Posts tagged with "Timber":

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The Pavilion at Great Northern Way revolves with CNC-milled timber and aluminum composite panels

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The Pavilion at Great Northern Way, a florid timber, steel, and glass structure designed by Perkins and Will and fabricated by Canadian timber specialist Spearhead, anchors a new public plaza in the Mount Pleasant neighborhood of Vancouver, British Columbia. The 2,000-square-foot space, which was completed in 2019 and will be home to a coffee shop, abuts the Perkins and Will–designed South Flatz office block and the newly constructed campus of the Emily Carr University of Art + Design.
  • Facade Manufacturer Alucobond Guardian Spearhead Blackcomb Facade Technology
  • Architect Perkins and Will
  • Facade Installer Ledcor Group Keith Panel Systems
  • Facade Consultant RDH Building Science
  • Location Vancouver, British Columbia
  • Date of Completion 2019
  • System RAICO Therm+ A-I system
  • Products Custom laminated strand lumber and glulam Guardian Sunguard SuperNeutral 68 Alucobond aluminum composite
The primary elements of the pavilion are ten overlapping curved “petals” clad in bright-red aluminum composite shingles. The petals are just over 30 feet tall and frame a central, glazed oculus. Initially, the architects sought to achieve the flowing form with nail-laminated timber panels—stacked dimensional lumber held together with nails—shaped by 5-axis CNC sculpting. With a budget of only $1.4 million, however, this method proved cost-prohibitive. Instead, Spearhead developed a waffle framing model built from economic laminated strand lumber and glulam sculpted with a 3-axis CNC machine, an approach that significantly reduced the volume of material required for the pavilion and facilitated the straightforward installation of insulation and MEP infrastructure. Streamlining the broad contours of the pavilion did not diminish the project’s hybrid, kit-of-parts complexity. The shear wall system consists of curved plate steel reinforced with glulam on either side, while the slender profile of the upper roof layer relies on CNC-cut plate steel columns laterally supported by engineered wood components. Both the roof diaphragm and the shear wall system are sheathed in plywood; moments of extreme curvature are decked with layers of thin plywood laminated together. Narrow strips of birch plywood were applied to the interior and overlap as curved drop siding. In total, there are approximately 6,950 custom CNC-cut wood components, 875 custom CNC structural steel parts, and 1,350 Simpson brackets. Blackcomb Facade Technology, a frequent Spearhead collaborator with particular expertise in complex assemblies and hybrid structures, handled the five curved glazed bays for the pavilion using a RAICO Therm+ A-I system with Guardian SunGuard glass.
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LEVER Architecture’s Thomas Robinson discusses the impact California could have on the timber industry

We are witnessing a revolution in how we build with engineered timber in the United States.

In January 2019, the International Code Council (ICC) approved changes that would allow high-rise wood buildings in the 2021 International Building Code (IBC). Oregon and Washington were early adopters of these code changes, and Denver, Colorado, recently followed suit. Other states and municipalities are expected to adopt the 2021 IBC timber provisions early, but it is anyone’s guess what California will do. Will the state decide to adopt now, or will it wait till the code becomes part of the new issuance of the 2021 IBC? This is an important question not just for California, and by extension the City of Los Angeles, but also for the future of mass timber in the U.S. and beyond. California standards and codes transform markets, and a mass timber movement in the U.S. without the state that is also the world’s fifth-largest economy is not going to move the needle fast enough. The opportunity to scale a low-carbon, renewable supply chain to address catastrophic climate change is closing quickly, and it is time for California to step up and demonstrate the progressiveness and leadership that have been key to its prosperity.

What does early adoption mean in practice? Today, an architect in Oregon or Washington who follows the provisions of the new IBC can stamp drawings to build a timber building up to 270 feet in height as of right. This is a significant change. Just over four years ago, my firm’s design for a wood high-rise called Framework was selected as one of two winners of the first U.S. Tall Wood Building Prize Competition. At that time, there was no code path in the U.S. for wood buildings over 75 feet. To receive a permit, our team of designers and engineers worked with the State of Oregon on a performance-based design process. Partly funded by the competition prize, this process included 40 tests on full-scale timber building assemblies to demonstrate their fire, seismic, structural, and acoustic performance relative to high-rise life-safety requirements. It was a fascinating, exhausting, and exhilarating experience, and we are proud that this work and research impacted the timber code changes. Thanks to the new code provisions, it is unlikely that another design team will ever have to go through this process in quite the same way again.

Early adoption of the timber code provisions isn’t just about tall buildings, though—it is a critical opportunity to encourage wider investment and innovation in sustainable mass timber development of all scales. Why should California (or any place else) care about mass timber construction? Building with engineered timber products addresses our most pressing global challenges. It has the potential to decrease carbon emissions relative to construction, spur rural economic development, encourage forest practices that prevent fires, and increase the speed at which we can deliver projects, including much-needed affordable housing. The promise of a major market like California supporting mass timber construction will be an incentive for manufacturers to invest in a more advanced supply chain, back new research, and encourage more sustainable forest management. California’s early advocacy of renewables and electric vehicles moved the market (see Tesla), and I believe it could have a similar impact on the development of mass timber.

We are currently in the permit process for one of the first multistory office buildings in Los Angeles with a cross-laminated timber (CLT) floor system. The building is essentially a hybrid, with CLT floors and steel columns and beams. It meets the current code and does not use the provisions of the 2021 IBC because the highest occupied floor is not over 75 feet. That said, it is still a 125,000-square-foot building—not a small undertaking. We have been working closely with Los Angeles authorities and our engineer to clarify and explain how the CLT performs structurally in the project and how it fits within the current code. We have made incremental steps that will allow for subsequent projects to better navigate permitting this type of building, as well as open up options for multiple CLT suppliers to serve the Los Angeles market. I believe these small steps are significant, but I know that my team could have gone further faster if California had already adopted the new timber provisions. Building officials in California are justifiably cautious. The optics of approving tall wood construction as the state faces devastating wildfires is difficult. However, moving in this direction creates a market that will advance the sustainable forest management that prevents these fires in the first place. If we are serious about addressing the major environmental issues of our time, we need California to adopt the 2021 IBC now. We are simply running out of time.

Of course, there is more to do. I believe as architects we must rethink design as a wider ecosystem of environmental and regional economic choices. Where our materials come from and how they are produced should drive and inspire our designs. This is not a limitation but an invitation to innovate with regional, renewable materials to create more compelling architecture that truly addresses both local and global issues.

