Posts tagged with "Canada":

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MU Architecture designs a paleo-futuristic tower for remote Canadian forest

Montreal-based MU Architecture has unveiled its design for a "paleo-futuristic" tower set in the middle of a Canadian forest. Hovering 670 feet above the hilly landscape of western Quebec, PEKULIARI toes the line between looking like a relic from the past—totemic—and embodying the architecture of the near future.  The seven-year-old firm, which is mainly known for its sculptural, high-end residential projects, envisioned the organically-shaped skyscraper for the Outaouais region, just north of the Ottawa River, as a luxury development that connects people directly with nature. In an email conversation with AN, MU Architecture founders Jean-Sébasten Herr and Charles Côté said they first visited the 15,000,000-square-foot site this summer. "[It] totally impregnated us with the immensity and strength of the forest," they said. "The site literally inspired the stacking; it was the only relevant solution for the project. As if the structure had always been there and nature, in time, only took back its place."  According to the architects, PEKULIARI is an indulgent nature retreat far away from the stressors of urban life and the concept is meant to both immerse guests in the wild while providing them with high-end comforts. For example, its podium, meant to resemble a large pile of rocks, will eventually invite guests into a three-story lobby where they can access a concierge to equip them with food and gear for venturing out into the forest. The rest of the 48-story structure, created using parametric design software, will house 50 luxury units, conference rooms for business and entertainment, a cigar lounge and bar, and a rooftop pool, gym, and spa—all packed within the exoskeletal-like frame that holds up its crystalline facade.  It’s an extravagant development, no doubt, and will span 326,000 square feet of space total. However, the building isn’t meant to take away from the land, said Herr and Côté. They noted the land surrounding the structure will become a Private Natural Reserve, making the property owners in charge of protecting the local wildlife (although the construction of the tower itself may likely displace or disrupt the forest's natural rhythm). Intentionally or not, the project invites comparisons to the Danish Bestseller Tower, which will place a supertall skyscraper in the middle of a pastoral town. From the outside, the tower will take on an earthy feel, blending into the forested region. The cellular exterior panels will be multi-toned in order to enhance the reflections from the sun. From the inside, the boreal landscape is nearly unobstructed by the building’s presence; several cutouts in the facade allow for panoramic views. Other features include an underground parking garage with a “bat cave-type hidden entrance in the woods,” according to the architects, and a massive wine cellar and indoor shooting range. In an interview last month with La Press, Herr and Côté said they like a “touch of strangeness and mystery” about their projects. The element of surprise becomes a key part of their designs—hence why PEKULIARI emerges from the middle of nowhere. As the only non-urban structure among their current tower projects, (the other two are located in downtown Montreal), the building supposedly represents the studio's aim to "overcome the near-impossible."  "The possibility of designing a unique skyscraper in the middle of the forest follows MU Architecture’s philosophy to design outstanding architecture that moves people and creates unlived experiences, " said Herr.   
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Controversial expansion to Ottawa's Chateau Laurier rejected for now

The owner of what’s arguably the most important historic hotel in Canada wants to expand its northwestern backside with a modern addition that’s met with extremely severe criticism online.  Designed by Peter Clewes, principal of the Toronto-based architectsAlliance, the bulky, seven-story structure would bring 147 new rooms to the iconic Fairmont Chateau Laurier, a 107-year-old structure in Ottawa near Parliament Hill. Late last month, the City Council’s Committee of Adjustment rejected the request by property owner Larco Investments for a reduced rear yard setback on the addition. The denial effectively prevents them from breaking ground on the project. Built in 1912 and originally named after the First Grand Trunk Railway by then-owner Charles Melville Hays, the limestone-clad structure spans an impressive 660,000-square-feet, boasts 429 rooms, and sports a number of iconic turrets. It’s located in a section of Major’s Hill Park, a grand landscape in downtown Ottawa along the Rideau Canal. Some opponents of the expansion project say it would hinder views of the surrounding cityscape, much of which is on federal land. In the September 27 setback hearing, the committee acknowledged that these heritage features would be threatened and as one city council member also noted in the Ottawa Citizen, that the design isn’t compatible with the “shapes and materials” of the hotel. All these factors were outlined in the committee’s final decision: 
“The committee is of the opinion that the approval of (the) variance would allow for a new build that does not respect the landscape and character of the heritage features of the historic properties that surround the site, specifically those of the Rideau Canal, Major’s Hill Park and the Parliamentary Precinct, in contravention of the policies currently in place for compatible design and protection of views to these sites.” 
But Clewes, who has attempted to explain his design decision over the last few years, said the addition was imagined with the utmost respect for the historic site. In a 2016 interview with Maclean's, he claimed the hotel’s use of limestone and deeply incised windows was considered in the new project in order to complement the existing building.  “We’ve chosen to reinterpret that... but in a much more contemporary manner, which is a series of vertical windows in a somewhat whimsical pattern—some have likened it to a bar code,” he said. “What we’re trying to say is, look, the hotel is the most important building here, and we were simply trying to respond to that.”  If Clewes’s proposal was realized, it would be built on the site of a former parking garage located at the rear of the hotel. To signify the separation between the historic building and its contemporary predecessor, the architect added in a glazed structure so that “there’s a very clear distinction between what is old and what is new.”  But it’s not enough. Larco Investments has already secured heritage and site-plan approvals from the city council but has failed in trying to minimize the required setback for an addition to the hotel property. The reduction, according to Ottawa Citizen, would project out towards the park and “represents an increase in density on the site.” It's expected that Larco Investments will appeal the decision with the Local Planning Appeal Tribunal.
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$100,000 landscape architecture prize named after Cornelia Hahn Oberlander

