Every year, one of the world’s most tensile rope suspension bridges—straddling a 230-foot-wide canyon in Peru—is handwoven from dried grass. In deference to elemental wear-and-tear, the bridge is painstakingly reconstructed every year by Quechua-speaking communities on either side of the chasm in a ceremonial ritual lasting three days, always ending in song and dance. https://youtu.be/dql-D6JQ1Bc The builders harvest q’oya grass to be woven into large cables. They begin with a small cord which is twisted together from local grass, and then weave it with 30 more small cords to form a larger rope. For the next few hours, the community engages in cordial games of tug-of-war to stretch the large ropes out, which are subsequently woven and twisted. Finally, three of these large ropes are braided together to form the cables that will support the bridge, with the bridge’s architect, Victoriano Arizapana, weaving on one side and a worker on the other until their ends merge. More tugging of the finished rope ensues to increase the structure’s tensile strength, after which the community carries the cables down to where the bridge will be installed. “The work my father gave me to do, I started doing when I was 12 years old. I love that bridge Q’eswachaka very much. In other words, I love it like a son,” Victoriano said in the documentary The Bridge at Q’eshwachaka by the National Museum of the American Indian. The old bridge is used to run the first cable across the gap. After disposing of the old bridge with a cursory toss into the river below, the community anchors the four supporting cables to stone abutments on either side of the canyon before weaving the handrails. This unflinching routine has been repeated every year in the same location since the time of the Inca, and the modus operandi, based on rudiments cascaded from generation to generation by Victoriano’s ancestors, has not changed. The bridge is also very strong—able to be safely traversed by dozens of people simultaneously. Song- and dance-filled celebrations abound upon the bridge’s completion as the communities celebrate their collective, handmade linkage.
Posts tagged with "Bridges":
After 45 years, New York City’s oldest standing bridge has been returned to its former glory. On Tuesday, city officials and local advocates cut the ribbon on the newly-revitalized, High Bridge, which stretches 1,450 feet across the Harlem River, from Upper Manhattan to the Bronx. The Romanesque structure dates back to 1848 when it was part of the Old Croton Aqueduct that delivered fresh drinking water into a growing city that was struggling to produce its own. After decades of decay, followed by years of rehabilitation, High Bridge is open once again, offering an inter-borough connection for pedestrians and cyclists. https://vimeo.com/18642808 According to PBS, five of High Bridge’s masonry arches were removed in the 1920s and replaced with one steel arch to better accommodate passing ships. Later, in the late 1950s, when the Croton Aqueduct was decommissioned, High Bridge became a strictly pedestrian path. And it stayed that way until the 1970s, when it was closed to the public and left to deteriorate for decades. After years of prodding from community groups, and a full-page New York Daily News editorial, Mayor Michael Bloomberg committed $50 million toward the restoration of the bridge. In 2006, the New York City Department of Parks & Recreation announced that the project would, in fact, happen, but construction did not start until 2013. On the day of the official groundbreaking, AN reported that, along with necessary structural work, the High Bridge project included "pedestrian safety measures like accessibility ramps, viewing platforms, and new lighting. An eight-foot-tall cable mesh fence to prevent jumpers and throwing trash will also line each side.” The project was supposed to be completed in 2014, but things obviously did not pan out that way. But that's all water under the bridge, if you will, because the High Bridge is back and open for business. “After years of dedicated effort, the High Bridge now offers a very real connection between neighbors, boroughs, and crucial resources," New York City Parks Commissioner Mitchell Silver said in a statement. "Starting today, the people of the Bronx and Manhattan—and indeed all New Yorkers—have will once again be able to walk, bike, or simply sit and enjoy this beautiful bridge." The total cost of the project was just shy of $62 million. https://vimeo.com/130252478
Winners of the Atlanta Bridgescape Competition were announced last week at the AIA Conference that was held in the city. The competition, launched earlier this year, asked multidisciplinary teams to reimagine two of Atlanta’s outdated bridges with a budget of about $3 million. Hometown designers Max Neiswander and Luke Kvasnicka won with (sin)uosity, their plan to remake Midtown’s 10th Street Bridge with plantings, fresh bike lanes, and a curving, ribbed shell. Roger DeWeese, head of the Atlanta-based Peachtree Architects, also earned top honors with Organic Canopy, a vision to top Courtland/McGill Bridge with a geodesic dome–like structure. This plan actually won twice as it was selected by the competition's blind jury and the general public through the People's Choice Award. The other People's Choice Award went to Green City Spectator by the Poland-based KAMJZ Architects along with ARUP. Perhaps the most adventurous design, this scheme tops the bridge with what appears to be farming areas, and also has a zigzagging structure similar to to HNTB's vision for Los Angeles’ 6th Street Viaduct. “Competitions are about vision and big ideas,” said competition manager Tony Rizzuto, Chair in the Department of Architecture at Kennesaw State University, in a statement. "They have the potential to take us out of our comfort zone to see possibilities we never imaged. They provide a catalyst for discourse on public space and promote the pursuit of better design.” The ideas-centered competition was sponsored by Central Atlanta Progress, Midtown Alliance, and the Atlanta chapter of the AIA.