Thomas Robinson is the founder and principal of LEVER Architecture.

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France mandates public buildings be built with at least 50 percent timber

Instead of forcing a uniform style of federal architecture, French President Emmanuel Macron wants to go green with government-funded structures. The Times reported that after 2022, Macron is aiming for all new public buildings in France to be built with at least 50 percent wood or another bio-sourced material. Not only that, but the President has his sights set on creating 100 urban farms across the country in an effort to bolster its large-scale sustainability measures. Julien Denormandie, the French minister for cities and housing, said the move was inspired by Paris and its recent low-carbon mandate to build structures that are at least eight stories or higher for the 2024 Summer Olympics from timber. “If it is possible for the Olympics, it should be possible for ordinary buildings,” he said in a statement. “I am imposed on all the public entities that depend on me and which manage development to construct buildings with material that is at least 50 percent wood or from bio-sourced material.” Dominique Perrault’s master plan for the river-adjacent Olympic Village includes a series of mid-rise developments that comprise 2,400 units of housing, offices, shops, restaurants, and activity centers. Located in the lower-income neighborhood of Saint-Denis, most of the buildings will be passive or energy-plus structures that utilize wood or other sustainable materials. City Lab pointed out that Paris is using the international sporting event as a way to regenerate the inner suburbs of Northern Paris. The project broke ground on its 126-acre site in November. The push to use eco-friendly materials on big building projects has already started in other cities across France too. In Bordeaux, the country’s first mass timber residential tower is currently under construction as part of a three-structure development called Hyperion. Designed by Jean-Paul Viguier, the 187-foot-tall building will feature 16 stories of housing and office space built around a concrete core. Each floor, which cantilevers slightly over the one below it, will be made of cross-laminated timber. Hyperion is expected to open next year.  As France increases the build-out of these sustainable structures, the country is also boosting access to nature throughout the country’s densest urban enclaves. Denormandie said the first set of urban farms, a group of 30 locations, will be announced this summer. The government also wants to build 90 low-carbon “eco-neighborhoods” that can adapt to extreme weather events such as heatwaves and floods. A new group called France Ville Durable is spearheading the effort.  
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Here are the 2020 U.S. WoodWorks Wood Design Awards winners

Jury’s Choice

This year's jury consisted of:

Danny Adams, Principal, LS3P Associates Marsha Maytum, Principal, Leddy Maytum Stacy Architects Eric McDonnell, Principal, Holmes Structures Matt Shaw, Contributing Editor, The Architect’s Newspaper

Project: First Tech Federal Credit Union Location: Hillsboro, Oregon Architect: Hacker Structural Engineer: Kramer Gehlen & Associates Contractor: Swinerton Builders First Tech Federal Credit Union’s motto is People First—and its new Oregon campus is designed to support and promote the health, comfort, and happiness of employees. Open offices are designed with an emphasis on equal access to natural light and views, and work stations are arranged to ensure that all employees can benefit from biophilic opportunities. Much of the building’s design draws on the beauty of the wood structural system, which is visible throughout the building. Glulam columns and beams frame floor-to-ceiling views to the park and the creek that surrounds the site on three sides. Raised floors conceal HVAC, electrical, and low-voltage systems, contributing to clear, uncluttered spaces that showcase the simple beauty of the cross-laminated timber ceilings. On the ground floor, a central commons with stadium-style seating ascends into a double-height atrium capable of accommodating large gatherings and presentations. LEED Gold-certified, the building achieved an exemplary score in the regional materials category as all of the columns, beams, and CLT panels were sourced and refined within 500 miles of the site. 156,000 square feet / Type III-A construction

Multi-Family Wood Design

Project: Adohi Hall Location: Fayetteville, Arkansas Architect: Leers Weinzapfel Associates; modus studio (AOR); Mackey Mitchell Architects Structural Engineer: Equilibrium ConsultingEngineering Consultants, Inc. Contractor: Nabholz Construction Adohi Hall at the University of Arkansas is the nation’s first large-scale mass timber student housing facility. A bold demonstration of sustainability, the 708-bed complex includes three main volumes, linked together to create a serpentine form set into a sloped site. Buildings A and B include five stories of mass timber—a cross-laminated timber floor and ceiling system supported by glulam columns and beams—over a concrete podium and partial basement. Building C is a one-story volume linking the two residential buildings. Maintaining acoustical separation was a significant issue. To expose the CLT ceilings, acoustical treatment was concentrated on top of the panels. To minimize the depth of the panel topping, and thus the floor-to-floor height, the team used an ultra-thin sound attenuation mat topped with less than 2 inches of heavyweight gypcrete and luxury vinyl tile planks—which surpassed the required STC rating of 50 between sleeping quarters. The use of wood both structurally and aesthetically makes this project a groundbreaking example of student housing design. 202,000 square feet / Type III-B construction

Commercial Mid-Rise

Project: 111 East Grand Location: Des Moines, Iowa Architect: Neumann Monson Architects Structural Engineer: Raker Rhodes Engineering, StructureCraft Contractor: Ryan Companies Anchoring a high-visibility site in Des Moines’ historic East Village, 111 East Grand includes three stories of offices above retail and restaurant spaces on the ground floor. It is the first multi-story office building to include floor and roof decks made from dowel-laminated timber. The DLT panels are supported by glulam post-and-beam framing, and the building is buttressed by a concrete core on the south face for lateral stability. Leveraging a unique benefit of mass timber, much of the structure is left exposed on the interior. This minimizes the need for tenant improvement while providing visual, tactile, and olfactive stimulation to the building’s occupants. Operable windows allow natural ventilation, and balconies on the west provide downtown views. The project is innovative in both design and delivery. From the outset, the core design team of architect and structural engineer collaborated closely with the mass timber engineers and general contractor. This enabled 111 East Grand to push boundaries and convey the accessibility of mass timber building design through its ultimate success. 66,000 square feet / Type III-B construction

