Posts tagged with "Chicago":

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United States Artists awards MOS and Sara Zewde with $50K grants

Chicago non-profit United States Artists (USA) has announced its 2020 fellowship class, a group of 50 creatives across the country and various disciplines who will be awarded $50,000 in unrestricted grants towards supporting their lives and individual work. New York-based MOS Architects and landscape designer and urban artist Sara Zewde were selected as this year’s sole architecture honorees.  “It is a critically important time to support the livelihoods of artists and we are ecstatic to be able to honor 50 of them this year,” said USA President and CEO Deana Haggag. “The 2020 class is the largest cohort of Fellows we have awarded since we relocated to Chicago, and each and every one of them stands out as a visionary influence in their respective field.”  Born in Los Angeles in 2006, USA was established soon after the National Endowment for the Arts decided to cut ties with its personal grant awards program. Now backed by larger endowment groups like Bloomberg Philanthropies and the Ford and Rockefeller Foundations, among others, USA has continued to grow its annual fellowship program, often awarding two or three design teams among the honorees. Recent winners in the field include Erin and Ian Besler of Besler & Sons, Keller Easterling, and Lucia Cuba in 2019, as well as Amanda Williams and Norman Kelley in 2018.  Founded by principals Michael Meredith and Hilary Sample in 2005, MOS works out of Harlem, New York, on numerous projects ranging from schools, apartments, exhibition design, furniture, books, and more. Most recently, MOS completed a nine-acre Housing Laboratory in Mexico meant to help the National Works’ Housing Fund Institute (Infonavit) explore new low-cost housing typologies. In 2018, AN named the firm one of the top 50 interior architects in the country.  Zewde is the founding principal of Studio Zewde based in Harlem, New York. A trained landscape architect from Harvard GSAPP, Zewde also holds a master’s in city planning from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. She integrates artistry and activism into her work, as seen in her graphic urban park planned for the Africatown Community Land Trust in Seattle or her masterplan for Plan Road, a historic street in East Baton Rouge that’s about to undergo major changes as the site of Louisiana’s first-ever Bus Rapid Transit system. In 2018, Zewde was named to the National Trust for Historic Preservation's inaugural “40 Under 40: People Saving Places” list. Find the full list of USA's 2020 fellows here.
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Chicago's Lakeview Low-Line makes infrastructure pop

Location: Chicago Design consultants: PORT Urbanism Decorative stone: Lake Street Supply Crushed granite pathway: Kafka Granite Planters: Planterworx Custom cubbies: Landscape Forms Light boxes: Landscape Forms Fixtures and fittings: Studio 431

PORT Urbanism designed Chicago’s Lakeview Low-Line to be a community art space. When the Lakeview Chamber of Commerce drafted its master plan in 2012, among its top priorities was developing the underutilized right-of-way and Chicago Transit Authority maintenance path along the city’s “L” tracks between the Southport and Paulina stations on the Brown Line. Working with the manufacturer Landscape Forms’ Studio 431, PORT created a series of bright yellow rectangular boxes, or “cubbies,” as a new take on public furnishing.

The carved-out forms of the Low-Line’s cubbies take cues from the interiors of the “L” train cars and the shape of the tracks overhead. The transit system had more than just an aesthetic influence; the cubbies needed to be movable for track repair and the possibility of excavation to rebuild the train structure’s column footings. The custom furniture rethinks durability, access, and comfort while accommodating a range of programs.

The Low-Line was designed to create a lively place for commuters, residents, and tourists to enjoy public art. It includes a picnic table, a vendor booth-cum-bar, and two cantilevered cubbies that frame the entry made of powder-coated steel exteriors and slatted ipe wood interiors. Power is integrated into the cubbies for controlled access by vendors and musicians. Studio 431 also manufactured easily replaceable panels and tamper-resistant fasteners to account for wear and tear. The first phase of the half-mile-long art walk and garden opened to the public in 2018 as a celebration of the neighborhood’s culture and is part of a larger project that aims to encourage use of the L and other mass transit lines as a sustainable alternative to driving.