The final touches have been put on London’s now-infamous Garden Bridge, designed by Heatherwick Studio with Arup and landscape designer Dan Pearson. The most recent renderings, released early this week, show exactly what the spaces on the bridge will look like by offering an up-close look at the garden-like landscaping. The Garden Bridge Trust (GBT) describes it as an “oasis of escapism.” Like New York’s High Line, the bridge is a collaboration between the architects and landscape designers, but Pearson said that “Thomas [Heatherwick] always described the garden as being the reason the bridge is there and we have a very generous space with which to make a garden.” This includes 27,000 square feet of planted green space, with ferns, grasses, 270 trees, 2,000 shrubs, hedging plants and climbers, more than 22,000 perennials, and 64,000 bulbs, according to GBT estimates. The new details of the plan include a conceptual framework laid out by Pearson and his team that includes five separate zones that make reference to the green spaces of London. They are: a marsh, a “cliff top landscape,” two woodlands, and a traditional, planted garden area. The design is the last step in unveiling the bridge to the public, which includes several skeptical parties. The approval process has been called into question, including the quick approval of former MP at the Department for Communities and Local Government Eric Pickles. Others have questioned the design itself as unnecessary given the extreme need for bridges across the river in other, lower-income East London neighborhoods. Heatherwick has also been tapped to design a similar park that will hover above the Hudson River in New York. It remains to be seen if the Manhattan version will meet the same opposition as the London bridge. Part of the difference is that the Garden Bridge is being sold as a piece of public infrastructure that will connect two important parts of town, but is being heavily regulated including no bicycles, no protests, and no night walking, as Olly Wainwright has mentioned in the Guardian. Sam Jacob pointed out that the bridge raises many questions about public space in a city rapidly consumed as a territory of global capital and speculation. He probably would have preferred the city just build his version, which included the lyrics to Elton John’s “Candle in the Wind 98” etched into the stone balustrades. It's hard to fault Heatherwick for the political turmoil, however. He has delivered a beautiful piece of parkland, and we would have to believe that he is doing his best to mitigate the undercurrents of neoliberalism and inequality that are highlighted by the project. In a recent interview with AN, Heatherwick said, "I’m very influenced by the Jane Jacobs book, The Death and Life of Great American Cities. It almost made me fall in love with public-ness. With the bit we share together, and the subtle chemistry existing in the social interactions in public space." Sometimes the architect is hard to blame. [via gizmag]
On April 20, construction workers began demolishing Santa Monica's California Incline, a longtime connector between the Pacific Coast Highway and the city's overlooking bluffs. The 1,400-foot-long roadway, built in 1930, is getting a $20-million renovation (including a seismic retrofit and a new pedestrian bridge) by Caltrans and the city of Santa Monica that is expected to take year to complete. Below take a last look at the wonderfully weathered incline as we know it. (Click on thumbnail to start slideshow.)