Commercial Low-Rise

Project: Redfox Commons Location: Portland, Oregon Architect: LEVER Architecture Structural Engineer: KPFF Consulting Engineers Contractor: R&H Construction This adaptive reuse project transforms a pair of World War II-era warehouses into a light-filled campus for creative office tenants. Recognizing the historic and environmental significance of the existing wood structures, the renovation preserves and restores the original lumber. The trusses were sandblasted and remain exposed, highlighting the wood’s natural beauty. New 80-foot-wide clerestory windows were added to each roof to bring light into the large open floor plates, which are distinguished by column-free spans of 100 feet. To uphold the project’s heritage, both buildings were rebuilt using an industrial vernacular of ribbon windows and weathering steel cladding. During demolition, wood from an overbuilt mezzanine was salvaged to create a new timber and glass entrance structure that connects the two buildings. Over 6,500 linear feet of 4-by-12-inch boards were reclaimed, varying in length from 12 to 24 feet. The boards were fastened around new glulam members using large wood screws to create distinctive columns and beams. This innovative use of wood creates a welcoming entry that is expressive of both the project’s heritage and environmentally-conscious design. 60,000 square feet / Type III-B construction

Wood in Government Buildings

Project: Long Beach Civic Center⁠—Billie Jean King Main Library Location: Long Beach, California Architect: SOM ǀ Skidmore, Owings & Merrill Structural Engineer: SOM ǀ Skidmore, Owings & Merrill Contractor: Clark Construction Installer: WS Klem Located adjacent to historic Lincoln Park, the Billie Jean King Main Library provides a welcoming and flexible environment, with interior space organized into discrete and identifiable areas that maximize the use of square footage while enhancing accessibility. Built over an existing parking structure, the hybrid building includes an exposed glulam roof system over steel framing. It offers a variety of spaces, including group study rooms, independent study areas, a technology-driven makerspace, community center, and large central atrium that provides abundant natural light. Targeting LEED certification, the building also features rooftop photovoltaic cells, daylighting strategies, controlled air ventilation systems, and extensive glazing with architectural overhangs for solar protection.  The library is part of the Long Beach Civic Center Master Plan, designed by SOM to revitalize 22 acres of downtown Long Beach by creating a vibrant, mixed-use district. 96,000 square feet / Type IV construction

Wood in Schools

Project: Arts and Technology Academy Location: Eugene, Oregon Architect: Opsis Architecture; Rowell Brokaw Architects (AOR) Structural Engineer: catena consulting engineers Contractor: Hyland Construction As a teaching tool for middle school students to explore and learn about the interaction between the natural and built world, the Arts and Technology Academy’s honest and tectonic expression of structure, exposed building systems, natural materials, and daylighting create a physical environment conducive to a STE(A)M-centric curriculum. An iconic, umbrella-like folding roof comprised of steel frames, glulam beams, and wood decking—all left exposed—stretches across the length of the building above continuous clerestory windows. Appearing to float, it cantilevers in various locations, offering protection from the elements while creating a warm and inviting interior environment. Various sloped roof profiles pay homage to the surrounding residential vernacular while visually bridging the scale of the project’s two-story massing and surrounding one-story homes. An expansive photovoltaic array adorns the south-facing roof. Ample exterior glazing maximizes daylight and views during the day while serving as a warmly-lit community beacon at night. 95,718 square feet / Type IIIB construction

Institutional

Project: Oregon Conservation Center Location: Portland, Oregon Architect: LEVER Architecture Structural Engineer: KPFF Consulting Engineers Contractor: Lease Crutcher Lewis A blend of mass timber and light wood-frame construction, this renovation and expansion of The Nature Conservancy’s Oregon headquarters transforms a dated office building into a collaborative hub that reflects the environmental mission of its owner. Central to the upgrade is the addition of a 2,000-square-foot ground-level pavilion that serves as a gathering space for public events and collaborations. The building achieved LEED Gold certification, with features that include domestically-fabricated and FSC-certified cross-laminated timber panels, rooftop photovoltaics that produce 25 percent of the building’s electrical supply, efficient building systems and fixtures that reduce electricity consumption by 54 percent and water consumption by 44 percent, and a landscaping and subsurface filtration system to manage stormwater. Abundant daylighting, operable windows, and the use of local materials enhance comfort and connect occupants to the neighborhood and greater region. 15,000 square feet / Type VB construction

Green Building with Wood

Project: Oregon Zoo Education Center Location: Portland, Oregon Architect: Opsis Architecture; Jones and Jones (zoo design; insect zoo architect) Structural Engineer: catena consulting engineers Contractor: Fortis Construction Guided by the Zoo’s central theme, Small Things Matter, the design of this LEED Platinum-certified Education Center brings together a number of architectural and exhibition elements to create teachable, sustainable moments. Built with a combination of heavy timber, light wood framing, and steel, the two single-story buildings are inspired by the circular, woven nature of a bird’s nest; the resulting architecture creates an intertwined relationship between indoor and outdoor spaces that blends into the zoo’s landscape and exhibits. The sweeping cantilevered glulam entry roof and cedar-clad exterior draw visitors into the lobby’s interactive displays, insect exhibit, and event space. Sustainable design strategies include an expansive rooftop photovoltaic array, rain gardens with 90 species of native plants that provide wildlife habitat while cleaning stormwater for reuse, bird-friendly lighting, and fritted glass windows. The Center is expected to achieve net-zero energy certification. 20,000 square feet / Type V-B construction

Beauty of Wood

Project: Trailhead Building at Theodore Wirth Park Location: Minneapolis, ‎Minnesota Architect: HGA Structural Engineer: HGA Contractor: Kalcon A gateway to the Nordic ski and mountain bike trails of the Minneapolis Parks System, the trailhead building is used extensively by the public and area high schools for training and competitive meets. The highlight is an innovative mass timber roof that cantilevers in two orthogonal directions, tapers to a point at its tip, and is fully exposed on the interior. Glulam girders cantilever from 10 to 25 feet, following the trapezoidal shape of the roof, and are supported in part by a colonnade of Douglas-fir glulam columns and wood-frame walls. The unique roof and colonnade provide an elegant entry, while exposed wood on the interior creates a natural connection between gathering spaces and the outdoors. While embracing its surroundings with the use of mass timber, this building has also been embraced by its community. It was chosen as a hosting facility for the 2020 Cross Country Ski World Cup. 14,200 square feet / Type V-A construction

Adaptable and Durable Wood Structures

Project: Julia Morgan Hall Location: Berkeley, California Architect: Siegel & Strain Architects Structural Engineer: Bluestone Engineering Contractor: James R. Griffin Built in 1911, this Senior Women’s Hall at UC Berkeley is an elegant redwood bungalow with exposed wall and roof framing and a natural-finish interior. The building served as a gathering place for female students until 1969, when it was converted into a childcare center. First relocated in 1946, it was moved again in 2014—to the UC Berkeley Botanical Garden. To extricate the structure from its site and negotiate a winding road with overhanging trees, the building was divided into four segments, which were reassembled at the Garden, rehabilitated, and upgraded to meet current accessibility standards. All of the work—including cutting, installation, subsequent removal of temporary shoring and protection, and reassembly—had to be carefully executed to avoid damage. The exposed interior wood components required only minimal staining to conceal wear and tear, while the rich wood floors were refinished. The redwood siding was replaced as required and painted, and the team added a new wood porch. 2,255 square feet / Type V-B construction