The Cultural Landscape Foundation (TCLF) announced today that Canadian landscape architect Cornelia Hahn Oberlander has been chosen as the namesake of its new international prize. The Washington, D.C.-based nonprofit first introduced the biennial award, now dubbed the Oberlander Prize, back in August as the first and only one of its kind to provide a $100,000 award for landscape architects. Currently living in Vancouver, Oberlander, 98, has worked across Canada and the United States for over 70 years. Among her most notable works include the National Gallery of Canada, The New York Times Building in New York, the Canadian Chancery in Washington, D.C., and the Museum of Anthropology in Vancouver—one of the dozens of projects where she collaborated with the late architect Arthur Erickson. In a July meeting with TCLF president and CEO Charles A. Birnbaum, Oberlander said she was “overwhelmed and smitten” by the honor and released the following statement: 
“I hope the Oberlander Prize will spur landscape architects to innovate, be inventive and generate new ideas, and to be leaders in their community.  Landscape architecture is ideally suited to deal with the environmental, social and ecological challenges we face now and the challenges we must plan for in the future.  Landscape architects are a combination of artists, designers, choreographers, and scientists; they must also be leaders, especially in dealing with the effects of climate change.  Through careful research, innovation, collaboration with allied professionals, and design excellence, landscape architecture can become a global leader in addressing the important issues we all face.”
Oberlander is a highly-decorated, award-winning design professional whose influence most recently earned her the ranking of Companion of the Order of Canada, the highest level of the Order of Canada. Though she was born in Germany, Oberlander immigrated to the United States for a brief time to study at Smith College and the Harvard Graduate School of Design. In 1951, she became a community planner in Philadelphia, eventually working alongside Dan Kiley on both the Schuylkill Falls public housing project led by architect Oskar Stonorov and the Millcreek housing project led by Louis Kahn.  Two years later she established her own practice in Vancouver and quickly garnered attention for her environmentally-thoughtful design. At Expo ‘67 in Montreal, she created the Children’s Creative Center, an innovative playground that led her work on 70 playground projects in her lifetime. “It was the consensus of the Prize Advisory Committee,” said Birnbaum in a press release, “which helped shape the Prize, and TCLF’s Board of Directors that Cornelia Oberlander’s inspiring and trailblazing career in the field of landscape architecture exemplifies the critical values and ideals of the Prize, and that she is someone who embodies the Prize criteria of creativity, courage, and vision.” TCLF is in the process of raising $4.5 million to endow the prize forever and has received individual commitments of $10,000 each from donors within its 100 Women Campaign. The inaugural recipient will be announced in 2021.
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Edmonton Symphony Orchestra gets upgrade with $65 million expansion plan