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Studio Gang's Gia Biagi appointed as Chicago's new transportation chief

Chicago Mayor Lori Lightfoot has appointed Gia Biagi, an urban planner, civil servant, and principal of Studio Gang, to head up the city’s transportation department (CDOT). The decision comes seven months after the previous commissioner resigned ahead of Lightfoot’s inauguration in May.  Before joining Studio Gang in 2015 as the firm’s leader of urbanism and civic impact, Biagi served with the Chicago Park District from 2003 to 2015. During her last two years there, she served as the chief of staff. Biagi has also worked as a policy associate under former Chicago Mayor Richard M. Daly after finishing her master’s in urban planning at the University of Illinois at Chicago “Gia’s expertise and years of on-the-ground experience make her the ideal choice to lead our ambitious agenda for CDOT through the coming decade,” said Mayor Lightfoot in a statement. “As we move ahead, I look forward to working side-by-side with Gia and the entire team at CDOT as we implement our vision for equitable, comprehensive urban planning, and transportation that supports every one of our residents, neighborhoods, and businesses, and helps our entire city thrive.”  According to the mayor’s office, Biagi will focus on improving traffic issues in downtown Chicago and tie in CDOT’s projects with other critical infrastructure projects such as affordable housing and the mayor’s INVEST South/West Initiative. It’s also likely that Biagi will be working with her former team at Studio Gang on the transit situation surrounding the O’Hare airport expansion “I am proud that Gia has answered the call to return to public service,” said Jeanne Gang, founding principal of Studio Gang, in a statement. “It is always rewarding to see the members of our team harness the skills they have cultivated in the studio to effect positive change in the world. Gia has been a critical partner in maturing the Studio’s unique approach to our urban scale work that emphasizes mutuality and equity. She remains part of the Studio Gang family, and I am confident that she will accomplish great things for our City.” Biagi’s nomination as CDOT commissioner may be confirmed by the City Council in a vote as early as next month. 
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World's largest Starbucks opens on downtown Chicago's Magnificent Mile

Nothing screams excess like a five-story Starbucks. But that doesn’t mean it doesn’t exist or that it’s poorly designed. Today marks the grand opening of the Seattle-based coffee giant's largest flagship store in the world. Located on Chicago’s Magnificent Mile, the 35,000-square-foot facility fills every inch of a former Crate & Barrel store originally built in 1990.  Designed by an in-house team with added help from Perkins & Will, the Starbucks Reserve Roastery Chicago takes cues from the original architecture of the largely-all-glass-and-stone department store. It boasts plenty of natural light within the five-story interior thanks to the building’s existing rotunda and floor-to-ceiling windows. The characteristic materials of a Starbucks project are all there too: Jet black metal cladding cover the walls, both light and dark wooden accents populate the bars and ceilings, while the classic bronze finish found in other Reserve projects clad the railings and machinery. One new touch that defines the Chicago flagship is the ample use of soft green throughout the space, especially notable on the perforated wood panels that line the ceiling. At the center of the space, spanning all five floors, is a towering coffee bean cask made of eight cylindrical chambers. It stretches 56 feet-tall from the ground-floor upward and is surrounded by a spiraling escalator that guests can take to the second floor. From the very top, to see conveyors drop roasted coffee beans in the cask to cool. It’s a curvy interior and it deftly matches Crate & Barrel’s curvy aesthetic. The exterior of the building has been virtually untouched and the Starbucks stamp is minimal. Despite the intervention, the structure still looks like it belongs in downtown Chicago. Among the five other Reserve projects built around the world since 2014, this retrofit has already received early praise for its adherence to the integrity of the city and space in which it exists. Chicago Tribune architecture critic Blair Kamin loved the shop upon touring it and described the architectural appeal of the new "cathedral of coffee" in his review this week:  “It’s visually theatrical, crisply designed and carefully tailored to its host city even though it springs from a well-worn corporate template,” wrote Kamin. “The flagship reminds us that modern architecture celebrates the process of making things, unlike beaux-arts buildings that hide such things behind pretty facades.”  That must be the general allure of the Starbucks Reserve brand: The company has broken out these shops not as "everyday" places to grab a coffee but more as tourist-oriented theme parks or experience centers complete with merchandise and $15-to-$20 coffees But this will also be the company's last chance to impress this way. Starbucks has announced the Chicago space will be the final Reserve flagship in its portfolio. 
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Vladimir Radutny's Michigan Loft tempers Chicago's gritty industrial heritage