Regional Excellence Awards

Project: 901 East Sixth Location: Austin, Texas Architect: TB/DS (Thoughtbarn/Delineate Studio) Structural Engineer: Leap!Structures Contractor: DCA Construction A design goal for this five-story office building was to make it seem at home in the creative, light industrial neighborhood of East Side Austin.  The structure is a hybrid of exposed cross-laminated timber floor and ceiling systems, and exposed steel—and is the first of its kind in Texas. It is clad in Corten steel, which forms a stable, rust-like appearance over time. A double-height lobby with a 25-foot bi-fold door allows the space to be opened to the street during special events; it also serves as a showcase for the exposed wood ceiling and full-height feature wall made from CLT off-cuts. 901 East Sixth achieved LEED Gold certification and was fully leased before construction was complete—at rates significantly exceeding the original pro forma. The project has been a celebrated financial success for its developers while receiving an enthusiastic reception from the public. 128,000 square feet / Type III-A construction Project: CoǀLab Location: Falls Church, Virginia Architect: William McDonough + Partners MEP Engineer: Staengl Engineering Contractor: HITT Contracting This unique project is intended to serve as a nucleus for research and testing of emerging technologies, products, and practices that will transform the construction industry. HITT Contracting envisioned Co|Lab as a showcase for building innovation that would utilize as many healthy materials as possible and exhibit smart emerging design and construction technologies. The mass timber structure—which includes cross-laminated timber walls and ceilings supported by glulam columns and beams—was chosen for its aesthetic, multi-sensory characteristics, light carbon footprint, and speed of construction. The design is based on cradle-to-cradle principles; instead of minimizing the building’s negative environmental footprint, the team wanted a beneficial footprint. Co|Lab is LEED Platinum-certified, and HITT is pursuing both Net Zero Energy and Petal certification. It was the first CLT structure in Virginia and the first commercial mass timber building in metropolitan DC. 8,650 square feet / Type V-B construction Project: The Continuum Location: Lake City, South Carolina Architect: McMillan Pazdan Smith Architecture Structural Engineer: Britt Peters & Associates Contractor: Thompson Turner Construction The Continuum is an innovative campus serving college, continuing education, and high school students in northeast South Carolina. After exploring options, the design team chose to renovate an existing big-box retail shell adjacent to downtown Lake City—but they added a unique structural solution. The roof of the central corridor was replaced with a large mass timber structure. Comprised of glulam columns and beams and nail-laminated timber decking, the addition allows daylight to penetrate to the center of the former retail floor. From the site plan and exterior façade to the interior finishes, the design is inspired by the imagery of the region’s deconstructed barns. As visitors approach the plaza, the view down the road reaches a reflection pool that runs under an extended overhang of the soaring NLT deck and into a green space intended for art installations. By strategically dividing and removing some of the existing structure with the glulam clerestory, the design creates circulation spaces flooded with light that invite students to gather. Linked by these open spaces, the building incorporates multiple educational functions into one cohesive floor plan. 46,592 square feet / Type IV construction Project: MFAH Sarah Campbell Blaffer Foundation Center for Conservation Location: Houston, Texas Architect: LakeǀFlato Architects; Kendall/Heaton Architects (AOR) Structural Engineer: Cardno Haynes Whaley Contractor: WS Bellows Wood Structure & Engineering Consultant: StructureCraft Builders Art conservation facilities tend to be thought of as sterile laboratory spaces, but that isn’t true of this one. From the outset, the design team wanted to incorporate natural biophilic materials, specifically wood, to provide an appropriate warmth and texture to the laboratory environment. This hybrid project includes glulam columns and beams and dowel-laminated timber roof panels, as well as steel structural elements. The DLT roof is left exposed, offering a welcome contrast to the wall finishes that are necessarily neutral. The overall result blends the science and art of conservation to create spaces that perform superbly to their technical requirements while offering a warm and welcoming work environment for the art conservators. 30,000 square feet / Type IV construction Project: DPR Office Location: Sacramento, California Architect: SmithGroup Structural Engineer: Buehler Engineering Contractor: DPR Construction When DPR Construction decided to relocate its office to downtown Sacramento, it was seeking to connect with the community it serves on a deeper level. In choosing mass timber, it also saw an opportunity to give employees the benefits of a biophilic design and enhance their workday experience. The project, which involved adding a second story to a 1940s-era concrete and masonry building, includes cross-laminated timber roof and wall panels, and glulam columns and beams. Among its unique features, the building includes CLT shear walls, a first in California. It also exceeds regulatory requirements, targeting net-positive energy—which reduces its carbon footprint from the standpoint of operations and maintenance. The use of mass timber augments this goal by reducing embodied carbon and acting as a carbon sink. This is DPR’s sixth net-zero energy office, and the firm is seeking LEED Platinum, Petal, and WELL Building certifications. 34,508 square feet / Type V-B construction Project: Pike Place Marketfront Location: Seattle, Washington Architect: The Miller Hull Partnership Structural Engineer: Magnusson Klemencic Associates Contractor: Sellen Construction Pike Place MarketFront adds 50 vendor stalls; 40 low-income and senior apartments; commercial, retail and office space; a public roof terrace and walkways; and 300 underground parking spaces to the Pike Place Market Historic District in Seattle. Comprised primarily of heavy timber, light wood framing, and cast-in-place concrete, the project draws contextual inspiration from the simple utilitarian character of the existing market. This historic precedent, combined with timber’s carbon-negative footprint, abundant local sourcing, and speed of erection, made it an easy choice for the project team. While timber is typically used to support gravity loads, the structural engineer designed composite timber and steel framing members to manage portions of the building’s lateral loads. Enclosed by a timber-frame glazing system, the monumental structure includes a vibrant hall housing retail and restaurant spaces while preserving historic views of Puget Sound. Heavy timber columns, beams, and decking serve as both structure and finish, bringing the natural beauty of wood to the space. 210,000 square feet / Type IV construction Project: Rhode Island School of Design – North Hall Location:  Providence, Rhode Island Architect: NADAAA Structural Engineer: Odeh Engineers Contractor: Shawmut Design and Construction For this six-story residence hall at RISD, the design team chose a hybrid system of cross-laminated timber floor and ceiling panels supported by steel framing to achieve goals that included beautiful design, environmental sustainability, and an aggressive construction schedule. Exposed CLT ceilings add beauty while echoing themes of sustainability that students experience as part of the school’s curriculum. In addition to reducing the project’s carbon footprint through the use of CLT, the new hall is expected to use a quarter less energy and less than half the water of a typical residential structure of similar size. The system also provided a schedule advantage. Working closely with the fabricator, the team optimized the layout of panels to minimize erection time. Five-ply panels were manufactured in 8-by-50-foot spans—allowing a single panel to span the building’s width. The erector exceeded expectations by completing the superstructure in less than three weeks. By prioritizing innovation and working to achieve a shared vision, the RISD project team successfully brought the first hybrid CLT-steel residence hall in New England to life. 40,790 square feet / Type III-B construction Project: Sideyard Location: Portland, Oregon Architect: Skylab Structural Engineer: catena consulting engineers Contractor: Andersen Construction Photos: Stephen Miller When the City of Portland built a new one-way couplet connecting to the Burnside Bridge, it created a leftover berm space that is now home to Sideyard. Shaped like a wedge, this five-story project prioritizes access to public transportation, bicycle access, and pedestrian openness. It includes retail and restaurant space at street level, additional retail on the second floor, and office space above. The structure includes a cross-laminated timber floor and roof system supported by a glulam post-and-beam frame, with concrete lateral cores. Sideyard is part of the new Central  Eastside community envisioned in the Burnside Bridgehead Framework Plan, designed to strengthen the connectivity of the area with the Westside downtown core. Its use of locally-sourced materials showcases Oregon wood species in a truly unique fashion. 23,202 square feet / Type III-A construction Project: Tre Søstre Location: Grand Marais, MMinnesota Architect: Salmela Architect Structural Engineer: Meyer Borgman Johnson Contractor: Taiga Design + Build Tre Søstre is located in a former fishing village, close to the shore of Lake Superior. Two decades ago, the owners purchased the abandoned property, converted three severely damaged buildings into rental units, and built a heavy timber “boathouse” as their own live/work space. They recently added three units—designed to make a bold statement while remaining sensitive to the scale and materials of the neighborhood. Despite modest footprints, the structures include multiple cantilevered volumes and decks, a strategy inspired by Scandinavian farm buildings. Each unit has a covered entry deck located above grade. Interior stairs lead down to ground-level and up to second-floor bedrooms. The top floors cantilever to the east, creating an open living space with unobstructed views while providing cover for the patios and decks off the bedrooms below. Spatial adjacencies were carefully considered to provide areas of protected privacy and open gathering within a relatively dense cluster of units. 3,440 square feet / Type V-B construction
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Architectural Association launches experimental Wood Lab