Newly revealed plans to expand the home of the Edmonton Symphony Orchestra in Alberta, Canada, present a striking transformation from a small concert hall to a 45,000-square-foot mixed-use space. The expansion, designed by Andrew Bromberg at Aedas, will redefine the downtown building as a 21st-century cultural hub complete with curved glass walls, a slatted stone roof enclosure, and an elevated garden level. Bromberg’s design marks a progressive change for the Francis Winspear Centre for Music, a space deeply rooted in community and public access. The Winspear Centre was completed in 1997 by Canadian architecture firm Dialog, providing a resounding answer to the long-standing question of the feasibility of placing a concert hall in Edmonton; over 60,000 people flocked to the Winspear’s 1,900-seat concert hall in its inaugural month. Dialog described the walls as “micro-textured to create outstanding reverberance and clarity,” adding to the Winspear Centre’s reputation for superb acoustics. Public enthusiasm for the Winspear has yet to fade, leading to the calls for expansion so that the center might better serve its community. The 98-foot-tall addition to the existing structure will create a new 550-seat concert hall called the Music Box, containing a unique hydraulic seating system with "the ability to transform from flat floor to raked to cabaret-style seating in minutes,” according to Adeas. On the ground level, additional rooms for public use as well as a daycare center and music library will boost the building’s function as a community resource. The glass atrium will open to an accessible elevated garden level, with additional shade provided by the overhanging slatted roof. Increased parking will be available both underground and at the street level. Construction on the project is scheduled to begin in January 2020 and conclude in 2021. A grand opening will occur in 2022 alongside the Winspear Centre’s 25th anniversary celebration.
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World's tallest passive house tower could rise in Vancouver's West End

Canadian company Henson Developments is planning the world’s tallest passive house for downtown Vancouver. Slated for the edge of the city's West End neighborhood, 1075 Nelson would stand 60 stories tall, hovering higher than most towers in British Columbia and with three times the efficiency.  The Vancouver Courier reported that the City of Vancouver is currently reviewing Henson’s rezoning application and after that, it will go before the city council for a public hearing. Sean Pander, who serves as the city’s green building manager, believes the 555-foot-tall project will push other developers to pursue more eco-friendly projects. It’s located in a vibrant, largely residential part of town where there is rapid growth. “What makes it a really big deal is the amount of attention it will get with the public, as well as with developers, designers, manufacturers of windows,” said Pander in an interview with the Courier.   But Rick Gregory, vice-president of Henson Developments, isn’t looking to build a basic, boxy tower with an ultra-tight envelope, he said. Both of the two top tallest passive house buildings in the world are rather square: Bolueta by VArquitectors in Bilbao, Spain, and the 250-foot tall residential structure by Handel Architects at Cornell Tech. Gregory wanted 1075 Nelson to be architecturally-significant. “There is a certain look that Passive House generally yields and we’re trying to move away from that to make it much more attractive to other people to take the same approach," he told the Courier. To achieve this, Gregory enlisted the help of British architect Tom Wright of WKK Architects and Gwyn Vose, director of IBI Group. Early renderings reveal an undulating structure with large loggia spaces in the center voids spanning multiple floors. While it’s likely Henson Developments will get support for some sort of passive house construction—Vancouver released its own zero-emissions building plan in 2016—Gregory's goal of building an atypical design that’s the tallest in the world could prove more difficult if it ultimately means more money spent.
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The internet is up in arms over tank-like Edmonton Public Library

As the redesigned Stanley A. Milner Library in downtown Edmonton, Canada creeps closer to its 2020 completion date, residents of the city have begun to express concerns that the project won't end up as advertised. The building, which sits downtown and serves as the central branch of the Edmonton Public Library system, has prompted an online backlash after photos of the construction site began circulating in the last few days, with many on Twitter comparing the library to a tank or cruise ship.

The complaints have focused primarily on the structure's external appearance, which currently resembles something less graceful than a flagship library branch. It has been compared to everything from a naval destroyer to a fall-out shelter, with some simply calling the building “ugly,” and have laid the blame at the recladding led by Toronto's Teeple Architects. Others have been quick to contrast the Edmonton design to its neighbor to the north, Calgary’s brand new public library, which opened to great fanfare late last year. Executed by Snøhetta and DIALOG, the Calgary project was popular with the general public and remained consistent from renderings through realization, leaving some Edmontonians to wonder what went wrong in their own city.

