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News
Chicago photographed by Iwan Baan for the Chicago Architecture Biennial.
Iwan Baan

We curate our news section from the pages of our four regional issues along with exclusive web articles and interviews. 2015 heard a lot of discussion on the current role of architecture in society thanks to the inaugural Chicago Biennial, as well as how cities are tackling ever-pressing population and environmental concerns. Take a look at the stories AN's readers clicked on most last year.

Debating Schumacher's Chicago Biennial Criticism Architects and deans of Syracuse, Columbia, AA, and SCI-Arc respond to Schumacher's criticisms of  Chicago Biennial. [Continue reading.]
Cleveland's Jenga Tower 54-story mixed-use tower by NBBJ signals a turnaround for the Rust Belt metropolis.
Rethinking the Waterfront Brooklyn redefines the waterfront as a place for stormwater management.
But is it Architecture? What does Assemble's Turner Prize say about the state of architectural practice today?
Assembling a City Perkins Eastman designs a city on the former site of an Atlanta car factory.
Good Intentions, Bad Management Inside the closure of Architecture for Humanity.
Twilight of the Inside Another Tod Williams Billie Tsien arts center headed for the wrecking ball?
Go with the Flow SWA Group plans redevelopment of Fort Wayne, Indiana's downtown riverfronts.
Piercing the Sky TxDOT proposes removing part of an elevated freeway in Houston, architects want to turn it into a public amenity.
 
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TEN Arquitectos' mixed-use downtown Brooklyn building tops out
TEN Arquitectos' 286 Ashland Place, a 384-unit, 32-story mixed-use development in Downtown Brooklyn, has topped out. The building's 45,148 square feet of community space will host 651 ARTS, The Museum of Contemporary African Diasporan Arts, the Brooklyn Academy of Music (BAM), and the Brooklyn Public Library. The New York– and Mexico City–based firm has a number of major projects in design and under construction. Their campus for Centro, a technology, design, and business university in their home city, opened in September 2015, while plans for the Mexican Museum and residential building at 706 Mission Street in San Francisco are moving forward. Last month, TEN Arquitectos revealed renderings of a luxury resort in the Cayman Islands. At 286 Ashland Place, 20 percent of the units in the building are set aside for affordable housing. The building will host 21,928 square feet of retail. Construction is expected to be complete this summer, YIMBY reports. The project is located within the Brooklyn Cultural District, a Fort Greene development plan anchored by BAM. The triangular lot, across the street from BAM and a block from Atlantic Terminal, fronts high-traffic areas on all sides. On the Flatbush Avenue side, ground-floor retail and a stepped plaza break up what could have been a monotonous street wall. The facade is reminiscent of the firm's Mercedes House, in Midtown West. There too, the facade is broken up by a nonstandard arrangement of windows and built-in air treatment units. Mercedes House's outstanding features are terraced cubes and snaking profile respond to the site's steep elevation. 286 Ashland Place has a more standard site, and relies on an origami-ed facade for visual interest from afar. Though it obscures a previously unobstructed view of the Williamsburgh Savings Bank building the articulations of the facade draw the eye outward, towards the surrounding streetscape.
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With the go-ahead from City Planning, this office building may close the book on the transformation of Williamsburg's waterfront
Office space is in short supply in Brooklyn. A 2004 rezoning of downtown Brooklyn was intended to facilitate the development of 4.5 million square feet of Class A office space. Since then, the local development corporation Downtown Brooklyn Partnership estimates that only 250,000 square feet of office space has been built. The space crunch also spreads north, to Williamsburg. This week, the Department of City Planning is expected to approve developer Toby Moskovits' (of Heritage Equity Partners) application to alter manufacturing-only zoning for a nine-story, 480,000-square-foot office building at 25 Kent Avenue. AN first reported on the Moskovits' office plans last April. The building's design by New York–based HWKN appears similar in both the original and updated renderings. Ziggurat-style terracing reduces the structure's mass. At street level, the brickwork and arched floor-to-ceiling windows reference the warehouse it may replace. Currently, the lot, between North 12th and North 13th streets, lies in a M1-2 zone. In this area, zoning requires a non-manufacturing facility build in a manufacturing zone to devote more than half its space to medical, school, religious, or non-profit facilities. Moskovits would like the building to be offices, only, thought a portion of the project may be reserved for light-manufacturing use. Certifying the application triggers the Uniform Land Use Review Procedure (ULURP), a process that can take months. The ULURP gathers opinions on the project's request from Brooklyn's Community Board 1; the borough president, Eric Adams; City Planning; and the City Council. So far, signs are good: area Councilman Steve Levin is in favor of the project, Crain's reports. If approved, Moskovits' application could have profound influence on others looking to subvert current zoning in manufacturing areas. Due to the current restrictions, developers shy away from building non-manufacturing in manufacturing zones; creating community space is less profitable than creating office space. Go figure.
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Rose-Colored Glasses
Noah Kalina

The modernist chic of Swedish clothing brand COS (H&M’s up-market, buttoned-up big sister) found its match earlier this year when it started collaborating with Snarkitecture, the Brooklyn-based design studio founded by artist Daniel Arsham and architect Alex Mustonen. Their shared appreciation for the typically Scandinavian clichés of monochrome and minimalism (despite Snarkitecture’s being two American guys) came together during April’s Salone del Mobile, when Snarkitecture built COS’s Milan pop-up shop from a simple field of hanging white synthetic textile strips, cut at various lengths to create distinct retail spaces.

This fall, the Swedish label commissioned them again to do a pop-up space for November, this time inside Austere, a Scandinavian design concept shop that occupies a 5,000-square-foot, double-height former parking garage in Downtown Los Angeles. Rather than pure white, it was the pale reds and dusty pinks of COS’s Autumn/Winter collection that informed the space’s overall design, which as a whole is warmer, softer, and ironically less austere than their previous collaboration.