The recent uptick in timber construction across the globe has led to a wave of innovation as firms test the material’s limits by building taller, bolder structures each and every day. In just the past year, timber has been transformed into stadiums, pre-fab homes, and even entire neighborhoods. The Architectural Association School of Architecture (AA) in London hopes to build on this momentum with the launch of its AA Wood Lab, a research center in which scientists and practitioners will come together to transform the future of timber. The Wood Lab will function as part of Hooke Park, the AA’s woodland campus in Dorset, U.K., with the overarching goal of educating architects in the sustainable use of timber for building projects and other research capacities. Guided by a problem-solving approach, the Wood Lab will combine the latest technologies in science, design, and fabrication in order to develop building strategies that pair with the inherent properties of wood. Zachary Mollica, Warden of AA School’s Hooke Park campus, looks forward to the wide-ranging benefits of timber research: “As architects grapple with the need to reduce the negative environmental impact of making buildings, there is no better moment for the AA to further take a leading position in the use of timber within the built environment,” Mollica, who will direct the lab, told AN. “Timber is one of our first building materials, and its carbon locking potential has unparalleled ecological benefits of increasing contemporary relevance given pressing climatic concerns.” In Mollica's view, timber is intimately tied to Hooke Park, as founder John Makepeace and Parnham College were ahead of the curve in realizing the potential of timber construction: They worked closely with architects and engineers like Frei Otto, Richard Burton, and Ted Happold to construct the campus’s first buildings. The Wood Lab recently opened applications for research fellows and team members. In the coming months, founding members will lay the groundwork for long-term research aimed “beyond conventional architectural thinking,” working closely with partner organizations in the process. First in the lineup is a retrospective analysis of projects in Hooke Park by both Parnham College and the AA, ending with the launch of a print publication as the foundation for the Wood Lab’s work to come. For a timber buff like Mollica, the launch is an exciting step in shedding light on a long-underestimated material: “Timber for me is simply the most interesting material we have available—and there is good reason I will always want a wooden desk. Timber’s incredible complexity derives from its formation as a living being. It is a material that we have a long social and cultural connection to.” The Wood Lab was made possible thanks to the generous support of John Makepeace, who as director of Parnham College founded the Hooke Park campus, which was turned over to the AA in 2000. The creation of the Wood Lab is part of a broader initiative at the school launched by director Eva Franch i Gilabert, the AA Residence. “The AA Residence allows for new experimental forms of research to emerge,” said Franch in a statement, “at the intersection of academia and practice, opening up a new space for innovative ideas that can radically change the way we think, build and shape the future.”
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This seaside kiosk in Hong Kong uses robotics armatures for a cinematic effect

Hong Kong-based firm LAAB Architects has realized the robotic Harbour Kiosk along the Avenue of the Stars, a stretch of the city designed as a tribute to Hong Kongese cinema, on the Tsim Sha Tsui waterfront. Originally asked to create a 108-square-foot food kiosk, the architects instead opted to combine the kiosk with a nearby mechanical room. The new 56-foot stretch allowed LAAB to pack in even more functions to the Harbour Kiosk, including a counter, planters, info panels, and drinking fountains. To develop the Harbour Kiosk, LAAB spent four years prototyping and optimizing parametric designs. They didn’t just have to create a structure that could not only accommodate the kiosk’s various uses—including housing equipment for the entire Avenue of Stars—but that would be strong enough to withstand typhoon season.  But perhaps what stands out most is the kiosk’s moving facade. Inspired by local market stalls, red balau timber fins open to grow the kiosk’s size during the day, and close to make it more compact at night. More radically, however, the exterior undulates throughout the day thanks to 49 robotic armatures, which move systematically to mimic the waves in the harbor and help “to establish an emotional connection between the people, the architecture, and the surrounding natural environment,” according to the LAAB team. It was designed to “transform the local street into a kinetic and cinematic scene” in honor of “the action movies that Hong Kong is famous for.”
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Architects apply the latest in fabrication, design, and visualization to age-old timber