The design for the new Stanley Milner Library calls for a complete remodeling of the original building. An Asgard zinc cladding is being used on the exterior, much of which is still covered in protective plastic wrapping. Strips of new windows will perforate the outer walls to allow significantly more natural light into the building’s interior spaces. The refreshed facility, which has been closed since December 2016 and is set to open next February, will boast considerably more space for the children’s library, a new venue for Indigenous ceremonies, and improved amenities for audio recording and play. As of right now, though, the sparkly new object promised to Edmontonians in the project’s initial renderings seems duller than expected, and the design has changed considerably over time. Twitter users are correct to notice that certain changes have been made. Structural issues and budget constraints early on prompted Teeple to remove or shrink some of the windows and focus their efforts on interior spaces and services—arguably the most important part of the project. But Pilar Martinez, CEO of the Edmonton Public Library, has joined city architect Carol Belanger and Mayor Don Iveson in urging patience for the public. The building’s appearance, they insist, will improve as it comes closer to completion. Protective materials will be removed, lights will be switched on, people will fill the space, and the full effect of the original design as represented in the drawings will be realized.

“It’s going to be amazing,” Martinez told Global News Canada. She may very well be right, and the controversy at hand may be little more than a distant memory by February, but at this stage in construction, residents can do little more than trust the process.

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Calgary votes not to host 2026 Winter Olympics, only two cities remain

The world is running out of cities that are willing to host the Olympics. Last night, residents of Calgary, Canada, voted no on a special plebiscite to host the 2026 Winter Games, making them the fifth city to drop out as a potential candidate. Stockholm, Sweden, and a joint bid between Milan and Cortina d’Ampezzo remain the only two finalists, but even their futures are on the rocks. Though Calgary hosted a successful 1988 Winter games, and 11 of the sports venues built for the event still stand, over half the voters rejected the idea to bring the Games back, citing the huge financial risk as something the city wouldn’t be able to recover from. To host the two-week-long event, Calgary, Alberta, and the federal government would have spent an estimated $5.1 billion combined, according to The Globe and Mail. While the city wouldn’t have had to start completely from scratch by building all new architecture, two additional arenas and the athlete’s village would have needed to be built on top of the retrofits and infrastructure upgrades done for the games. Despite support from Mayor Naheed Nenshi and a strong campaign by the Calgary 2026 Bid Corporation, which saw the Games as an opportunity to “put the city back on the map,” the message was clear: 56 percent of voters opposed the project. Critics say Calgary can now use the budget money it would have invested in the Olympics to take on new, much-needed public projects similar to the dazzling new Central Library, designed by Snøhetta, which opened last week. Though yesterday’s vote was non-binding, the mayor and local city officials say they’ll respect their constituents’ decision and officially suspend Calgary’s Olympic bid at a council meeting on Monday. Finding a solid host site is proving more challenging for the International Olympic Committee (IOC) year after year. Out of the seven countries that submitted bids for 2026, Sion, Switzerland, Sapporo, Japan, and Graz, Austria all withdrew earlier this year. The IOC eliminated Eruzum, Turkey, from the list in October due to its lack of experience hosting large-scale sporting events. Stockholm's plan for the games puts some sporting venues two hours outside the city—a potential cause for IOC concern, and its incoming government coalition is determined to get rid of taxpayer funding for the events. Italy’s joint bid for Milan and Cortina d’Ampezzo was just finalized this month after Turin, the 2006 Olympic host city, dropped out of the effort. The Italian government supports the decision but says it won't offer a single euro to help.  The IOC is set to make its final decision for 2026 in June.
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Snøhetta and DIALOG complete a railroad-straddling central library in Calgary

The new Calgary Central Library opened its doors to the public on November 1, a joint project between Snøhetta and Canadian studio DIALOG. The crystallized, aluminum-and-fritted-glass facade of the building’s upper portion belies a warm wood interior, and the entire library rises over an active Light Rail Transit Line that runs from below ground and up to the street level. The six-story, 240,000-square-foot library is expected to welcome twice as many visitors as the previous Central Library, no small feat in a city where more than half of the 1.2 million residents have an active library card. Patrons are welcomed by a massive wood archway at the entrance (made from western red cedar sourced from British Columbia, as with the rest of the wood in the building) shaped in reference to the region’s distinct Chinook arch cloud formations. Inside, past the lobby and atrium, an 85-foot-tall gap was carved that runs all of the way up to an oculus in the roof. According to Snøhetta, each floor was organized on a scale of “fun to serious,” with the livelier programming, such as the Children’s Library, arranged at the bottom of the building, and quieter study areas at the top. Visitors can ascend a sinuous central staircase below the oculus, and peer into the open floors and the stacks at each level. Vertically-striated wood slats were used to clad the edges at each section, extending and refining the woodwork seen in the entrance arch. At the very top is the Grand Reading Room, which, although unenclosed like the rest of the library, is meant to be the most intimate space in the building. Although faced with a difficult site, the design team chose to accentuate the necessary train tunnel at the Central Library’s northern corner. This is where the building’s curved sides join together to form a prominent “prow,” and where an inviting “living room” has been situated. The facade is made up of scattered, rhombus and triangle-shaped panels and windows. The density of the panels has been modulated depending on the level of privacy and sunlight required for each area, and openings carve out views for the spaces that look out over the city. Those strategic cuts also allow curious pedestrians to look into the library, which Snøhetta hopes will entice community members inside.
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BIG's Serpentine Pavilion lands in Toronto for the fall

