-ages, public events exploring the theme of “Ending Cycles of Displacement” from August 17 to 30. The series will include work from the LTSC's five artists from the three-month-long 2019 +LAB Artists in Residence (AIR) Project that began in June. This year’s residency focuses on creative place-keeping and addressing the most recent cycle of displacement affecting Los Angeles’s Little Tokyo. Established in 1884, Little Tokyo is L.A.’s second oldest neighborhood and the largest of four remaining Japantowns in the United States. In its 133-year history, Little Tokyo has withstood numerous acts of displacement including the demolition of entire tracts of housing, businesses, churches, and temples that occurred during the city’s urban renewal of the 1950s through the 1970s. Today, roughly nine square blocks remain. The latest threat to the area is the market rate housing boom in Downtown L.A., making the neighborhood less accessible to small businesses, individuals, and families of all income levels. The three public events are as follows: Future Echo: Public Hearing, an audio installation of stories of displacement, resistance, shared struggles, and acts of radical hope; Festival of Shadows: Mapping Invisible Dances, an immersive, intergenerational performance displaying a landscape of dance, video, installations, and shadow play; and Past Present: Conversations with the Future, where large projections and soundscapes will accompany conversations of the past and present, separation and displacement, and the future of solidarity, community, and home. The 2019 +LAB fellows include traci kato-kiriyama, an L.A.-based artist, cultural producer, and community organizer, Isak Immanuel and Marina Fukushima, a Bay Area-based duo working together on intergenerational dance performances, and Misael Diaz and Amy Sanchez, a Santa Ana-based collective working across disciplines and mediums to engage transnational communities relating to topics of displacement. AIR is a partnership between the LTSC and four community cultural institutions: the Japanese American National Museum, Japanese American Cultural and Community Center, Visual Communications, and Sustainable Little Tokyo. LTSC is a social service and community development organization preserving and strengthening unique ethnic communities in Southern California.
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Interactive project maps the impact of mid-century urban renewal

Developed by the University of Richmond’s Digital Scholarship Lab and released in December 2017, Renewing Inequality is an interactive, online project that maps the demographic profiles and footprints of thousands of urban renewal projects between 1950 and 1966. Using such resources as the federal government’s Urban Renewal Project Characteristics, Renewing Inequality reveals the sweeping scope of urban renewal, which razed entire neighborhoods during the era, as well as the disproportionate impact they had on the country’s African-American communities. Renewing Inequality follows an earlier project released by the Digital Scholarship Lab in 2016, called Mapping Inequality, which details neighborhoods deemed too risky for investment and set on a course of institutionalized neglect and decay. Actively fueling the process of decay was the policy of redlining, which in effect barred communities of color from seeking mortgages or financing to repair their properties. With a cycle of decay institutionalized, these same neighborhoods were prime targets for urban renewal. Beginning in the 1950s, the federal government actively reshaped American cities through urban renewal, based on then-contemporary priorities in use zoning, residential density, automobile usage and highway construction. Equipped with billions of dollars in federal funding, local governments applied eminent domain to displace hundreds of thousands of families across the country, deeming long-standing neighborhoods as “blighted” land unfit for habitation. Ostensibly, relocation assistance and public housing were meant to follow "slum clearance" but in many circumstances, relocation funding or housing never materialized. Not only were homeowners forced into becoming renters, but much of the compensation given in exchange for eminent domain seizure was based on undervaluations of those properties. For example, the Digital Scholarship Lab highlights Cincinnati’s Kenyon-Barr/Queensgate as the largest urban renewal project in national history, displacing approximately 5,000 families. The map highlights that approximately 97 percent of those displaced were people of color, and also reveals that this predominantly minority community was adjacent to Cincinnati’s Central Business District, a focal point for white, suburban office workers–a trend in the displacement taking place in a number of American cities. As noted by the Digital Scholarship Lab, the land seized from many of the impacted African American neighborhoods "was re-purposed for commercial or industrial development or to make way for highways,” an act of “intergenerational wealth theft that helped shape today’s profound inequality” along racial lines. While the wholesale demolition of inner-city neighborhoods is much more uncommon today, large swaths of historic housing stock are currently being razed under the guise of alleviating housing pressure. However, as noted by CityLab, urban areas of older, mid-size housing boast greater affordability and employment opportunities than their modern counterparts, limited as they are by contemporary zoning and uses. It seems we still have a lot to learn from the lessons of urban renewal.
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This mapping tool shows the effects of gentrification and displacement in the Bay Area

Researchers at UCLA and the UC-Berkeley are mapping neighborhood change in the Bay Area. The Urban Displacement Project uses government housing, land use, transportation, and Census data from 1990–2013 to find markers that represent turnover in housing, demographic shifts, and new investment. Led by UC-Berkeley's Karen Chapple and Miriam Zuk, researchers divided the nine-county Bay Area’s 1,569 Census tracts into low- and high-income tracts. Low-income tracts were defined as areas where 39 percent of households earn 80 percent less than each county’s median income, and high income tracts where less than 39 percent of households are considered low income. Low- and high-income tracts were categorized by residential displacement “risk factors.” Significantly, the report defines “gentrification” and “displacement” differently. Displacement is defined as a net loss of low income residents, while “gentrification” is tangible evidence of neighborhood investment and/or an influx of more affluent residents. This is important because, as the researchers found, gentrification in some areas happened before displacement, while in others, displacement comes first or occurs at the same time as gentrification. Lower income tracts were assessed for risk of gentrification and displacement, while higher income tracts were assessed for displacement risk only. Overall, 51 percent of tracts did not experience significant displacement, while 48 percent are losing low-income residents. Researchers found that 422 tracts are “at risk” of displacing poor residents, while 165 are “currently experiencing displacement.” The map is intended as a resource for community groups taking action to prevent displacement. The data is retrospective, shedding light on regional population trends. Planners, however, cannot use the data to make sure predictions about where gentrification and displacement is likely to occur in the future. The data doesn’t reveal where displaced residents move to, or account for other qualitative factors that may prompt a move. Transportation planning and development can benefit a lower-income area, if officials take into account the economic and social needs of the existing population. Some areas, including  East Palo Alto, and Marin City, have actively forestalled displacement with housing subsidies and community organizing.