 

“For us, it was an opportunity to play with monochrome in a new way,” said Mustonen, contrasting the collection’s copper tones with Snarkitecture’s signature use of black and white. He and Arsham sectioned Austere’s massive concrete shell into two symmetrical spaces by erecting a 20-foot-tall wall, cut with two open doorways and covered with mirrored panels on both sides. On one side, a handful of the collection’s white and grey garments are on sparse display in a completely white room. On the other side is its alternate, symmetrical reality where everything, including the mirrored glass, has been tinted a pale pink.

In addition to the collection’s color scheme, the spatial design also nods to its distinctive silhouettes—tidy geometric outlines interrupted by unexpected cuts, like triangular voids snipped from lapels, abrupt disconnections in the sleeves, and entire panels missing from the backs of jackets—with a series of upright, powder-coated steel panels with cartoonish outlines of pants and shirts cut out of them. The designers arranged them in offset processions in each room, which only emphasizes the fun house effect. For shoppers, there are unexpected voids and reflections alternating at every turn, making for an upbeat shopping experience—not austere at all.

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REX reigns as lead architect for World Trade Center Performing Arts Center
Brooklyn-based architecture firm REX will design the approximately 80,000 square foot Performing Arts Center at the World Trade Center (PAC). The PAC will produce and show theater, music, musical theater, dance, film, and opera. The commission was previously given to Frank Gehry over a decade ago. “We are honored to design such a meaningful project on a site imbued with deep significance for the people of New York,” Joshua Prince-Ramus, REX's principal, said in a statement. “I am confident that our collaboration with PAC's exceptional team will help create a building that embodies and inspires the many dimensions of creative expression." REX topped a shortlist comprised of Copenhagen's Henning Larsen and Amsterdam's UNStudio. PAC Chairman John Zuccotti and President/Director Maggie Boepple selected the Brooklyn-based firm to design the project, although designs have yet to be released. Last week, the Lower Manhattan Development Corporation (LMDC) released $10 million of a pledged $99 million for the construction of the new venue. The project may cost more, but the difference will be made up through private donations. REX will collaborate with Davis Brody Bond (designers of the National 9/11 Memorial Museum), theater consultants Charcoalblue, and project managers DBI on the project. The PAC has gone through a few design selection cycles. In 2013, Frank Gehry was selected to build the center, but his proposal was downsized, and ultimately scrapped. The new venue is slated to open in 2019.
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Interaction Packed
In Bitly's New York office, San Francisco-based Future Cities Lab crafted a light sculpture that reflects real-time data on the usage of the company's shortened URLs.
Courtesy Future Cities Lab

October 21, 2015—the future date that Marty McFly traveled to in Back to The Future II— was almost a month ago.

What did Back to the Future II predict and what did it get wrong? While the flying cars and ubiquitous fax machines didn’t quite turn out, fingerprint sensors and video chats definitely did. But one scene isn’t too far from our current future: Marty walks through the town square, bewildered by what his town looks like 30 years in the future and he comes across Jaws 19 on the marquee of the movie theater (the same theater from 1955 and 1985). The movie is playing, and a holographic shark leaps from the building to eat Marty, who is thoroughly scared.

How close are we to this reality, where buildings and people interact through immersive, sensorial environmental features?

This technology, including light and sound components, as well as interactive hardware and software, is increasingly included in installations, exhibitions, branded environments, entertainment venues, and elsewhere. Like the Jaws 19 shark, it brings spaces closer to us through physical and sensorial interactions. These spaces rely less on traditional architectural effect and more on actively evolving a kind of engagement with space. It includes lights, sounds, smells, touchscreens, interactive content embedded in buildings, and even the integration of social media into space.

Could interactive technologies and the lessons of immersive spaces begin to offer new ways for architecture to operate in culture writ large? As this technology-architecture combination evolves, will it offer new forms of collectivity through design?

Rockwell Lab’s installation, Luminaries, will illuminate New York’s Brookfield Palace starting December 1 with 650 interactive LED-filled cubes that can be controlled by visitors via “wishing stations.”
Courtesy Rockwell Lab
 

Interactive Holidays

Starting December 1 in New York City, the 2015 holiday season will kick off with an installation at the Brookfield Place Winter Garden—an Archigram fantasy applied to a
classic piece of ’80s tropical historicism. Cesar Pelli designed the Crystal Palace–like space and Rockwell Lab is installing Luminaries, an interactive light sculpture composed of 650 suspended cubes that will float among the palm trees. The LED-filled cubes, or “luminoids,” as they are called in-house, will be mostly ambient until visitors control them. Visitors “make a wish” by interacting with touch-sensors embedded in three Corian wishing stations that send pulses of color-change through the installation above. The Corian touchscreens are a traditional surface material embedded with technology to augment the physical experience into an interactive one. Designers can also control the cubes individually to program a sequence, making a more choreographed performance.

 

The installation is designed to be downtown’s version of a holiday spectacle in the vein of Rockefeller Center’s tree-lighting, but Rockwell Lab hopes it will be an ongoing gathering place though the holidays. As users send their “wishes” through the cubes, they will interact with the environment and also with each other—they can watch others control the panels and work together to create new patterns. “Rockwell Lab is about using interior space to bring people together and ask, ‘How do people connect in space?’” said Rockwell Lab studio leader Melissa Hoffman.

Rockwell Lab has four architects, three strategists, and over 20 tech people who are working to blur the physical and digital in a myriad of situations. “In our projects, content lives in a space. We think of it often as live, digital wallpaper. It is architectural.”