By introducing a volumetric core to a poorly-planned apartment—set on the top floor of a former automotive assembly plant in central Chicago—local firm Vladimir Radutny Architects was able to soften its rough, imposing shell and to define the interior space more clearly. The practice's goal was to craft a living environment that evokes mental wellbeing; not an easy feat given the locale's gritty heritage. Stacking two mezzanine levels, the wooden-clad structure helps articulate and organize public and private areas. While the lower platform of the insert serves as an impromptu guest bedroom, it's top level cuts into the building's slanted roof, providing access to a lush roof garden. Scaled architectural components, material restraint, and theatrical lighting lessen the overall spatial dominance of the erstwhile factory and yet openness and clarity are strategically maintained. While shared living spaces—an open plan lounge, den, dining room, and kitchen are left exposed, a raized wooden platform that extends out of the volumetric core helps frame these concrete floor areas. Cleverly cast in the same material, the initial four steps of the first core-adjacent stairwell hints at the pre-existing surface. Living functions such as laundry, mechanicals, and storage, integrated within the built-in cabinetry dispersed throughout the space. Kitchen elements are treated similarly and placed atop the raised platform to elevate one’s experience during the preparation of meals and to gain a better vantage point in the direction of the city’s most iconic street Michigan Avenue. Read the full article on our interiors and design website, aninteriormag.com.
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TECH+ Expo and Forum announces three conferences in 2020

AN Media Group, the publisher of The Architect’s Newspaper, has announced its upcoming 2020 TECH+ Expo and Forum events in Los Angeles, New York, and Chicago. The conferences showcase the latest in AEC technological innovation, with presentations by industry thought leaders and hands-on demos from an array of companies both new and established showcasing the latest in smart building systems, advanced materials, and other products.

“I got the chance to speak with architects, engineers, construction managers, people from all across the industry” said Cody Kessler of the imaging company Nearmap, of a previous TECH+ conference. “Some of the biggest construction firms that I’ve ever talked to were here at the event.” Conceived as a day-long symposium and expo for both established and up-and-coming tech companies in the AEC realm, the symposium will bring together engineers, architects, real estate experts, app developers, and other industry insiders.

 “When we started TECH+ three years ago we were the first conference of this nature focused entirely on the tech hitting the AEC community,” said Susan Kramer, programming and special events director at AN Media Group. “So much has changed in this short period, with architectural firms not only catching up to the construction industry in implementing tech, but with so many firms creating their own apps and platforms, which I think is revolutionary.”

Previous speakers have featured industry leaders including Dennis Sheldon from the Digital Building Lab, Gensler's Hao Ko, plus leaders from HOK, Thornton Tomasetti, IBM, SHoP, Gensler, Atelier Ten, Trimble, Turner Construction, Branch Technology, and the MIT Real Estate Innovation Lab. Past exhibitors have included PlanGrid, Propmodo, View Dynamic Glass, Morpholio, cove.tool, IrisVR, Kubity, Chaos Group, and Graphisoft, among others.

TECH+ will take place in Los Angeles at the LINE Hotel on February 6, 2020; speakers will be announced in mid-November. Following on last summer’s successful New York event, TECH+ will be returning to the city on July 16 at the New York Academy of Sciences. TECH+ will be held in Chicago on October 18. “We like championing these inventors and revolutionaries on the TECH+ stage, and sharing their knowledge and insights with our audience,” said Kramer. “The electricity of dialogue and engagement during these events could be its own power source.”

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Updated visuals revealed for Chicago's Obama Center