Every so often, the field of architecture is presented with what is hailed as the next “miracle building material.” Concrete enabled the expansion of the Roman Empire, steel densified cities to previously unthinkable heights, and plastic reconstituted the architectural interior and the building economy along with it.  But it would be reasonable to question why and how, in the 21st century, timber was accorded a miracle status on the tail-end of a timeline several millennia long. Though its rough-hewn surface and the puzzle-like assembly it engenders might seem antithetical to the current global demand for exponential building development, it is timber’s durability, renewability, and capacity for sequestering carbon—rather than release it—that inspires the building industry to heavily invest in its future.  Cross-laminated timber (CLT), a highly resilient form of engineered wood made by gluing layers of solid-sawn lumber together, was first developed in Europe in the early 1990s, yet the product was not commonly used until the 2000s and was only introduced into the International Building Code in 2015. While mid-to-large range firms around the world have been in competition to build the largest or the tallest timber structures to demonstrate its comparability to concrete and steel, a number of independent practitioners have been applying the latest methods of fabrication, computational design techniques, and visualization software to the primordial material. Here, AN exhibits a cross-section of the experimental work currently being pursued with the belief that timber can be for the future what concrete, steel, and plastic have been in the past. AnnaLisa Meyboom In the Fall of 2018, 15 of professor AnnaLisa Meyboom’s students at the University of British Columbia (UBC), along with David Correa at University of Waterloo, Oliver David Krieg of Intelligent City, and 22 industry participants designed and constructed the third annual Wander Wood Pavilion, a twisting, latticed timber structure made up entirely of non-identical components.  By taking advantage of the advanced fabrication resources available at the UBC Centre for Advanced Wood Processing, including a CNC mill and an multi-axis industrial robot, the project was both a learning opportunity for its design team and a demonstration to a broader public that timber is a more than viable material to which contemporary fabrication technologies can be applied. The pavilion forms a bench on one end that's large enough for two people, a public invitation test the structure's strength and durability for themselves. While the pavilion only required three days to fabricate and assemble on-site, a significant amount of time and energy was spent ensuring its quick assembly when the time came. A rigorous design workflow was established that balanced an iterative design process with rapid geometric output that accounted for logical assembly sequencing. Every piece of the pavilion was then milled to interlock into place and be further secured by metal rivets. The project was devised in part to teach students one strategy for narrowing the gap between digital design and physical fabrication while applying a novel material. In this vein, a standard industrial robot was used throughout the fabrication process that was then “set up with an integrator specifically to work on wood,” according to Meyboom. Gilles Retsin While Gilles Retsin, the London-based architect and professor at the Bartlett School of Architecture, has long experimented with both computational design and novel methods of fabrication, a recent focus on timber has propelled his practice into a bold new direction. A giant wooden structure installed at London’s Royal Academy in early 2019, for instance, was the architect’s first attempt at applying augmented reality to modular timber construction through the use of Microsoft’s Hololens. “We used AR to send instructions directly from the digital model to the team working on-site,” Retsin explained. “AR therefore helps us understand what a fully-automated construction process would look like, where a digital model communicates directly with people and robots on site.” In a recent international competition set in Nuremberg, Germany, Retsin set his sights on a much larger scale for what would have been the world’s first robotically prefabricated timber concert hall. Designed in collaboration with architect Stephan Markus Albrecht, engineering consultancy Bollinger-Grohmann, and climate engineers Transsolar and acoustic specialists Theatre Projects, the proposal takes advantage of the site’s location in a region with an abundance of timber while envisioning the material’s application to a uniquely challenging building type. The building’s form exhibits the material’s lightness using 30-foot sawtooth CLT prefabricated modules over the main lobby spaces, which are exposed from the exterior thanks to a seamless glass envelope.  “Designing in timber not only means a more sustainable future, but also has architects profoundly redesigning buildings from the ground up,” said Retsin. “It’s a challenging creative task, we’re really questioning the fundamental parts, the building blocks of architecture again.”  Casey Rehm For SCI-Arc professor Casey Rehm, working with timber has meant challenging many issues in the field of architecture at once. Timber is a rarely-considered building material in Los Angeles given the high time and material costs associated with its transportation and manufacturing. “Right now,” Rehm said, “the industry is manually laying up two-by-sixes into industrial presses, pressing them into panels, and then manually cutting window openings.” But if timber waste itself was adopted as a building material, he argued, the material could be far more globally cost-efficient.  While timber has been used in the construction of increasingly large structures around the world, such as multistory housing developments and office buildings, Rehm believes the material can be reasonably adapted to a smaller scale for quick deployment. In this vein, Rehm has been researching strategies with his students for producing inexpensive CLT panels for the construction of homeless housing and accessory dwelling units in Los Angeles, a city with a particularly conspicuous housing shortage.  But aside from its potential as a cost and material-efficient material, the architect has applied timber to even his most exploratory design work. NN_House 1, a sprawling single-floor home Rehm proposed in 2018 for the desert plains of Joshua Tree, California, was designed in part using a 3D neural network to develop ambiguous divisions between rooms, as well as to blur the divide between interior and exterior. The AI was trained on the work of modernist architects—while producing idiosyncrasies of its own—to develop a living space with multiple spatial readings. Kivi Sotamaa As an architect practicing in Finland, Kivi Sotamaa is certainly not unique in his community for his admiration of the far-reaching possibilities of timber construction. He is, however, producing novel research into its application at a domestic scale to reimagine how wood can be used as a primary material for home construction. The Meteorite, a three-story home the architect has designed near Helsinki constructed entirely of locally-grown CLT, was designed using an organizational strategy the architect has nicknamed ‘the misfit.’ This system, as Sotamaa defines it, creates two distinct formal systems to generate room-sized interstitial spaces that simultaneously act as insulation, storage space, and housing for the building’s technical systems. “Aesthetically,” Sotamaa elaborated, “the misfit strategy allows for the creation of a large scale monolithic form on the outside, which addresses the scale of the forest, and an intricate human-scale spatial arrangement on the interior.” Altogether, the architect estimates, the home’s CLT slabs have sequestered 59,488 kilograms, or roughly 65 tons, of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The Meteorite was developed and introduced to the client using virtual reality, and Sotamaa hopes to apply other visualization technologies to the design and production of timber architecture, including augmented reality that could allow builders to view assembly instructions in real-time on site. “When the pieces are in order on-site and [with clear] instructions,” Sotamaa explained, “the assembly of the three-dimensional puzzle can happen swiftly and efficiently, saving energy and resources when compared with conventional construction processes.” 
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A new RIBA show asks if timber is the new concrete