Inside the Rockwell Lab at Union Square, New York, small-scale prototypes are scattered around a studio-like space. It is an ongoing physical experiment with mock-ups and prototypes littering the area, from color-changing glass to LED screens flashing GIFs. These experiments linger and offer a glimpse into the lab’s iterative design process. On one table there are tiny projectors that kiss scale models with light; elsewhere sits an Oculus Rift device that allows designers and clients to really see what the experience of their proposed spaces will be like. “We use it internally to understand, but also to have the client understand,” said Hoffman.

In Arup’s SoundLab, a double-width projection screen displays a space, while the speakers surrounding the visitor project sound as it would be in real life. The spatial simulation can also be augmented with an Oculus Rift, the visual equivalent of the SoundLab.
Courtesy Arup
 

Design through Auralization

At Arup’s SoundLab, they are simulating sound in the same way that Oculus Rift is simulating visuals. The SoundLab is a hi-fidelity (literally), spaceship-like space with the most cutting-edge sound, visualization, and 3-D-modeling technology integrated into a presentation space that would make most corporate executives proud. Their “auralization” system allows users to hear the acoustic qualities of an imagined space in real-time, through a 3-D simulation. For example, I was treated to a video tour of Brooklyn’s new National Sawdust performance venue. As the tour twisted and turned, it ended on the balcony, where I could turn my body in real space, but the sound was coming from the same place in the virtual space. The “real me” was moving, but not the virtual stage. It is the sound equivalent of the Oculus.

While the simulation is a great tool for showing off the new building, it is also very useful on the front end for making design decisions.

A man is immersed in the Oculus experience at the m | Lab. Arup hopes that one day this technology will have a variety of uses at larger scales and in more public environments.
 

The SoundLab was conceived in 2001 as the latest in the evolution of sound visualization technology that had been developing for nearly 50 years. The internal metrics that acoustic engineers were using were almost incomprehensible to outsiders. Visualization made visually tracking waves and their reflections possible, but it still didn’t accurately represent the sound in a space to clients.  The “auralization” was built using anechoic chamber music that was recorded in an acoustic reflection-less space at Bell Labs in New Jersey.

The Arup SoundLab goes mobile at the Architecture and Design Film Festival at Chelsea’s Bow Tie Cinemas. The mission of the m | Lab is to turn the speakers “outward” and help the public visualize spaces and hear what they would sound like.
 

This reverberation-free music is then digitally combined with data collected from a space using a “pulse” with an omnidirectional loudspeaker and microphone, or is extracted from a 3-D model given to them by the architects. The result is an acoustic virtual reality, or a map of how a sound travels in space. These audible acoustic sceneries allow designers to make architectural decisions based on qualitative factors rather than prescriptive objectives.

National Sawdust with some panels removed to expose the operable acoustic drapes that allow different configurations for different types of music, while maintaining a visual appearance.
Floto + Warner
 

Building as Instrument

Brooklyn design studio Bureau V and Arup SoundLab worked closely on National Sawdust, a new music venue in Williamsburg. From the outset, Sawdust was the brainchild of attorney, organist, and philanthropist Kevin Dolan, who had a specific vision for a space that would accommodate a variety of types of live music, without compromising any. In addition, he wanted to make the space a forum for performance, recording, broadcast, and experimentation in composition—a tall task for the design team.

Embedded and ceiling mounted lights allow variations on the interior surfaces.
David Andrako
 

“[Dolan] could say what he liked, but he couldn’t design it or talk about it,” explained Arup’s head of acoustics, Raj Patel. “To get the intimate experience he wanted, we had to have the right reflection patterns.” In the end, SoundLab technology let them fine-tune the performance space of National Sawdust so that clarity, loudness, intimacy, reverberation, envelopment, and timbre could be adjusted by the artists in sound check. Dolan got what he wanted, which is a space that can be altered for both acoustic and electric  performance without physically transforming the visuals in the space.

The vision plays out as an intimate venue that has the ability to shift for different exceptional sound qualities, but does not change its appearance; the architecture is the acoustics. “At the SoundLab, we see the relationship of architecture and acoustic engineering as seamless,” said Patel. “For National Sawdust, we really wanted to think of the venue as an instrument that could be tuned like any other.”

David Andrako
 

National Sawdust is located in an old sawdust factory, where a large, brick industrial structure sits over the L subway line. The performance space is acoustically isolated from the outside to keep all vibrations out and minimize background noise. Arup helped develop a box-in-a box construction that is suspended on spring isolators so that there is no shared structure between the two boxes. The rectangular space was modeled in the SoundLab to achieve ideal proportions for the types of performances Dolan requested; he was in the facility at Arup’s Financial District office from the start.

The interior box is a large, steel structure with inset laser-cut aluminum panels covered in fabric—a system designed to let sound through to the CMU wall behind. “It was important that we did not lose sound as it passed through the first layer,” said Matthew Mahon, a senior consultant on acoustics and audiovisual at Arup. However, in between the two walls is a curtain system that can be tuned for specific performances. For instance, jazz typically requires less reverberation and a dryer sound, while chamber music usually requires more sound reflection and thus a brighter, enveloping sound.

Floto + Warner
 

“As the audience passes through the familiar, rough, post-industrial exterior, the space reveals a pristine, jewel-like volume formed by a sculptural composite skin of patterned, perforated metal and fabric,” said Bureau V principal Peter Zuspan. “This acoustically transparent, but visually translucent skin unifies the space by collapsing the variable acoustic systems, vibration isolation system, and audio-video infrastructure into one scenographic element, thus eliding technology and aesthetics into a seamless experience for a wide variety of repertoire.”