On Tuesday, October 29, the nonprofit Obama Foundation released the third round of renderings for the Obama Presidential Center, the 20-acre complex coming to the historic Jackson Park in Chicago’s South Side. Designed by Tod Williams Billie Tsien Architects (TWBTA), the $500 million project has been a long-time coming and has miles to go before it hopes to be approved for construction next year.  Deemed too heavy and foreboding when it was first unveiled in May 2017, the initial version of the central museum tower was scrapped and TWBTA went back to the drawing board only to emerge with a taller, lighter vision intended to please both President Obama and local Chicagoans. According to Blair Karmin of the Chicago Tribune, Obama still wanted the structure to be more engaging in form, hence the more faceted look revealed now.  But Kamin, in his weekly Sunday column, said the idea for the now-235-foot-tall building is still not where it needs to be:
“The design…is considerably improved, especially on its main, south-facing front. But the tower has yet to become a compelling object — or icon, to use the currently overused word — from all sides. That matters. Because when you’re planning on putting a 235-foot-tall tower in Jackson Park and dramatically altering a landscape designed by Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux, you had better be pitch-perfect from every angle of the compass.”
One of the most notable updates to the tower is an 88-foot-tall slender cutout that reveals activity and the circulation inside. From within the building, the skinny swath of window showcases views of The Forum building to the left and the Michael Van Valkenburgh-designed landscape below. The biggest issue the architects will face now, per Kamin’s review, is rethinking the north side of the structure—what people driving southbound will see first as they enter the complex. Right now, it appears brutalist in form, with very few windows, though the building still features the elongated window mirrored on the front.  The good news is that Tod Williams and Billie Tsien, principals of their eponymous firm in New York, are experienced museum designers. In fact, their firm almost exclusively takes on cultural and academic projects, places that are open to the general public. The duo just wrapped up construction on Dartmouth College’s Hood Museum of Art, a small and airy museum with big-gallery energy, as well as The Goel Center for Theater and Dancer at the University of Exeter. The Obama Presidential Center is arguably the tallest museum they’ve ever designed; the building houses vertically-stacked galleries inside a textured, granite-clad massing. “We design from the inside out,” Williams told the Chicago Tribune. The design team will produce a fourth version of the building before its likely 2020 groundbreaking, as the text on the upper screen wall still needs to be finalized.
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Chicago's largest co-living complex will come to a historic skyscraper

The 92-year-old Clark Adams Building, also known as the Bankers Building, on the Chicago Loop is set to become the largest co-living complex in the city. Local developer CityPads will complete an $80 million renovation to bring 505 residences, managed by Common, and an additional 159 apartments to the top 31 floors of the 41-story former office building. The renovation will be renamed the “Common Burnham,” named after the building’s original designers, the Burnham Brothers, who completed the project in 1927. This will be the fifth co-living space run by Common in Chicago, but the privilege of living in such a well-known building will be significantly more expensive than other locations, with rooms—not units—starting at $1,400 a month.  While the building is setting co-living unit records in Chicago and many other major cities, it still pales in comparison to some of the gargantuan co-living spaces planned in other parts of the country. New York will get its own 500-person co-living building in 2022 from the London-based firm The Collective, while San Jose could see an 800-person occupancy tower as soon as 2021.  The Loop area has become an attractive market for co-living spaces, in part because of the city’s high cost of living and downtown's rising office vacancies. Only about half of the Clark-Adams Building office spaces are currently occupied, and other office buildings in the area have gone through residential transitions, according to the Chicago Tribune. “You’ll start to see a lot of these Central Loop buildings being converted to residential," CityPads founder Andy Ahitow told the Chicago Tribune. "It’s an area that’s transitioning to a residential market. There are close to 20,000 people living in the Loop now, and it continues to grow." The Common Burnham will function much the same as other co-living spaces, with small single occupancy rooms and shared amenities like bathrooms, kitchens, and common spaces (aka, dorm-like). 105 West Adams Street is set to reopen its doors to tenants in early 2022. 
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SOM shows off the sustainable potentials of robotic fabrication