At around this point last year, The Guardian ran the headline, “Concrete: the most destructive material on Earth.” This was, you could say, concrete’s watershed moment. Attitudes towards the material have shifted significantly as architects ditch their béton love affair and look for something new with cork and hemp emerging as new kids on the block. However, perhaps it’s an old friend which will be the most help to architects amid the climate catastrophe: wood. “Timber is the new concrete,” said Alex de Rijke, cofounder and partner at the London-based dRMM (de Rijke Marsh Morgan). It’s a belief de Rijke has held since 2006 and one his firm has practiced too, the results of which are currently on display at RIBA North, the Royal Institute of British Architects' center in Liverpool, U.K. Titled Forest of Fabrication, the exhibition showcases 24 projects from dRMM, each represented primarily as wood models. Some are speculative studies into the possibilities of timber, while others are real, built projects. The models range in scale from 1:1 to 1:1000 with the majority resting on upright logs throughout the relatively small gallery space (hence the exhibition’s name). Timber is celebrated in its natural state and as a construction material. Chipboard flooring installed for the exhibition adds to the experience and ensures that the smell of wood is immediately apparent when you enter the gallery. Most importantly, though, Forest of Fabrication demonstrates novel forms and ways of building achieved with timber which may not be immediately obvious or apparent. A timber factory prototype, for example, shows how cross-laminated timber (CLT) walls can support interlocking, cellular insulated long-span panels to create a naturally lit, column-free 215,000-square-foot space. Another model depicts the Kingsdale School in London. Completed in 2004, the project saw an auditorium created through joining larch poles together to form an asymmetric dome frame, while CNC plywood panels formed the dome’s secondary skin. More experiments in curvature can be found with a swimming pool roof concept model that explores woven engineered timber. Drawing on the work of Pier Luigi Nervi—an architect-engineer famed for his concrete parabolic structures—the proposal exploits the flexibility of laminated timber to create a vaulting, column-free arena. Of course, it would be impossible to talk about timber and dRMM without mentioning the 2017 RIBA Stirling Prize-winning Hastings Pier, a model of which is duly afforded more space than most. The reinvented pier brought the area’s jaunt from the beach into the sea back to life through a spacious, open timber platform used to stage events, and a visitor center to create a dynamic public space. The visitor center also made extensive use of what had been left untouched by a fire in 2010, deploying salvaged wood arranged as zig-zagging boards to clad its walls and support a glulam roof deck. “Timber has never been more relevant than it is now, with climate change awareness having entered the domain of global emergency,” de Rijke told AN over email. In the U.K., the construction industry is responsible for 40 percent of carbon dioxide emissions. Architects have responded accordingly, and dRMM was among the 17 founding signatories of Architects Declare, which now has 845 practices on board. While filled with a healthy dose of timber prototypes and concepts, Forest of Fabrication falls short of informing audiences on the potential future of timber. Admittedly this would be a tall order for such a small exhibition; however, de Rijke was on hand. “Going forward, sustainable forestry management is going to be a really important step for how the world reduces its carbon footprint,” he said. “[We] also need to look at the biodiversity element, the cultural element, the issue of land use—all things that will require the promotion of using varied species.” De Rijke also touched on the separation of architect and engineer, and of designer and maker in contemporary construction. “The need for specialists to translate designs into material, and the builder on-site being cut off from the design development, prevents iterative innovation. Real collaboration between consultants, manufacturers, and contractors is required from [the] inception of the building concept onwards.” Forest of Fabrication runs through 11 April 2020.
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Japan House Los Angeles displays exquisite furniture handcrafted in the Hida region

A dense forest 300 miles wide spans the distance between the bustling Japanese cities of Tokyo and Kyoto. In the northern region of this divide lies Hida, a city in the Gifu Prefecture that has maintained a vibrant woodworking tradition for over 1,300 years (the first use of the term Hida no takuma, or “master craftsman of Hida,” first appeared in a written document in 467 AD). Wood bending machines introduced to the region from Germany and Austria between 1906 and 1909 led to the flourishing of the region's industry; perhaps most notable among them is Hida Sangyo Co., Ltd., a furniture manufacturer established in 1920 whose work now adorns the Japanese imperial palace and regularly exhibits at the Milan Furniture Fair. Japan House Los Angeles, one of three global exhibition spaces conceived by the Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs, is currently displaying Hida Sangyo Co.’s signature products with an in-depth look at what goes on behind the scenes. The show, Hida: A Woodwork Tradition in the Makingdemonstrates the range of handcrafted products originated by Hida Sangyo a century after its founding, as well as the range of creative talent the company has called upon, including designers Kenya Hara, Enzo Mari, and even architect Kengo Kuma. Exhibition designer Daigo Daikoku interspersed woodworking tools and untreated wood samples throughout to underscore the work's deep connection to handicraft. A table demonstrating the company's patented wood bending technology, for instance, reveals how an unremarkable block of wood is shaped into a finely-detailed chair back and set of armrest using only three steps. Another table features six glass domes containing wood samples—among them, cypress, Japanese magnolia, five-needle pine, and sansho pepper. Visitors are encouraged to lift the domes, “take a deep breath and experience the abundance of Hida's beautiful forests through all five senses.” Nearly all six, I was convinced, could easily be distilled and sold as cologne for the rugged consumer market with little alteration. Along the back wall, Daikoku included a series of wooden toys of his own design. His stacked, compressed wood blocks and the interlocking boards both recall toy designs produced by Charles and Ray Eames, the mid-century duo that also found success in experimenting with wood and wood bending devices. “Please enjoy the charm of wood in tune with the soul and aesthetic of Japanese craft," Daikoku implored the viewer, “and imagine you are walking through the forests of Hida.” The exhibition succeeds in showcasing the phenomenal tactile qualities of wood and its seemingly limitless potential as a resource for design. Hida: A Woodwork Tradition in the Making will be on display until April 12.
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Rotterdam's harbor will host a floating timber office building