Each wall of the interior box has a curtain that can be adjusted by hand with a pulley system during sound check, fulfilling what Patel described as the “venue-as-instrument” concept. The upper balcony also serves to increase the reflection and reverberation at the top corners of the performance space. A second series of six curtains wraps the back of the balcony space, allowing for even more control. SoundLab designed several settings that can be used depending on the type of music.

Bureau V and SoundLab were able convey the qualitative experience of being in different parts of the space. On paper, two different design schemes might be very similar, but in actuality, they could have very different experiential properties.

Small nuances in the shape of the room, the materials, and the proportions of the room or variations such as balconies make for huge differences in sound. The auralization helped Arup and Bureau V create a space that can morph into whatever the artist needs.

The Murmur Wall engages visitors by allowing them to see what people in the area are saying on social media. LED pulses turn into “murmurs” of text, when they reach the digital display units.
Peter Prato Photography / Courtesy Future Cities Lab
 

Future Cities Lab

If National Sawdust is a classical instrument that can be tuned, then Future Cities Lab is an open mike night mixed with a drum machine circle. Working in similar realms as SoundLab and Rockwell Lab—experimental, immersive environments that are produced by augmenting traditional architecture with interactive technology—San Francisco–based Future Cities Lab is led by design principals Jason Kelly Johnson and Nataly Gattegno. Their work integrates physical computing into architecture and represents an even more experimental realm of interactive architectural design and fabrication; as a result, it is also at a much smaller scale than Rockwell and Arup.

Inside the fabrication studio with Future Cities Lab. For Murmur Wall, on view at Yerba Bueana Center for the Arts in San Francisco, steel and acrylic tubing composes the structure, which is lit by colored LEDs.
 

For Bitly’s New York office, Future Cities Lab was commissioned to build a light sculpture that would reflect the company by visualizing its data. The design was conceived in collaboration with Bitly. Programmers built an API (a small piece of code) that linked data derived from Bitly’s shortened URLs directly to FCL’s responsive installation. Each day, millions of web links are channeled through Bitly via Twitter; FCL set out to visualize this data in space.

FCL built the data visualization piece in the lobby so that the immense data set feeds LEDs inside of folded, laser cut, translucent paper diffusers. It is a living sculpture that changes in real time so the CEO can look at the sculpture and see what is happening—when, where, and how much data is being produced. 24 rows and five columns represent 24 hours in a day and five high-traffic locations. “It is a really advanced data scape of the company’s inner workings,” said Johnson. “A lot of our work is interconnected like that with the internet. We give expression to sets of data that are nested in the internet. We are not as interested in freezing forms in architecture, we are interested in letting data begin to animate and inform and become a poetic element in a building or a surface. The data is always evolving.”

 

Public Interaction

“We are interested in architecture that is responsive, changing and shifting, and has an ongoing relationship with people and technology in a broader context. We see that attitude in every other allied profession around us,” Johnson said. “We see it in the automotive industry, fashion, music, video. We are interested in taking.”

He also cites Superstudio’s Continuous Monument as one of many radical ’60s and ’70s technocratic projects from which their responsive building systems have taken inspiration. In the famous set of collages, a horizontal, totalizing, gridded white architecture tears across the horizon, with nomads plugged into the landscape. “We like these utopian ideas, like, ‘How can interior public space and civic space be altered by these technologies?’”

Future Cities Lab working with prototype and experimental hardware. These full-scale mock-ups become the basis for their public installations.
 

For Future Cities Lab, the best spaces are where architecture, landscape, and interaction design are starting to fuse. “When architecture begins to engage with tech, it becomes more potent,” Johnson said. “Our cities are being handed over to engineers who don’t always understand what architecture can bring. We want to bring that ethic that has been in architecture for thousands of years, and use that as a beginning point for new ways of working.”

Their project “Murmur Wall”—on view now at Yerba Buena Center for the Arts in San Francisco—might well be a glimpse into the future of integrated design. The steel and acrylic tubing structure sits outside the Yerba Buena Center, collecting data from nearby users. Data is displayed as light pulses that become text on digital displays as they pass through, showing in real-time what people are posting on social media. It is a public installation that they think of as a monument or a fountain would have been in Ancient Rome. Their goal is to make the city more transparent by data participating in the public realm rather than hide nested in a phone. An iOS app also allows visitors to post things directly, too.

These immersive environments are evolving from simple interior spaces that envelop and engage those on the inside, into larger, more complex architectural projects that alter the ways in which we relate to buildings, and ultimately each other. In Rockwell’s case, they are using media-rich architecture to enhance the experience of their spaces and make temporary content-rich space. For Arup, the National Sawdust project showcased their ability to use technology to make design decisions for a more sensorial experience, as well as to convey that experience. Future Cities Lab is attempting to connect the spaces we encounter in the everyday even further, bringing them to life with new technologies. For all of them, immersive and interactive experience is a way forward in connecting us to architecture and the world around us.