For the Chicago Architecture Biennial opening on September 19, SOM debuted a concrete pavilion called Stereoform Slab to showcase the latest in material and manufacturing technology. As much as 60 percent of a building’s carbon footprint can result from the creation of concrete slabs, according to SOM. By developing new fabrication methods and integrating robotic construction, the firm reported that a 20 percent reduction in material use and waste equaled an equal reduction in carbon output. The fluid form of Stereoform Slab, designed as a full-scale abstraction of the single-story concrete bays you might find in a high-rise, was built in partnership with McHugh Construction, the developer Sterling Bay, Denmark-based Odico Construction Robotics, and Autodesk. Using robots, Odico fabricated EPS foam molds which were shipped from Odense, Denmark, to the U.S. “The shape is formed of a specific, but simple class of geometry—the ruled surface,” the interdisciplinary research team behind the project at SOM said in an email. “This formal constraint is derived from the nature of the fabrication method itself, a hot-wire spanning an eight feet width at the end of a seven-axis robotic arm.” While one might have seen this "constraint" as just that, a restriction, the designers said they saw it as a way of offering “geometric freedom,” and also enjoyed the high fabrication speed. While new technology has allowed for designers to conceive of “more sustainable and expressive structures,” the resulting complexity often makes them hard to realize with conventional construction techniques. “The impetus for Stereoform Slab, however, was to prove that emerging approaches to fabrication using advanced robotics could help close this gap, and that this type of formwork could augment more conventional concrete forming systems without adding additional cost to construction,” the SOM team explained. Odico used a proprietary technology called robotic abrasive wire cutting, which allows for the rapid creation of polystyrene formworks—reportedly at up to 126 times the speed of traditional methods. “Because of this advantage, formworks can be produced at very low cost compared to conventional timber formwork molds," said Asbjørn Søndergaard, chief technology officer of Odico, "which is the critical enabler for realizing more advanced, structural designs that save material through more intelligent use of material." SOM isn’t doing away with the human hand entirely, and they said that “This type of advanced fabrication is about augmenting human labor in order to expand design freedom and the potential to actually build what we can imagine and create with more advanced digital design methodologies” Though certainly smaller than a tower, working closely with the robotic manufacturers and with a firm, McHugh Construction, that focuses on high rises means that the Stereoform Slab has more in common with a construction prototype than a pavilion. The Stereoform Slab will be up until January 5th, along with a bench produced by the same process at the Chicago Athletic Association.
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Edward Peck discusses enclosure technology and Facades+ Chicago

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On September 27, The Architect's Newspaper is returning to the Great Lakes for the sixth time to host Facades+ Chicago. The city is no stranger to architectural innovation, pioneering steel-frame construction, and the curtain walled skyscraper. The conference is, in effect, an appraisal of the most recent projects and research that keep Chicago ahead of the curve in architectural design and technology. Participants for the conference symposium and workshops are leading practitioners based in Chicago and the Midwest, including Brininstool + Lynch, the Chicago Department of Buildings, Gensler, Heitman Architects, Krueck + Sexton Architects, the Passive House Institute US, Sentech Architectural Systems, Sterling Bay, Thornton Tomasetti, and WJE. Edward Peck, managing director of Edward Peck Design and a facade expert with decades of experience, collaborated with AN as co-chair of the conference to curate the program and will also present on the panel "Ongoing Advancements in Glass Technology: From Smart Coatings to Connection Design," which will  be expanded upon as an afternoon workshop. In this interview with AN, Peck discusses the themes and objectives of the upcoming conference. AN: Research and Innovation are at the forefront of this year’s conference in Chicago. What lessons do you hope will be garnered by the audience? Edward Peck: Correct. At this conference, we want to draw the connection between the two. To innovate, one needs to invest time and effort into Research (R&D). We are a profession where every project is a prototype yet we find ourselves with less and less time for the integration of Research and Advanced Analytics but to build meaningful architecture that is inspirational, sustainable and resilient we will need to find better ways to perform and collaborate on Research and new Innovations to meet the environmental challenges of today and tomorrow. AN: How are firms in Chicago impacting design across the country and perhaps globally? EP: Architects in Chicago have a rich history for impacting architecture and urban conditions globally. We have a collective body of progressive work around the world-leading innovations in sustainability, performance and structural force pushing towers to new heights. With this comes a body of innovative engineers that are our primary collaborators on these projects enriching the entire practice of architecture and enabling Chicago to maintain our position as a critical thought leader in progressive architecture. AN: What do you perceive to be the most interesting design trends within Chicago today? EP: I try to stay away from trends. One needs to focus on the building’s performance; both its impact on the environment and the user while understanding its urban or contextual integration. If these conditions are your focus your work will transcend trends. I believe the Trumpf Smart Factory, a featured project at this conference does that; it is focused on its program while also exhibiting the values and capabilities of Trumpf as a company. AN: Facade materials are undergoing a significant evolution due to advanced research. Are there any specific materials we should be paying attention to? EP: I think smart or dynamic building skins and systems are worth paying attention to – There are a lot of products that are now moving into their second generation making them more attractive and feasible in the market. Buildings must perform in a wide range of conditions, systems that can adapt or transition within this range will undoubtedly be integrated into future designs. Further information regarding Facades+ Chicago can be found here.
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A first look inside the 2019 Chicago Architecture Biennial

