In an effort to expand its facilities without depriving residents of a view of the East River, Rockefeller University is proposing a series of changes to its Upper East Side campus. Founded by John D. Rockefeller in 1901 to promote medical research, the school plans to construct three new buildings. As the university has done in the past, two of those buildings, a one-story conference center and a two-story research building boasting a green roof and rooftop pavilions, would be constructed atop a platform over FDR Drive. Extending approximately four blocks from East 64th Street to East 68th Street, the new platform would join two other Rockefeller buildings straddling the highway, stretching from 62nd Street to 64th Street. The third new building, an athletic center for students, would replace a faculty parking lot in the northwest corner of campus. Civitas, an advocacy group focusing on development in the Upper East Side has some concerns that the buildings, in addition to other proposed medical facilities, could affect parks along the East River. Speaking with a reporter from Crain’s, Executive Director Hunter Armstrong said he’s particularly concerned about the East River Esplanade. “We’re trying to rescue the esplanade,” Armstrong said, “so we have to be careful of the impacts of these cantilevers on our park.” As the university still requires approval for the project, neither a completion date or price estimate have been determined, though school officials have chosen architect Rafael Viñoly to head the project.
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The U.S. Department of State’s Bureau of Overseas Buildings Operations (OBO) has shortlisted six firms to design the new U.S. Embassy in Beirut, Lebanon. The new Embassy will be located in Awkar, about 7 miles north of the city center, in the vicinity of the existing Embassy. The new compound will consist of a chancery, support offices, a parking structure, Marine residence, Representational and staff housing, and a community center. Thirty-nine firms replied to the public announcement regarding the task of designing the center. The shortlisted firms are: · Diller Scofidio + Renfro · Mack Scogin Merrill Elam/AECOM · Morphosis Architects · Rafael Viñoly Architects · Steven Holl Architects · Yazdani Studio According to the OBO, the six selected submissions display an exceptional array of high-design projects, characterized by novel site and landscape plans, and a strong understanding of sustainability practices. The firms on the preliminary shortlist will bring together their technical teams to present comprehensive information on their companies and their credentials for the second evaluation stage. OBO’s Excellence in Diplomatic Facilities initiative sought out the project, which encompasses a holistic project development plan that aims to construct facilities that are exceptional in all aspects. OBO’s objective is to supply secure, practical facilities that signify American values and the best in American architecture, engineering, technology, and sustainability.
In the wake of the completion of the $111.9 million Bing Concert Hall in January, Stanford University has kicked off construction on a new seven-story hospital as part of the ongoing renewal of its medical center. Designed by New York City–based Rafael Viñoly Architects, the facility features a modular layout that allows for incremental horizontal extensions to the building. This development strategy seamlessly merges with the low-rise campus. "This project represents an unprecedented endeavor in the hospital's successful 50-year history of healing humanity," said the ever-modest Viñoly in a statement. "By reinterpreting and updating the Stanford campus and the original hospital through a modular plan, it is poised to adapt to evolving medical technology while continuing to provide advanced care and treatment—in a healing environment unique to Stanford—to patients from surrounding communities and beyond." One of the largest developments currently underway on the San Francisco Peninsula, the new hospital will be open for patient care by 2018. The design is based around a universal modular building block measuring 120 feet by 120 feet, which was calculated to offer the best possible arrangement for numerous hospital roles, guaranteeing flexibility in adjusting to the constantly shifting needs of medical technology. The new building includes 368 private patient rooms with wall-to-wall windows that provide natural light and sweeping views, high-tech diagnostic and treatment rooms, and a Level 1 Trauma Center that triples the size of the existing Emergency Department. A 1,000-car parking structure and five gardens are part of the modular plan, which integrates open public spaces such as a glass-covered atrium and landscaped drop-off plaza. The hospital will be seismically isolated to protect occupants and the facility from catastrophic earthquakes.