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Under budget pressures, WXY reveals new ideas for long shuttered Brooklyn War Memorial
The band Barenaked Ladies famously speculated on what a million dollars could buy: a little tiny fridge filled with pre-wrapped sausages, K-cars, a woman's eternal, undying love, or fancy ketchups.  Well, this isn't the nineties anymore, and, as community leaders in Brooklyn are learning, seven figures will not be nearly enough to renovate and preserve the Brooklyn War Memorial. New York's WXY, lead consultants on the 2014's Brooklyn Strand and 2013's Brooklyn Tech Triangle master plan, led the design team and facilitated community visioning sessions for the memorial. The memorial renovation is a component of the "Brooklyn Strand," a project to unify the patchwork of parks, plazas, and green spaces between Brooklyn Bridge Park and Borough Hall. This month, the Mayor's Office released The Brooklyn War Memorial Feasibility Study to delineate proposed changes to the area. Spearheaded by the Cadman Park Conservancy, the Downtown Brooklyn Partnership, and the Borough President Eric Adams, community leaders are looking to raise $11.8 million by 2019 for the renovation. Adams has allocated $1 million to the project, but other politicians, businesses, and foundations will need to come forward with the difference. Though the memorial, in Cadman Plaza Park, sits near eight subway lines, is proximate to a year-round farmer's market, and is often surrounded by lunching office workers, its prime location has not helped with fundraising. So far, the conservancy has received a paltry $4,060 through a May crowdfunding campaign. WXY facilitated workshops with residents and community groups to generate ideas for the memorial and surrounding park space. Designed by New York's Eggers and Higgins and dedicated in 1951, the memorial honors the 300,000 Brooklynites who served in World War II. Due to lack of maintenance funds, the site has been closed to the public for the past quarter century. Currently, the memorial building contains offices and storage on the lower level, while the primary attraction, a Wall of Honor that displays the names of more than 11,500 borough residents killed in battle, occupies the main floor. The renovation of the 33,660-square-foot space would add a visitor's center, exhibition hall, and cafe to the lower level, and a rooftop terrace that can be rented out for events. Gentle slopes will flank the entrance, inviting Strand strollers to linger around the memorial. An ADA compliant entrance ramp at the main level and elevator are planned, as well.
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In Doubled Light
Available Light, 1983.
Tom Vinetz / Courtesy Lucinda Childs

Across history, architects have designed for performance. Whether we consider Serlio’s scenographies, Bernard Tschumi’s fireworks, or Diller + Scofidio’s early performance works, as Elizabeth Diller has pointed out, designing for performance affords a “constructing of ideas in real space.” Collaborations between architects and choreographers in particular present laboratories for exploring ideas through relationships between moving bodies, space, and time. Within the roster of architects recently entangled with choreographers we find Diller Scofidio + Renfro, of course, and Steven Holl, as well as François Roche, SO-IL, Andrés Jaque, and many others. Rarely does an architect have the occasion to design both a set on stage and the larger setting in which the performance event occurs. More improbable still is designing both twice. Such is the revival of Available Light, first performed in 1983 and restaged this past June, a collaboration between choreographer Lucinda Childs, composer John Adams, and Frank Gehry. This architectural double bill has had a repeat performance, with a mere 32-year interval between acts.
Available Light
premiered in early June at the Los Angeles Philharmonic’s Gehry-designed Walt Disney Concert Hall. On stage Childs’s 11 dancers, dressed in black, red, or white, traced intricate patterns across Gehry’s set design, a pair of platforms. The dancers moved in parallels and diagonals, holding space in energetic stillness. The experience in the Disney Hall was a complex and exquisite recreation of a site-specific work last seen in the U.S. in 1983, and now revived as a touring production.

Available Light,  study model.
Courtesy Gehry Partners
 

Julie Lazar commissioned the work in 1983 through the Museum of Contemporary Art’s Stages of Performance Series as a site-specific work for Downtown Los Angeles. At that time Gehry had already been awarded the museum’s “consolation prize” commission to renovate a garage located downtown into the Temporary Contemporary, and he was the natural choice to participate in this creative endeavor. Lazar’s intention, as stated in the MOCA catalog, was for the artists—Childs, Adams, and Gehry—to develop work in a truly collaborative manner, influencing each other while also respecting the legibility of each contributor’s work within an “integrated artwork.” This was a direct reaction to the John Cage–Merce Cunningham approach of bringing together independently developed parts at the last moment.

In the program notes for the restaged projection, Gehry stated that in these Cage-Cunningham works (to which Jasper Johns and Robert Rauschenberg contributed sets) he experienced dance, music, and scenography as “melding seamlessly together,” in spite of the collaged approach. To figure out how he would respond to MOCA’s invitation he needed to really understand Childs, her work, and Adams’s music. So, Childs invited him to her dance studio in NYC, and there she sat Gehry down on the floor and danced solo after solo for him. He was transfixed. Reflecting upon this experience in an interview Gehry noted that he could see that her choreography was architectural and spatial. “It encouraged me to make the piece very spatial, and spread out in the Temporary Contemporary,” he said of his design for the performance staged in the building he renovated for MOCA.

Gehry located the stage, split into upper and lower platforms, within a large central bay of the Temporary Contemporary. He then split the audience, seating them in bleachers on top of two existing volumes, so that part of the audience faced the stage frontally and the other half watched from the side. The audience became part of the performance through the construction of what he described as “people relationships (between the audience, the performer, and back and forth), ” something that Gehry was exploring at that time.

the 2015 production performed at Disney Hall in June.
Craig T. Mathew
 

More than three decades since premiering Available Light at the Temporary Contemporary, the co-creators’ memories are no longer crystal clear. It is unclear whether the thematic of the split stage and double grouping of bleachers built upon the doubling seen in Dance (Childs’s recently revived 1979 collaboration with Philip Glass and Sol Lewitt), or as Gehry’s response to site conditions, or to his interest in constructing people relationships.

The two stage platforms were constructed in situ of two-by-fours. An expanse of chain link fence was hung from one of the trusses to define the smaller performance space within the vastness of the industrial building. Lighting designer Beverly Emmons lit the fencing so that it shimmered, and also brought light in through the existing skylights of the Temporary Contemporary. While this first iteration was constructed as a site-specific work (beautifully documented by photographers Garry Winogrand and Grant Mudford in the original catalog), the team also faced the challenge of performing a “theatrical adaptation” one month later on the proscenium stage of the Brooklyn Academy of Music. This adaptation for BAM foreshadowed the new design that premiered in June, and has since toured to Philadelphia and Europe.