Architects in Barcelona are remaking this tired, old bridge into a glow-in-the-dark, smog-eating sustainability machine
Spanish architecture studio BCQ recently announced plans to upgrade the arterial Sarajevo Bridge in Barcelona to be self-cleaning, smog-eating, and boast hanging gardens to boot. The Barcelona City Council commissioned the firm to improve the pedestrian experience through better lighting and air quality. First, a layer of photocatalytic concrete will replace the existing surface. This self-cleaning material neutralizes air pollutants by absorbing nitrogen oxides and converting them into harmless substances, and can also be applied to white or gray cement. All pollution removed will be simply washed away by the rain, guaranteeing a self-sustaining method that is environmentally non-invasive. This same technology will be modeled in the Italian pavilion at the upcoming Milan Expo 2015. Reminiscent of the glowing roads currently being trialled in the Netherlands, the bridge will harness glow-in-the-dark phosphorescence using photoluminescent glow stones to provide ambient light. Non-toxic and non-radioactive, the stones absorb solar energy during the day, which they slowly metabolize by night. BCQ will also mount photovoltaic solar panels to power low-energy LED lighting fixtures. Meanwhile, the area will be vegetated by green walls and pergolas covered in climbing plants. “It enables better interaction between pedestrians and vehicles, provides the space with vegetated arcades and changes the image of the bridge to distinguish it as one of the gates of Barcelona,” the architects said. As the gateway linking traffic from the north to the Catalonian capital, and spanning the Avinguda Meridiana, a major avenue, the dual carriageway will become a hoped-for meeting point between the two Trinitat neighborhoods.
Kansas City's main rail station will get a $7.5 million expansion and streetscape improvement, local officials announced this week, including a new bridge designed to improve circulation between the terminal's “front and back yards.” Union Station was built in 1901, but its last major renovation was in 1997, when a major renovation closed the Beaux Arts building—which is on the National Register of Historic Places—for two years. Now KC-based Burns & McDonnell, picked by the Union Station board after a “rigorous” review process, will guide the redesign, renovation, and reconstruction of the local landmark's outside areas. A $2.25 million tax credit from the Missouri Development Finance Board kicked off fundraising for the project, which topped off only after a recent gift from the Bloch Family Foundation. The Hall Family Foundation covered more than half of the total project cost with a gift of more than $4 million. The new landscape features include a bridge for cars and pedestrians connecting Union Station's various outdoor spaces to its parking garage. New spaces include an outdoor events plaza to the west of the adjoining Science City for interactive exhibits and community-based events. Officials hope to complete the project by 2017.
An iconic pedestrian bridge planned for downtown Cleveland has been delayed, according to the Cleveland Plain Dealer's Steven Litt. Originally planned to be ready in time for the Republican national convention in 2016, the $25 million steel bridge would connect the northeast corner of Cleveland's downtown Mall to an open space on the shores of Lake Erie between the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Museum and the Great Lakes Science Center. Passing over two other designs, the Group Plan Commission also indicated a preference for a cable-stayed bridge designed by architect Miguel Rosales of Boston. But now the bridge, which will accommodate bicyclists and pedestrians, won't be complete until 2017, officials said. Cleveland and Cuyahoga County each agreed to pitch in $10 million for the project. The state of Ohio will pay the remaining $5 million.
A team made up of HNTB (which is also leading the 6th Street Viaduct in Los Angeles), 64North, Bionic Landscape Architecture, and Ned Kahn have won a competition to design a new pedestrian and bicycle bridge spanning the 101 Freeway in Palo Alto at Adobe Creek. The winning proposal for the Adobe Creek Overcrossing, called Confluence, is highlighted by a multi-story, leaning steel arch integrated with an intricate web of cables and floating steel disks. The bridge's sinuous form was "drawn from the trajectories of the cyclists moving along it and the sinuous waterways of the Bay," according to the team's proposal. Storm water will be captured from the crossing and re-routed to a new basin, designed to adapt to changing seawater rise. The team beat out shortlisted teams led by Moffatt and Nichol and Endrestudio in a competition that elicited 20 responses. The plan will go before City Council in February for review and possible approval.