The redevelopment of Brooklyn's Domino Sugar Factory has been a long and controversial process, but is showing signs of progress, or at least a slow but steady crawl to the next phase of planning. The Wall Street Journal reported reported that developer Jed Walentas of Two Trees Management wants to make room for office space in addition to residential units long proposed for the site. The Brooklyn-based firm purchased the 11-acre property last October for $185 million from Community Preservation Corporation Resources (CPCR). Two Trees, known for its transformation of DUMBO, hopes to apply its successful mixed-use formula to north Brooklyn, which has been dominated by clusters of residential high rises over the last decade. Several waterfront neighborhoods in Brooklyn, stretching from DUMBO to Greenpoint, have become home to a number of tech companies, including Kickstarter, Etsy, and Indmusic. Walentas would first need to win the approval from City Council and the Department of City Planning to rezone the area to accommodate office and commercial development. But such a change might not be that easy to make. In 2010, when CPCR sought, and later succeeded, in rezoning the area, the community put up a fight. The promise of affordable housing won over government officials, but Two Trees is mum on whether they plan to follow through on that commitment. Within the last few months, Two Trees has hired SHoP Architects to create the master plans for the Domino Sugar Refinery, taking the place of Rafael Viñoly, and has also enlisted the help of landscape architecture firm, James Corner Field Operations. In December, Two Trees issued a RFP for a proposal suggesting a "creative use" of Site E on Kent Avenue between South 3rd and South 4th streets, according to Brownstoner. Several proposals offered recommendations such as a High Line-style parkland, a skating rink, or open markets.
A proposed 57-story residential tower designed by SOM's Roger Duffy at the corner of Manhattan's East 57th Street and 2nd Avenue is seeing new life after laying low through the recession. The Observer reported today that the 250 East 57th project, announced in 2006, will begin construction this year now that developer World Wide Group has filed new construction papers with the city and began clearing the site. AN previously reported how the project is a partnership with the New York City School Construction Authority to extract the air-rights value beneath the city's school properties. In this case, developers of 250 East 57th paid the Department of Education $325 million for a site lease and agreed to rebuild P.S. 59 adjacent to the tower's site, including roof terraces and a large astroturf play area. Roger Duffy told AN at the time, "A lot of school sites in New York remain underdeveloped in terms of FAR (floor-area ratio)." The school opened in September 2012. The 715-foot-tall, 270-unit tower is the latest addition to the 57th Street corridor, which has seen many new skyscraper plans unfold in recent years. To the west, Extell's One57 by Christian de Portzamparc continued construction, and the same developer recently announced that Adrian Smith+Gordon Gill will design a new 1,550-foot-tall tower near Broadway. Additionally, Cetra Ruddy is also designing a skinny skyscraper at 107 West 57th, Rafael Viñoly's supertall 432 Park tower is under construction, and Bjarke Ingels is moving forward with his plans for a pyramid-shaped tower at the Hudson River. While SOM remains the architects for the project, developers told The Observer that an updated design is in the works, which reportedly sheds the towers crisp angles for a more undulating facade. Roger Duffy previously designed the Toren Tower in Downtown Brooklyn.
After seven years of construction, during much of which visitors were sent on an underground detour, the Cleveland Museum of Art’s expansive atrium opened in late August. The 39,000-square-foot Rafael Viñoly-designed atrium is essentially a massive skylight, which arcs from 55 to 66 feet in height across a space nearly as large as a football field. Planting beds complement the granite floor, anchoring an airy space that houses a second floor mezzanine and could seat upwards of 700 people for events. The space envelops the museum’s original 1916 white marble building and is is the principal component of a $350 million expansion and renovation project he planned for the museum ten years ago. More galleries in the new West Wing are set to open late next year. Though already open for visitors, the atrium won’t have its official celebration until October 28. The addition is cause for celebration among gallery-goers and Clevelanders in general, who can count the atrium among the city’s largest public rooms. It’s also a positive sign for the museum’s neighborhood, University Circle, which has enjoyed a resurgence in recent years.