The Bjarke Ingels Group’s (BIG) 2016 summer Serpentine Pavilion, an unzipped exploration of the flat wall, has made an intercontinental leap to Toronto and is set to open in September. During the day visitors will be able to explore an architectural exhibition titled Unzipped, curated by BIG, inside of the “unzipped wall," and at night talks and events will be hosted by developer and owner Westbank. The curvilinear pavilion will be reconstructed to its original size: 88.5 feet long, 39 feet wide, and 49 feet tall. BIG’s design for the structure began with a two-dimensional wall, and then “pulled it apart” from the base to form the vaulted event space. Rather than the traditional brick, BIG stacked extruded fiberglass frames to allow sunlight inside, a material-structure-daylighting confluence also seen in Frida Escobedo’s 2018 Serpentine Pavilion. The soaring interior evokes the awesomeness of sacred interiors, but here, visitors are encouraged to get comfortable and climb on the outside of the installation. The unzipped wall is currently being installed at the intersection of King and Brant Streets, directly in front of BIG and Westbank’s mixed-use King Street West development. The stepped building will resemble the pavilion, as the development also uses cascading, angled units to maximize sunlight exposure. The installation will remain at its current location until November of this year, but Toronto is only the first stop in the pavilion’s multi-city tour across Canada. The structure will ultimately land on the West Coast in front of Westbank’s Shaw Tower on the Vancouver waterfront. Serpentine Pavilions are sold after the summer season ends and leave London's Hyde Park for homes all over the world. Last year’s pavilion, a swooping saucer that loomed over triangularly-patterned walls from Diébédo Francis Kéré, was purchased by Ilham Gallery in Kuala Lumpur and will likely end up in the Malaysian capital city. Smiljan Radic’s fiberglass pebble from 2014 landed on the Hauser & Wirth art campus, located on Durslade Farm in Bruton, England, and SelgasCano’s plastic polygonal color show from 2015 is slated for a second life in Los Angeles. And what about Zaha Hadid’s original tent from the show’s first year in 2000? The multi-gabled pavilion eventually became a public gathering place (and frequent wedding venue) at Flambards Theme Park in Helston, Cornwall.
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Detroit's bridge to Canada ready for construction but faces political challenges

The Gordie Howe International Bridge, a six-lane span between Detroit and Windsor, Ontario, is set to begin construction this fall after the Windsor-Detroit Bridge Authority (WDBA) selected a team to design and build the structure. Bridging North America, an architecture, engineering, and construction 'whos-who' team including ACS Infrastructure Canada Inc., Dragados Canada Inc., Fluor Canada Ltd., AECOM, RBC Dominion Securities Inc., Carlos Fernandez Casado S.L/FHECOR Ingenieros Consultores, S.A., Moriyama and Teshima Architects, and Smith-Miller + Hawkinson Architects, LLP, will oversee construction of the $3.7 billion bridge. The WDBA touted the bridge’s benefits in a project update on July 5. The Detroit-Windsor crossing is currently serviced by four separate crossings and accounts for 25 percent of the trade between the U.S. and Canada. Gordie Howe is supposed to streamline entry and exit across both countries for the 2.6 million trucks that make the crossing annually. The 1.5-mile-long span would be the largest cable-stayed bridge in North America and would be supported by two enormous, A-shaped structural towers. In addition to the six lanes for vehicles, three in each direction, bike lanes have been planned for the side of the bridge facing Detroit. The bridge project includes new ports of entry on both borders and a new connection to I-75. Not everyone is on board with speeding up the flow of goods from Canada. Reflecting the sometimes tumultuous relationship that the Trump administration has had with America's neighbor to the north, owners of the nearby Ambassador Bridge, the Moroun family, are reportedly trying to kill the project. The Ambassador Bridge currently handles 60 to 70 percent of truck traffic across the Detroit River, and the Canadian Government, owners of the WDBA, have stipulated that the Ambassador Bridge will need to be torn down once the Gordie Howe is complete. In response, the Morouns have been buying commercial airtime on Washington, D.C.-area Fox News stations in an attempt to influence Trump to scrap the Gordie Howe. The family has also been trying to get the Trump administration to inject the Gordie Howe into NAFTA negotiations and to pressure the Canadian government to drop its requirement that the Ambassador Bridge be dismantled. The Morouns are also fighting to keep the Michigan Department of Transportation from using eminent domain to acquire the land it needs to build a 167-acre port-of-entry in Detroit’s Delray neighborhood. The WDBA is still negotiating contract details with Bridging North America, and if everything proceeds as planned, work on the Gordie Howe should begin by the end of September.
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The new Ottawa Art Gallery dissolves into the sky with clever detailing