Now in its third iteration, the Chicago Architecture Biennial will open to the general public on Thursday, September 19. The show's main venue, the Chicago Cultural Center, has once again been filled with large installations, multimedia displays, and extensive texts. What you will not see, diverging from the last two installments, are the extensive architectural models, renderings, and full-scale mock-ups. This year's show, curated by Yesomi Umolu, Sepake Angiama, and Paulo Tavares has a distinctly different feel than most architectural shows. Entitled "...and Other Such Stories," the curatorial team opted for research-heavy content focusing on social justice, equality, and civic activism. Most of the 80+ contributors come from urban studies and activism fields, with only a handful calling themselves architects. The exhibition will be on show from September 19th through January 5th at the Chicago Cultural Center and a number of other sites around the city.
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Krueck + Sexton and Thornton Tomasetti bring undulating glass to Chicago's Mercantile Exchange

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Chicago's Krueck + Sexton Architects, a practice founded in 1979, has established a particular niche in the design and implementation of complex glass facades. Their projects present a significant range in terms of location and scale, ranging from the multiplanar Spertus Institute on Michigan Boulevard to a slew of private residences and the restoration of Mies van der Rohe's prestigious structures dotted throughout Chicagoland. Recently, the firm wrapped up a full revamp of the Chicago Mercantile Exchange's lobby with an undulating structural glass wall. Located on Lake Michigan, Chicago has served as country's primary inland entrepot for over a century—the Chicago Mercantile Exchange (CME) was founded in 1898. The CME migrated to its current headquarters in 1987, a heavy granite-clad postmodern tower located immediately adjacent to the Chicago River. The design objective of the project was to establish an inviting and prominent facade for a structure in which over 10,000 people cross through daily, replacing 18 separate dark and weighty entrances.
  • Facade Manufacturer Roschmann Group Porcelanosa
  • Architect Krueck + Sexton Architects
  • Facade Installer Roschmann Group
  • Facade Engineer  Thornton Tomasetti
  • Location Chicago
  • Date of Completion 2019
  • System Custom structural glass system
  • Products Custom Roschmann IGU panels KRION Porcelanosa
The glass streetwall runs the entire width of the city block, weaving behind the square columns that form an encircling arcade. When developing the overall contour of the glass facade, Krueck + Sexton Architects analyzed the movement of surrounding pedestrians and inputted that information to follow the preexisting desire lines of foot traffic. Roschmann Group, the Germany-based manufacturer, handled the fabrication of the bespoke system. Each panel measures approximately 25-feet-by-four-feet and were installed using a custom-designed suction cup lifting device. "The glass is base loaded, and the glass fins provide support for lateral loads such as wind and inside and outside differential," said Krueck + Sexton Associate Principal Yugene Cha. "The top of the glass fin is held by a clever suspension system that can slide up and down and sideways allowing the building to move without breaking the glass." The street-level prominence of the facade, as well as the remarkable visibility of the oversized glass panels, required the implementation of direct and simple detailing where pane meets the ceiling, ground floor, and glass fin. The most challenging aspect of almost any project is the unforeseen conditions onsite after the commencement of construction. For the CME, frequent shifts in the grade below the street level required recalibrations of waterproofing details as well as glazing base plate design. It was critical to the success of the project to loop in the facade engineer, Thornton Tomasetti, from the point of conception. "First, Krueck + Sexton and Thornton Tomasetti worked together to develop a highly-detailed and complete facade package in the Schematic Design Phase, setting the project up for a successful Bidding Phase and Design Assist collaboration," said Thornton Tomasetti Senior Project Director Mark Chiu. "Second, Thornton Tomasetti pre-engineered the facade system’s glass sizes and thicknesses shown in the Schematic Design documents, validating the minimalist design details." Behind the structural glass facade, Krueck + Sexton placed a sophisticated system of 2,644 white synthetic-mineral panels that rise and curve to form the ceiling and continue outward to roof the arcade. The material is non-porous, allowing for straightforward maintenance. Krueck + Sexton Architects Founding Principal Mark P. Sexton and Thorton Tomasetti Senior Project Director Mark Chiu will be joining the panel "Ongoing Advancements in Glass Technology: From Smart Coatings to Connection Design" at the Architect's Newspaper's upcoming Facades+ Chicago conference on September 12. In the afternoon, the panel will be extended into an intensive three-hour workshop.