The Global Center on Adaptation (GCA) will soon have a new home in Rotterdam that reflects its dedication to managing climate change. Powerhouse Company, also based in Rotterdam, has revealed its design for Floating Office Rotterdam (FOR), a fully self-sufficient and energy-neutral timber structure that will float on the port of Rijnhaven. Powerhouse Company has integrated several advanced sustainability measures in the design of FOR. The waters of the Rijnhaven will provide an ample source for heat exchange below, and an open gable roof will be split between solar panels and greenery. Overhanging floors throughout the building will shade lower offices from the sun while still allowing for large windows and plenty of daylight. In addition to the offices, FOR will house a restaurant with a large terrace and a “floating pool” within the Maas River. The GCA was launched in the fall of 2018 by former UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon. The commission is rooted in the development of measures to manage the inevitable effects of climate change through technology, planning, and investment. Ban's co-leaders of the GCA include Bill Gates and managing director of the International Monetary Fund Kristalina Georgieva. To GCA staff, the new building is a fitting representation of their work in exploring a sustainable future: “As the world’s climate changes, extreme weather events and rising sea levels present new challenges for architects. Embedding resilient features into a design before disaster strikes not only makes economic sense but it can also help us to mitigate against climate change,” said Patrick Verkooijen, CEO of the Commission, in a press statement. Construction of the FOR will begin at an offsite location in Rotterdam in spring 2020 before the finished structure is moved to the Rijnhaven.
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Burning Man's radiant 2020 temple is revealed

This year, Burning Man will be getting an eight-pointed star structure called Empyrean as their official temple. Designed by architect and artist Laurence “Renzo” Verbeck and artist Sylvia Adrienne Lisse, who met while working on the 2019 temple, Empyrean will take a central role in Black Rock City, reaching 70 feet tall and spanning a diameter of 200 feet. The Burning Man journal wrote the project was selected for its “lovely geometry and inclusive design,” though it is not immediately clear what “inclusive” might mean in this context. The structure will feature eight wooden canopies arranged like the spokes of the wheel ,which start off solid on the ground and are cut with tessellated patterns towards the top to allow sunlight in. Within the triangular canopies will be spaces for offerings. Along the way, visitors will pass under “saffron-colored” fabrics. They can also write prayers on “Empyrean Flags” which will be hoisted up. According to the temple’s Kickstarter, after giving the prayers to the wind they will be burned alongside the entire structure. Multiple entrances will lead to a central gathering space. Above this atrium will be a wooden structure containing the “flame,” which is meant to be visible from across the Playa (for everyone’s safety, the flame is not real, just an electric simulation). As Lisse told Burning Man’s journal: “The Temple is a subtle and humble beacon that radiates at an indescribable magnitude.” According to Verbeck and Lisse, the eight-pointed star is a “symbol brought forward from our early human understanding of the intelligent order that underlies our universe” that has “represented hope, abundance, transformation, direction, justice, balance of duality, and harmony between the profound and mundane.” The geometric arrangement “activates the temple as a transformative healing portal” for Burners while the pointsdisgorge their energy skyward.” Visitors can enter and exit from any point, all passing through the physical and spiritual center of the temple. This multidimensional experience is meant to resonate with Burning Man’s 2020 “Multiverse” theme which “explores the quantum kaleidoscope of possibility, the infinite realities of the multiverse, and our own superpositioning as actors and observers in the cosmic Cacophony of resonant strings” and invites attendees to investigate if their realities will be “augmented, bifurcated, or omnidimensional?” As the official website notes: “Only time will tell. Or has told. Or is telling.” The temple’s title is derived from the theological term which denotes the pinnacle of heaven, in most cosmologies to which it is applied, home to the fire element. While Burning Man has provided $100,000 in funding, the creators are seeking an additional $100,000 to realize the project.
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80 Atlantic is Toronto’s first timber office building in generations

A look around Toronto’s seemingly innumerable construction sites tends to reveal building materials common to many North American cities: brick and stone, steel and glass, and of course, concrete. But a new mass timber office building in the Liberty Village neighborhood points in a different direction. Designed by Canadian firm Quadrangle for Hullmark Developments, with partner BentallGreenOak on behalf of Sun Life Assurance Company of Canada, the five-story, 90,000-square-foot 80 Atlantic debuted this past fall as Toronto’s first wood-frame office building in over a century. Part of a larger commercial development near the King Street corridor a few blocks north of the Gardiner Expressway, 80 Atlantic’s underground parking garage, first floor, and core were built using conventional cast-in-place concrete. The upper four stories, including an uppermost mechanical level, were built with glue-laminated timber (GLT) columns and beams that support nail-laminated timber floors. The rectangular building’s street-fronting east and west facades feature an irregular grid pattern in stone and glass, while its longer north and south aspects are fully glazed to reveal and highlight the internal timber structure. This is the second Liberty Village building designed by Quadrangle for Hullmark, following the firm’s conversion of an adjacent historic warehouse structure, 60 Atlantic, into office and retail space. According to the designers, uncovering the original post-and-beam structure at 60 Atlantic inspired the idea for a mass timber neighbor, now newly legal thanks to a 2015 change in regional building codes that allows for mass timber structures of up to six stories. “We started to imagine a modern wood office building that took all of the best parts of the old post and beam building that we uncovered at 60 Atlantic and combine it with all the modern comforts of a 21st-century office building and started referring to that concept as post and beam 2.0,” Quadrangle’s Wayne McMillan said at Toronto’s recent Building Show. According to the development team, using mass timber for 80 Atlantic also offered an important point of aesthetic differentiation as well as environmental benefit. Made from layers of treated and glued wood, GLT is fire resistant and durable and is considered more sustainable than concrete or steel. As the building industry increasingly searched for ways to to reduce both embodied and emitted carbon, advocates of mass timber forms such as GLT and its closely-related cross-laminated timber point to environmental benefits including wood’s ability to sequester carbon while growing, and to reduce the amount of carbon dioxide generated in the construction process. While mass timber has garnered significant interest abroad, including for the U.K.’s recently approved, fully timber Eco Park Stadium by Zaha Hadid Architects, its adoption for large-scale buildings in North America has been slower. 80 Atlantic is only the second mass timber building to be approved in Toronto, following 728 Yonge Street. This may soon change, as Sidewalk Labs recently proposed an entirely timber smart city on the Toronto waterfront.