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The expansion of the Ottawa Art Gallery, designed by KPMB Architects and with Régis Côté et Associés as architect-of-record, introduces a new building and redistributes the Gallery within the existing Arts Court complex to create an integrated creative community. The project unites the various programmatic elements through a coherent architectural language and materiality.
 
  • Facade Manufacturer Amico Canada Inc.
  • Architects KPMB Architects (design architect), Régis Côté et Associés (architect of record)
  • Facade Installer Raymond & Associates Roofing Inc.
  • Facade Consultants KPMB Architects (design architect), Régis Côté et Associés (architect of record)
  • Location Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
  • Date of Completion 2018
  • System Expanded metal mesh suspended over metal siding with wall-washing LEDs
  • Products Amico Apex expanded metal mesh, Vicwest AD300-SR metal siding, Shouldice architectural block
The primary facade of the Gallery is an expanded metal mesh suspended in front of an inexpensive metal siding. KPMB conceptualized it as a levitating box acting as a beacon for the city, and the volume contains the art galleries and administration space. Because the galleries require indirect natural light, the design includes strategically placed windows for controlled daylight into special galleries and for clear orientation in the central staircase. KPMB began the design with a custom perforated mesh in mind but, due to cost restrictions, they were forced to investigate other options, including back-painted glass and perforated metal fins. Ultimately, the project team arrived at the expanded metal mesh because it was the simplest way to maintain the original design intent while still being cost effective. The mesh panel slides in front of the edges of the window openings and below the bottom edge of the cladding at the soffit. This creates an effect where the mesh dissolves into the sky as it extends beyond the solid box behind. Where the mesh abuts other materials on the facade, it cuts short to create a reveal. The project team faced a different challenge when detailing the stand-off clips for the metal mesh. The clips coordinate with wall-washing LEDs to make the light as uniform as possible and are organized in columns of three, with exceptions at the corners of the building and at the perimeter of the apertures. At night, the metal clips reflect the light of the LEDs to create a grid of points that dissolve as the building rises in elevation. The black box theatre and the multi-purpose room intersect with the art gallery’s space and use contrasting materials. The theatre volume, which houses the University of Ottawa’s drama program, is clad in a charcoal-colored block that references the neighboring historic stone walls. On the north side of the new complex, above the entry court and atrium, the multi-purpose room is clad in anthracite-colored zinc.
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Towering go-kart track brings thrills on the Canadian border

Drivers can now live out their Mario Kart fantasies at the newly opened Niagara Speedway, a 2,000-foot-long go-kart track on the Canadian side of Niagara Falls. Adventure seekers can drive up three stories of winding curves, before catching air on an elevated ramp 40 feet off the ground and taking hairpin curves. The Spartan-looking steel and concrete structure is large enough to hold 36 karts per race. The speedway is just one part of the recently overhauled Clifton Hill, an amusement park that includes a 175-foot-tall Ferris wheel above Niagara Falls and a dinosaur-themed mini golf complete with a volcano. Niagara Speedway is the largest go-kart track in North America, and Clifton Hill claims that its verticality makes it a hybrid of a traditional track and a roller coaster. Tickets cost $12 for a five-minute race, and $4 for passengers.

Niagara Speedway 4960 Clifton Hill, Niagara Falls, Ontario L2G 3N4, Canada Tel: 905-358-3676 Designer: HOCO Limited