Shortly after the Landmarks Preservation Commission declared a section of the Grand Concourse an historic district on Tuesday, New York Times columnist Constance Rosenblum received a call with the news. Walking down Montague Street near her home in Brooklyn Heights, the usually unflappable writer burst into tears. When it comes to the Concourse, Rosenblum wrote the book. Her 2010 chronicle of the corridor, Boulevard of Dreams (NYU Press, $20), played a significant role in calling attention to the plight and promise of the neighborhood. “It was notable day,” she said in a phone interview in reference to the announcement. “It wasn’t easy for the Bronx, and the stigmas will remain for a long time.” Thick with Deco and Moderne, to say nothing of early twentieth century Tudor and Renaissance, the district also showcases work of a few contemporary firms as well. Architectronica’s Bronx Museum of Art sits just down the street from Rafael Viñoly’s Bronx Housing Court. But not all of the 78 properties within the district are knock-out architectural gems. “It’s a little pockmarked,” said Rosenblum. “It’s not cute brownstones, one after the other.” Rosenblum profiled Sam Goodman in the book. He lives, works, and grew up on the Concourse. He said that should the Bronx's fortunes swing up or down, the redistricting will deter owners from abandoning the neighborhood. “Now they'll say, ‘I’m not going to sell to Donald Trump or to the city,’” said Goodman. “So let’s do what we can to keep the buildings attractive.” Goodman pointed out that the landmarking is for a very small section of the Boulevard. Plenty of wonderful buildings sit just to the north, including Emigrant Savings Bank, Paradise Theater and the freshly restored Edgar Allan Poe House. Even with a new visitors center by Toshiko Mori, recent vandalism at Poe Park show that the bad old days aren’t necessarily over. Funding and maintenance remain key issues that preservation alone can’t solve. To that end, Rosenblum believes that the designation goes beyond the bricks and mortar. Landmarking can provide pride of place. “Living in a place that’s important can make you feel good about yourself,” she said. “It’s more than protecting a gorgeous building, it’s giving imprimatur to a very important idea.”
There's a certain dorky pleasure in the reading lists of teams vying for design competitions. The big names paired with the dependable locals. The firms with very busy dance cards that everyone seems to want. The odd random people with no discernible reason to be involved. The 52 teams that responded to the Navy Pier RFQ have all those in spades. Zaha! Foster + Partners, BIG, OMA! Every prominent Chicago architect! Hoerr Schaupt Landscape Architects on no less than four teams! We'll be watching to see who makes the next round. Amusement aside, it's great to see so many prominent local and international designers vying to improve the iconic pier. 1. AECOM, BIG, Lead Pencil Studio, Project Projects, Speirs + Major, WET Design, Davis Langdon, Christy Webber 2. Aedas Architects, Martha Schwartz Partners, Halcrow Yolles 3. All Design, Halcrow Yolles, Janet Rosenberg + Associates 4. Behnisch Architekten, Urban Strategies, Urban Works, Mia Lehrer + Associates, Arup 5. Booth Hansen, Hoerr Schaudt Landscape Architects, Terry Guen Design Associates,Arup, Tillett Lighting Design, Bruce Mau Design 6, Cooper Carry, SWA Group, Janet Rosenberg + Associates, Terry Guen Design Associates, MIG, Light Projects, Fluidity Design Consultants, Selbert Perkins Design, Arup, Chicago Public Art Group 7. D+K Architects, Theaster Gates, Schuler Shook, Daniel Weinbach & Partners, Larson Engineering, Tylk Gustafson Reckers Wilson Andrews 8. Design Workshop,Pickard Chilton, Patrick B Quigley Associates, JSC Art Consulting, Selbert Perkins Design, CMS Collaborataive, AES, RWDI, Live.Work.Learn.Play, Altus Works, Nelson Nygaard, MGPG Events, Primera 9. EC Purdy and Associates, Milhouse Engineering, Hitchcock Design Group, Vistara, GSG, Nayar Nayar, Land Surveying Services, Gjean Guarino 10. Epstein, Foster + Partners, Site Design Group, Schuler Shook, Catt Lyon Design 11. Frederic Schwartz Architects, Alejandro Zaera-Polo Architects, Thomas Balsley Associates, Arup, Atelier Ten, Pentagram, Fisher Marantz Stone, Nancy Rosen Inc. 12. Gustafson Guthrie Nichol, Diller Scofidio + Renfro, Magnusson Klemencic Associates, Pentagram, Tillotson Design Associates 13. Habitat 14. ingenhoven architects, Goettsch partners,Werner Sobek, Magnusson Klemencic Associates, Topotek 1, Liskae Associates, Jack Rouse, Office for Visual Interaction, Barbara Flynn 15. Jacques Ferrier Architectures, Sensual City Studio, Agenceter, Integral Ruedi Baur, Chris Rockey, Dear Production 16. James Corner Field Operations, nArchitects, Leo Villareal, Bruce Mau Design, L’Observatoire International, Fluidity Design Consultants, Patrick Marszewski, Buro