The 1983 BAM adaptation and Gehry’s new design drew upon the original doublings—two dance surfaces, two choreographic patterns (parallel and diagonal)—and the split audience’s a perspectival experience of this relation between surface and dance. From this, Gehry’s team developed a set with a single elevated platform; its angled cantilever established a second order in tension with the front of the proscenium stage and house. The new platform, now made out of ultra-thin aluminum, slopes and extends well beyond the five dismountable steel frames that support it. Below, a square of white marley delineates the orthogonal dance area of the now-absent lower platform.

An opportunity opened up in this reconfiguring from site-specific to touring set. The space between the lower and upper surface is now a habitable space from where the dancers first appear in silhouette and through which they pass at transitions in the performance. Where MOCA’s skylights offered opportunities to bring in another lighting atmosphere, this in-between space alternately glows, grabbing attention away from main dance surfaces, or disappears as a mere shadow line, separating above and below. The chain link backdrop has also returned; within the Disney Hall it continues to perform its former function of defining the space of the dance within a larger volume while also offering views of that which lies beyond.

Perhaps the most wonderful architectural component of this performance of Available Light at the Disney Hall was the “people relationships.” The building’s tiers of audience seating in the auditorium echo the set’s two terraces of dancers. Through leaps and steps in opposing geometries, the dancers stitch together the split between performance platforms and between audience and performance.

With the exception of this double bill—of Available Light being performed anew on a Gehry set within a Gehry house—the design of the people relationships in future tour venues is not included in the architect’s design mission. Thus the complex audience experience, viewing from frontal and oblique positions, and the sense of the dance floating within a larger environment, is unlikely to occur in the venues to which the performance will tour, unless done so at the hosting institution’s initiative.

The resituating of Available Light from the Temporary Contemporary (now the Geffen Contemporary) to BAM, to Disney Hall and future venues problematizes the reiteration of performance works conceived as site specific. Although the June performance reintroduced the world to Available Light within an existing space, the setting of this event within the Disney Hall revealed many of the same essential people relationships—dancer-to-dancer, dancer-to-audience, and audience-to-audience—that Gehry explored at the Temporary Contemporary. No doubt there is something lost in adapting site-specific works for re-situating. Yet much gained through the process of performing anew—the essential concordance between dance, space, and music is what shines through in full light.

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Kohn Pedersen Fox unleashes a 600-foot-tall office building in Downtown Brooklyn
It's a big week for big Brooklyn skyscrapers. Yesterday, SHoP Architects and Kohn Pedersen Fox Associates unveiled plans for towers within a block of each other, in the Brooklyn Tech Triangle. KPF is developing the 400,000 square foot office and retail project at 420 Albee Square in partnership with JEMB Realty and the New York City Economic Development Corporation (NYCEDC). At 600 feet tall, the tower will be 400 feet shorter than SHoP's, but it will still reign as Brooklyn's second tallest building. Plans for tall towers in Brooklyn are years in the making.  In 2004, the Downtown Brooklyn Development Plan rezoned the district bounded by Flatbush Avenue, Fulton Mall, and Willoughby Avenue to spur the development of office space and academic facilities (the area includes parts of the Brooklyn Tech Triangle). Blocks adjacent to this commercial core were rezoned to accommodate denser residential development and ground floor retail. The city has invested $300 million in open space and infrastructure improvements in the Tech Triangle. In a statement, KPF claims that 420 Albee Square is the "first ground-up construction of commercial space since the re-zoning." The effects of the zoning changes in the city's third largest commercial district are especially noticeable on Fulton Mall, where longtime businesses catering to low- and middle-income shoppers are being replaced (homogenized, some say) by upscale national chains. The NYCEDC claims that, to remain competitive, the city needs 60 million square feet of office space built by 2025. How the additional office space catalyzes change in downtown Brooklyn remains to be seen.
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Early renderings of SHoP's 1,000-foot-tall Downtown Brooklyn skyscraper revealed
In August, AN speculated that a super skinny, supertall tower was coming to Brooklyn. Now, real estate watchblog YIMBY has uncovered a design by SHoP Architects for the 90-story, 1,000-foot-tall tower slated for Downtown Brooklyn. The tower, at 340 Flatbush Avenue Extension, will have 550 residential units and 140,000 square feet of commercial space. A representative from SHoP, however, stated that the "current rendering circulating is preliminary and outdated. We cannot provide additional material at this moment." The project's tentative completion date is set for early 2019. JDS Development is financing the project. Sound familiar? SHoP and JDS partnership are currently collaborating on the 1,428-foot-tall condominium tower rising at 111 West 57th Street. Two important structures share the same block. The (landmarked) Dime Savings Bank, at 9 Dekalb Avenue, was purchased for $90 million from JP Morgan Chase as part of the development package. The bank will be incorporated into the scheme of the structure, though SHoP has not revealed how this will happen. The other structure, Junior's restaurant, sits at the prow of Flatbush and Dekalb, but cheesecake fans can relax: after turning down a $45 million offer from an unnamed developer last year, the owners are unlikely to accept a buyout.
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Digging into Detroit's Future
The Chene-Ferry Market is a closed-down farmer's market in Poletown. It is part of an urban design plan at the University of Detroit Collaborative Design Center (DCDC) led by Dan Pitera.
Stephen Zacks

All summer, a lively cavalcade of events and performances testified to a reawakened cosmopolitanism in Detroit and proclaimed a community that is growing in size and complexity. Detroit’s 139 square miles are suddenly teeming with contemporary art, design, and development activity. The projects are no longer isolated but connect larger tracts: the Jam Handy industrial film production building-turned-performance space hosts a temporary Sunday market, around the corner from the ONE Mile funk revivalist project by Anya Sirota and Jean Louis Farges, with Catie Newell’s studio halfway between. A land rush has begun in the area.