Michael Maltzan is getting into the bridge business. He’s already part of the HNTB-led Sixth Street Bridge team in Los Angeles, he's finishing up a bridge in Chengdu, China, and parts of his One Santa Fe (which we will profile in a future issue of AN) in the city’s Arts District themselves form a bridge, extending over the ground plane and allowing peeks toward the L.A. River. Now he’s been tapped by the Hammer Museum to design the John V. Tunney pedestrian bridge, above the institution’s large garden courtyard, finally connecting its 2nd floor western permanent galleries to its eastern ones. The new bridge will encourage visitors to explore all sides of the institution and give curators more flexibility, perhaps allowing them to design shows utilizing both wings of the museum. The bridge, which Maltzan designed with engineers Guy Nordenson and John A. Martin, is almost in place, and will officially open early next year. The tapered, 33-foot-long span, connected to the buildings' structural bays, ranges from 30-feet-wide to 8’ 8”. Its flanks will be made of white painted steel, and its flooring will consist of composite metal deck and concrete slab. The bridge's angular curve, Maltzan pointed out, will allow more sunlight to reach the courtyard, create a feeling of movement, and give the bridge a distinctive look. "We think the bridge will be a destination in itself," said Maltzan. "A phenomenal place to look over the courtyard and be among the tree canopies and to even say hi to your friends in the courtyard." Maltzan has worked on several of the Hammer's changes in recent years, including the Billy Wilder Theater and the museum cafe, which are both glass-fronted, adding transparency and activity to the courtyard, which has become a welcome gathering space. Since this component needed to be constructed quickly and during off hours, most was prefabricated off-site and then craned into place on a recent evening. (See time lapse above). The bridge’s criss-crossing understructure will appear as a cat’s cradle from below, with several frosted glass circular cutouts (12-inches in diameter) in the floor deck, emitting daylight and artificial light, depending on the time of day. The diagonal pattern is both structural and aesthetic, said Maltzan. "Having worked with Guy (Nordenson) before on so many buildings, there is an ongoing conversation about the inherent relationship between architecture and structure," summed up Maltzan. As for the bridge: "It's a permanent piece of sculpture," he said.
Cleveland's lakefront attractions and downtown have long been estranged neighbors, not easily accessed from one another without a car. The city and Cuyahoga County plan to fix that, offering a 900-foot bridge for pedestrians and bicycles that will hop over railroad tracks and The Shoreway, a lakefront highway built in the 1930s. The $25 million bridge takes off from the downtown Mall, touching down between the I.M. Pei–designed Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and the Great Lakes Science Center, designed by Boston's E. Verner Johnson. Another Bostonian is heading up design duties for the new bridge. Miguel Rosales' firm Rosales Partners hatched three design schemes with the help of Parsons Brinckerhoff. The final design has not been selected, and regional officials say it will come down to community input. Construction is expected to begin May 2015, wrapping up by June 2016. But before that, public authorities are seeking comment from the bridge's eventual users by hosting a free public meeting from 6:00 to 7:30 p.m. on Thursday, November 13, in the County Council chambers on the fourth floor of the county administration building, 2079 East Ninth Street, Cleveland. All the options are visually striking. Whether suspension, cable-stayed, or arched, the bone-white bridge wends through renderings made public last week, framing the Cleveland Browns' lakeside FirstEnergy Stadium. As the Cleveland Plain Dealer's Steven Litt wrote, the bridge fulfills a longtime goal of planners and urbanists in northeast Ohio:
Creating a bridge from the Mall to North Coast Harbor and lakefront attractions including the Rock Hall has been something of a holy grail in Cleveland city planning for nearly two decades. Yet until now, the city has been unable to mobilize support and fund the project. The city failed three times in recent years to win a federal grant for the project under the TIGER program, short for Transportation Investment Generating Economic Recovery.But now, Litt wrote, the city and county each agreed to kick in $10 million, which led the state to close the $5 million gap. A 2013 city-county partnership and the news that Cleveland would host the next Republican National Convention apparently provided the incentive they needed to take on the project, which officials said will be complete by the convention in 2016. The three design options are as follows: The suspension bridge option: The cable-stayed option: The arch option:
The UK-based firm Knight Architects has created a pedestrian bridge in London that opens and closes like a Japanese folding fan. The Merchant Square Footbridge is comprised of five steel beams that sequentially open with the help of hydraulic jacks. The structure spans about 65 feet across the Grand Union Canal in the new mixed-use Merchant Square development in Paddington. Knight Architects, alongside structural engineering firm AKT II won a design competition for the bridge in 2012. In a statement, Knight explained that the individual beams together form the bridge's deck and that counterweights and a hydraulic system reduce the structure's energy use. Dezeen reported that the bridge opens up every Friday to accommodate passing ships. “A fixed structure wasn't viable at that site as the constraints wouldn’t allow for the ramps necessary to get above the shipping envelope,” project architect Bartlomiej Halaczek told Dezeen. “A moving structure however would have to be maintained, and as these are usually quite significant costs, we had to keep them low by not overcomplicating the structure and picking a relatively simple mechanical system.” Not far from Knight's fan-like bridge, is another impressive, canal-crossing structure: Heatherwick Studio's Rolling Bridge, which can curl up into a “circular sculpture.”