Happold, Primera, HR&A Advisors, ETM Associates 17. John Ronan Architects, Janet Rosenberg + Associates, Arup, Thirst, Derek Porter Studio, CLUAA, Sharma Art Advisory 18. Kengo Kuma and Associates, StudioGC, Pivot Design, Anne Kustner Lighting Design, Terra Engineering, Primera 19. Krueck + Sexton Architect, Brooks+Scarpa, Uhlir Consulting, Charles AndersonÂ Atelier, Terry Guen Design Associates, Fluidity Design Consultants, James Rondeau, Fisher Marantz Stone, Thornton Tomasetti, Pentagram 20. Landworks Studio, NADAAA, Arup, Urban Art Projects, 50,000 feet, L’Observatoire International 21. Lohan Anderson, PWP Landscape Architecture, Civitas, LAM Partners,Catt Lyon Design, Halvorson and Partners, Terra Engineering 22. Machado and Silvetti Associates, Grant Associates, Solomon Cordwell Buenz (SCB), Terry Guen Design Associates, Buro Happold, Thomas.matthews, Jason Bruges Studio 23. marquardt + GRIDWERK ARCHITECTURE, Conservation Design Forum, Urban Works 24. !melk, HOK, UrbanLab, Terry Guen Design Associates, Zoe Ryan, Thirst, Conservation Design Forum, HR&A Advisors, Magnusson Klemencic Associates, Sam Schwatz Engineering, Leni Schwendinger LIGHT projects, CMS Collaborataive, Karin Bacon Enterprises 25. Metropolitan Workshop, Buro Happold, Townshend Landscape Architects, Squint/Opera, Speirs + Major, Modus Operandi, HR&A Advisors, A Different View 26. Miralles Tagliabue, David Woodhouse Architects, Site Design Group, Atelier Ten, TKB, Primera, Schuler Shook, Selbert Perkins Design, Waterline Studios, Concord Group, Sam Schwartz Engineering 27. Morphosis, Terry Guen Design Associates, Arup, Horton Lees Brogden Lighting Design, Pentagram, Merry Norris Contemporary Art 28. MorrisTerra, CD+M Lighting Design Group, WET Design, ESI Design 29. MSI Design, Utopia Entertainment, Hunt Design, Gallegos Lighting, Fluidity Design Consultants 30. OBRA Architects, Dattner Architects, Hood Design, L’Observatoire International, Mary Jane Jacob, CSS, Philip Habib 31 OMA/SGA, SCAPE, Thirst, Tillotson Design Associates, Arup, dbHMS, Patti Gilford Fine Arts, Robert Kirschner, Davis Langdon, KLOA 32. Perkins + Will, Hoerr Schaudt Landscape Architects, John David Mooney 33. PLANT Architect, Dialog Urban Design, Hoerr Schaudt Landscape Architects, Enermodal Engineering, United Visual Artists, Leni Schwendinger Light Projects, Dan Euser Water Projects, Andrew Jones, Entro Communications, Beth Kapusta, The Publicity Works 34. Rafael Viñoly Architects, Sasaki Associates, URS Corporation, Thornton Tomasetti, V3 Companies, Alfred Benesch & Company, Pentagram, Art Production Fund, One Lux Studio 35. Rios Clementi Hale Studios, Destefano Partners 36. Rogers Marvel Architects, Rockwell Group, Hoerr Schaudt Landscape Architects, L’Observatoire International, Mary Jane Jacob 37. Ross Barney Architects, Hoerr Schaudt Landscape Architects, Arup, WET Design, Karpowicz Studios, Thirst, Schuler Shook 38. RTKL Associates, Adjaye Associates, Rios Clemente Hale, Siteworks, Daniel Weinbach & Partners, Speirs + Major, Pentagram, Greenblue, Halvorson and Partners, Joseph Becherer, Fluidity Design Consultants, C.H. Johnson Consultants, Primera 39. Safdie Architects, SCB, SWA Group, Terry Guen Design Associates, Moffatt & Nichol, Sam Schwatz Engineering, Halvorson and Partners, Primera, RME, Cotter Consulting, Concord Group, TKB, Speirs + Major, Pentagram, Fluidity Design Consultants, SMW, Ned Kahn, Electroland, FTL Design Engineering, Motive Industries 40. SANJAY EKTATE 41. SHoP Architects, Brininstool Kerwin + Lynch, Coen + Partners, GCAM Group, Mark Robbins, Pentagram, L’Observatoire International, Acoustic Dimensions, Arup 42. Skidmore, Owings & Merrill, Wirtz International, James Carpenter Design Associates 43. STOSS Landscpe Urbanism, MPdL Studio, Myefski Architects, Terry Guen Design Associates, Jacobs Ryan Associates, L’Observatoire International, Studio Blue, Buro Happold, KPFF Consulting Engineers 44. TCL, Grain Collective, ARM 45. UNStudio, CAMES/gibson, Tom Leader Studio, a.g. Licht, Robert Somol, Lord Cultural Resources, Buro Happold, Norcon 46. Vasilko Architects, Philips Farevaag Smallenberg, Sussman Preja & Co., Schuler Shook, Vasilko Architects, Shabica & Associates, CS Associates, WMA Consulting Engineers 47. W Architecture, Handel Architects, Tillett Lighting Design, Site Design Group, 212, Lisa Corrin, Green Shield Ecology 48. WEISS/MANFREDI, Terry Guen Design Associates, Magnusson Klemencic Associates, HR&A Advisors, Brandston Partnership, Construction Cost Systems, Urban Works, Pentagram, dbHMS, Fluidity Design Consultants, Lisa Corrin 49. Woods Bagot, Surfacedesign, Lisa Freiman Curator, Bailey Edwards Architecture, Sherwood Design Engineers, Original Champions of Design 50. WORKSHOP: Ken Smith Landscape Architect, Michael Maltzan Architecture, Guy Nordenson and Associates, EE&K/Perkins Eastman, HR&A Advisors, Site Design Group, Edgewater Resources, Terra Engineering, Tillotson Design Associates, Merry Norris Contemporary Art, April Greiman, Fluidity Design Consultants, ETM Associates, Ambius 51. Xavier Vendrell Studio, Grimshaw Architects, Harley Ellis Devereaux, Arup, Studio Lab, Schuler Shook, IA+igo Manglano-Ovalle, Sarah Herda 52. Zaha Hadid Architects, tvsdesign, Balmori Associates, Halvorson and Partners, Space Agency, Seam