Enter Culture Lab Detroit. The three-year-old brainchild of Birmingham-based designer and creative director Jane Schulak, Culture Lab Detroit orchestrates dialogues between the Detroit community and internationally renowned designers and urbanists, instigating potentially paradigm-shifting collaborations that evangelize green interventions in the landscape.

“My platform is about connectivity,” Schulak said. “I pose a design question each year and try to identify people who will respond to that question in all very different ways.”

In early September, urban ecology-themed panels in packed auditoriums at the College for Creative Studies and the Detroit Institute of Arts brought together San Francisco chef Alice Waters, industrial-scale urban farmer Will Allen, French vertical gardener Patrick Blanc, Oakland landscape architect Walter Hood, and Japanese architect Sou Fujimoto to discuss strategies for greening the city and evolving architecture with nature.

“I’ve always thought that agriculture could be the lead piece to bringing these cities back,” Allen, who grew up in a sharecropping family in Maryland, said. “This city is really primed for local production because all of the vacant land where you could grow food. There’s a lot of opportunity.”

Acre Farm’s “CITY DO NOT CUT” signs are meant to prevent public agencies from mistaking crop fields for overgrown lots. This tension between the small-scale farm and the urban scale network of municipal government is one of many interesting conditions raised by the urban agriculture in Detroit.
 

At Acre Farm in North Corktown, several blocks adjacent to the highway form a patchwork of fertile fields that skip over paved streets, the only sign of a once-populous neighborhood. Acre Farm is in an in-demand but mostly demolished area between the MotorCity Casino Hotel and a retail strip on Michigan Avenue (pioneered by restaurateur Phil Cooley). The farm is marked with large plywood “CITY DO NOT CUT” signs to prevent public agencies from mistaking it for overgrown lots.

Urban agriculture is not new, yet the diversity of greening tactics and players spreads benefits far from the heavily invested downtown, the Woodward strip, and Midtown areas. The number of farming and gardening initiatives has multiplied: Keep Growing Detroit has supported 4,000 gardens in the last decade with seed packs, transplants, educational, and technical assistance. Nonprofits like the Greening of Detroit have planted about 4,000 trees in the past year, while Hantz Woodlands installed 15,000 trees in a square mile of East Detroit. In 2013, the City Council adopted a zoning ordinance that legalized existing urban farms and set standards for agricultural land use.

“For some of the more grassroots or ground-up entrepreneurs, it’s all based on returning to true connections between people, relying on businesses that can help support your businesses that are within the city itself, and producing real food that you know who grows it,” said D MET studio’s Liz Skrisson. D MET designed offices and a Great Lakes Coffee shop for Midtown Inc., a major player in cultural developments and a tech innovation district near the Detroit Institute of Arts.

A circular path is planted with flowers and grass, while a fish sculpture combines art with landscape. A small building sits in the background, drawing an illusion to the wild west.
 

The Ye-Olde-Brooklyn style pioneered by John McCormick in Williamsburg—repurposed wood, distressed paint, thematically culled antiques, industrial objects, and Edison light bulbs—is as pervasive here as elsewhere. Culture Lab Detroit, however, is cognizant of a need to move beyond adaptive reuse to pioneer innovative buildings: nothing of any architectural significance has happened here in decades. Schulak’s advisory board is packed with a savvy group of local and international cultural leaders, among them Reed Kroloff, David Adjaye, collector Marc Schwartz, and Museum of Contemporary Art Detroit founder Marsha Miro.

Schulak selected Hood and Fujimoto for a panel that emphasized ecological design to create landscapes and structures that connect people and evoke delight. Fujimoto incorporated vegetation into high-rises that mimic both repetitive and idiosyncratic patterns in plant life. Like inversions of vacant houses overgrown with wilderness, the design rationalizes natural forms into building technologies.

“I do think fresh voices are good for a place,” Hood said. “Places that become so insular keep repeating the same patterns over and over again: bringing people in might help others get excited.”

The dialogues double as provocations for speakers to explore Detroit: local facilitators tour designers around sites and schedule meetings with project organizers and entrepreneurs, offering a platform to present proposals. For the past year, Patrick Blanc has speculated on ways to grow vegetation on the concrete embankments along the Dequindre Cut. Blanc seeks to irrigate the plants without access to running water.

Hood is working on a concept for a square-mile area near the northeastern edge, incorporating blue-green infrastructure concepts from the 2012 Detroit Future City strategic plan to deploy large depopulated spaces for the benefit of those still living there. “One of the things that I’m interested in is how you can change people’s sociology through the pattern on the landscape,” he said.

The Flower House is a project by Lisa Waud where artists will make floral installations in a blighted building facing the I-75 highway in Hamtramck.
 

The Flower House, a project by Lisa Waud, will create floral installations in a blighted building facing the I-75 highway in Hamtramck. Inspired by the work of Christo and Jeanne-Claude, twenty or so florists will descend on the house during the weekend of October 16, filling its rooms with flower arrangements. Afterward, the house will be deconstructed and the lot will become a flower farm.

Further north, near the Squash House, the Play House, the Power House, the Sound House, and the Ride It Sculpture Park—a well-known collection of repurposed homes and lots by Gina Reichart and Mitch Cope of Design 99 and Powerhouse Productions—ceramicist Abigail Murray and architect Steven Mankouche (Archolab) are building a passive greenhouse in the burned out foundation of a 1920s bungalow. The team erected a slanted south-facing polycarbonate roof within the existing foundation, cladding the exterior with dark charcoal slats (cutoffs from a lumber mill) charred using the ancient Japanese shou-sugi-ban method. Inside, they plan to grow almond, olive, and pomegranate trees, as well as other non-native plants.