AN's Julie Iovine held a freewheeling conversation last week with architect Rafael Viñoly under the subject heading "What Comes After Postmodern Architecture." The architect had some choice words about the period before moving on to a variety of other topics, including corporate architecture, collaboration, and New York. https://vimeo.com/22260678
purchase tickets online through MCNY. Tickets: $12 for non-members, $8 for seniors & students, $6 for museum members.Join Julie Iovine, executive editor at The Architect's Newspaper, tomorrow (Tuesday) evening for a compelling discussion with architect Rafael Viñoly at the Museum of the City of New York at 6:30pm. The topic for the night, "What Comes After Postmodern Architecture?", will tackle the state of New York City architecture. The recent building boom in New York City has radically altered the look and feel of the city and added considerably to the list of starchitects currently reshaping New York’s iconic skyline. It has also helped redefine boundaries of the eclectic pluralism of postmodern architecture. How do we label the current architectural style of the last decade? Is there a post-postmodern? Reservations required. Call 917-492-3395 or
One of the biggest projects on the San Francisco Peninsula is the upcoming $720 million Stanford Hospital. It will replace -- though not displace -- the hospital's current home, a three-story affair designed by Edward Durell Stone in 1959, which has a concrete brise-soleil and is very much a building of its time. The new structure, which Rafael Viñoly Architects is in charge of, looks more like a hotel than a hospital, and the design is an indication of what state-of-the-art healthcare facilities are emphasizing these days. Designed to maximize natural lighting in what is often a rather closed, oppressive environment, the Viñoly hospital features a checkerboard layout, in which buildings are interspersed with squares of open space. You can get the general idea through this 3D animation, which must set some sort of bar for fancy architectural renderings -- forget about abstract outlines of people, here are models energetically walking around the space and cars driving past. (The animation was produced by a San Francisco company called Transparent House.) However, what the animation doesn't really show you is the interior, which has an enormous central atrium, like many a high-end hotel. The first two floors of the hospital are where procedures take place (surgery, imaging, and emergency services). Above are clear glass cubes, which contain the patient rooms (with 368 beds). The glass cubes are perched on opaque bases that hide all the mechanical equipment of the hospital, and the rooms look out over the hospital's gardens, meditation spaces and courtyards. The first two floors and adjacent two-story parking garage will be covered by roof gardens, which will create a second ground plane above the street and give patients access to open space without them having to leave the hospital and deal with all the attendant security issues. The rooms themselves will have window walls, offering views of the surrounding campus and town to provide some distraction from the tedium of a hospital stay. There will be motorized blinds that track the sun and reduce heat gain (LEED certification is planned). "It is an unusual layout for a hospital," said Chan-li Lin, who heads up Viñoly's San Francisco office. "Most hospitals don’t devote this much space to public amenities, because they do not generate income. But at Stanford, the buildings and landscape are always somewhat integrated, and the courtyard idea is embedded into their very DNA, so we were able to get our client on board. When you go to a very large hospital, it is easy to become disoriented because these buildings generally have such a large floorplate. Hopefully, we are creating a more humane environment for treatment and healing, where you are always aware of the connection to the outdoors. " Stanford is part of the low-density suburbs between San Francisco and San Jose, and at seven floors (and 130 feet), the hospital will be the tallest building in the area (except for Hoover Tower, which is pencil-thin) -- which is yet another motivation for reducing the mass of the building. The architects are working with the L.A. firm Lee, Burkhart, Liu, for their specialized knowledge in healthcare design. Ground-breaking is planned for the fall of 2012, and the first phase, with 820,000 square feet, is anticipated to take four years to complete.