“The project is in dialogue with blight in a lot of ways, and how we can deal with blight other than just ripping everything out of the ground and carting it to a landfill,” said Mankouche, a professor at the University of Michigan’s College of Architecture. After the project is completed, Archolab plans to donate it to a local gardener and evaluate its reproducibility in other places.

The industrial stock of Detroit provides a unique backdrop for urban agriculture.
 

Elsewhere in Hamtramck, sculptors Andrew Mehall and Ben Hall, co-owners of the Eastern Market’s Russell Street Deli, are using a large warehouse as a gallery to stabilize a block overgrown with weeds and grass, its double-height space presenting a fair likeness of industrial Bushwick. However, these reclamation projects demand fortitude. The day we visit, Hall struggled to open the gallery door after a break-in the night before—scrapping metal is a full-time occupation for pickup-driving bandits in southeast Michigan. Inside, the gallery exhibits colorful truck-sized inflatable pieces by Chicago-based Scottish artist Claire Ashley.

“In a lot of ways the gallery is just a basic stopgap to keep the neighborhood solid,” Hall wrote in an email. “In one way we’re pretty anti any kind of Richard Florida narrative...As the businesses in the neighborhood that were hanging on by a thread gave up, or let go, or demurred, or decided to forfeit, it became a matter of introducing some solidity, or reintroducing occupants for the sake of the building not being vacant.”

Within this ambivalence lies much of the trepidation about the city’s fast-moving developments. Dan Gilbert’s Quicken Loan-led renovations—all paid for with the ill-gotten gains of payday lending—gobble up dozens of downtown buildings to restore long-lost landmarks. Among these is a planned SHoP-designed replacement for the symbolically important Hudson’s building.

Another example is Chene-Ferry Market, a voluminous closed-down farmer’s market in Poletown that is part of large-scale urban design initiative led by Dan Pitera’s University of Detroit Collaborative Design Center (DCDC). Situated in a spottily inhabited area on the East Side, RecoveryPark uses urban farming, fisheries, value-added foods, and a farmer’s market to provide job skills training to substance abusers, the formerly incarcerated, and others struggling to land on-the-books employment. Working with the mayor’s office and the new planning director Maurice Cox, DCDC is designing RecoveryPark and other mile-wide areas far from the central business district with a mixture of ecological and commercial functions.

“We wanted to show that every area that looks like this is right adjacent to a dense area,” said Pitera. “Can they be seen more as a unit? Then you design them in a way that this could become blue-green infrastructure, more interesting design opportunities, like retail, that become assets for the denser area. How do we think about design in ways that can keep people in place, think about more off-grid ideas for people who live in neighborhoods like this?”

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A wide array of architects chosen by Walmart owners for Northwest Arkansas Design Excellence Program
The Walton Family Foundation has chosen a group of 36 design firms comprising architects and landscape architects to be part of their Northwest Arkansas Design Excellence Program in a bid to boost the standard of architecture in the up and coming area of Northwest Arkansas. A smaller, more refined group of practices from this pool will be chosen by a selection committee at a later date for three pilot projects announced early in September. Those pilot projects are: TheatreSquared in downtown Fayetteville; a 28,000-square-foot adaptive reuse building for the Rogers Historical Museum in downtown Rogers; and a new 35,000-square-foot facility and half-acre playground for the Helen R. Walton Children’s Enrichment Center (HWCEC) in Bentonville. The announcement wraps up a two-month, country-wide search for designers that will shape the new urban landscape in Northwest Arkansas. “We are extremely pleased with the level of talent exhibited by the architecture and landscape architecture designers chosen for the program’s first year,” said Walton Family Foundation Home Region Program Director Karen Minkel in a press release. “Our extensive review process, led by reputable industry professionals, will give our grantees access to high-caliber design that meets the needs of these public-use buildings and enhances Northwest Arkansas’ urban fabric.”
Anmahian Winton Architects Cambridge, MA
Alta Planning and Design* Davidson, NC
Bing Thom Architects Vancouver, BC
Brian Healy Architects Somerville, MA
Brininstool + Lynch Chicago, IL
David M. Schwarz Architects, Inc. Washington, D.C.
De Leon & Primmer Architecture Workshop Louisville, KY
Deborah Berke Partners New York, NY
DLAND Studio Architecture and Landscape Architecture* Brooklyn, NY
Duvall Decker Architects Jackson, MS
Ennead Architects New York, NY
Eskew+Dumez+Ripple New Orleans, LA
Grimshaw New York, NY
GWWO, Inc./Architects Baltimore, MD
HBRA Architects Chicago, IL
HGA Architects and Engineers Minneapolis, MN
KieranTimberlake Philadelphia, PA
Lake-Flato San Antonio, TX
Louise Braverman Architect New York, NY
LTL Architects New York, NY
Marlon Blackwell Architects Fayetteville, AR
Martinez + Johnson Architecture Washington, D.C.
Marvel Architects New York, NY
Meyer, Scherer & Rockcastle Minneapolis, MN
Michael Van Valkenburgh Architects* Brooklyn, NY
Modus Studio Fayetteville, AR
Overland Partners San Antonio, TX
Polk Stanley Wilcox Architects Little Rock, AR
Rice+Lipka Architects New York, NY
Robert A.M. Stern Architects New York, NY
Robert Sharp Architects & Massengale Architecture PLLC Fayetteville, AR | NY, NY
Schwartz/Silver Architects Boston, MA
Spackman Mossop Michaels* New Orleans, LA
Stoss Landscape Urbanism* Boston, MA
Trahan Architects New Orleans, LA
WXY Architecture + Urban Design* New York, NY
  • * denotes a landscape architecture firm.