The simmering opposition to the New Domino plan from the local community and especially its City Council rep has been well-noted, but the reaction from the design community has been more muted. And while the approval from the City Planning Commission, and the forthcoming showdown at with Councilman Steve Levin mean the project is pretty much headed for an up-or-down, maybe slightly tweaked if not entirely scrapped vote, design writer Stephen Zacks had made a bolder proposal, calling for the plan to be scrapped not because it is too dense and under invested, but because it is not visionary enough. "These unique sites are opportunities to generate new forms of urbanism and orders of magnitude greater revenue, instead producing the high volumes of similar units that are now languishing on the market," Zacks declares in a letter to the Council (in full, after the jump). He has a few ideas of his own, something called Domino University, but is also soliciting them from others. Feel free to leave them in the comments section, or on his Facebook page.
Dear Honorable Members of the New York City Council: As a part of the New York City community of architects, designers, and urbanists, we recognize that condo developments in upzoned areas have brought enormous benefits to the public through new tax revenues, high-quality architecture, affordable housing, waterfront parks, and remediation of brownfield sites. But as the market has seemed to have been over-saturated by condos and the rental vacancy rate remains unaffected by the inclusionary rezoning process, we are inviting you to consider a new model of development for the Domino Sugar site, one of the great icons of manufacturing in the area of North Brooklyn and, indeed, the United States. As you may know, Domino was the first sugar company to use branding to sell its products, and it remains one of the most recognizable brands in the country. We believe that the current plan to preserve the landmarked buildings and provide open space, affordable housing, waterfront access, and generous community space is a good start, but we think there can be a more ambitious and visionary approach to this site‹and to waterfront development in general‹which embraces the history of Domino and uses the site to prove that there is another way. As a city, we have progressed far beyond the point we had to beg developers to invest in New York. We are in the unique position of having investors compete for the right to put billions of dollars into complicated sites that require hundreds of millions in infrastructure, even during the worst recession in decades. The Domino site presents an absolutely unparalleled opportunity, and we ask whether its redevelopment according to the same model befits its enormous significance. While we have made great progress, this model still has not lived up to the standards for design and urbanism that the city must aspire to for the next century. The Domino Sugar site is Williamsburg¹s High Line. It is clear that the market is still supporting well-designed, high-quality architecture and urbanism. These unique sites are opportunities to generate new forms of urbanism and orders of magnitude greater revenue, instead producing the high volumes of similar units that are now languishing on the market. We believe that Rafael Viñoly is a superb architect capable of great work, but this inclusionary condo model does not permit the creativity and dynamism that could be supported by this architect, this community, this site, or this city. We ask you to send this plan back for revision, to incorporate the care and attention to detail in site planning and land use that it deserves. As a body empowered with the ability to accept or reject this plan but not, perhaps, to propose a new model of development, we ask you to take a risk. We all remember the terrible plight of New York during the fiscal crisis of the 1970s, and we never want to go back to a time when burning buildings was more profitable than designing new ones. Rejecting a 1.5 billion dollar investment in our city, especially one that is loaded with community benefits, is a risky step. But it¹s also a vote of confidence in New York City: that we can do better, that we can begin to create a city and an architecture, and a model of urban development that is fitting for a world-class city, a city that embraces its immigrant communities, a city that is in constant transformation as every generation takes hold of it and reshapes it for itself. We ask you to consider the Domino site an example for what can be accomplished in every neighborhood and every district in the city with more attention to detail, more care, more originality, and a greater level of inclusion, not represented by percentages of units, but by a vision that connects to the history of the place and the future of the city. The Domino University plan is the beginning of a process that can begin to impact the core problem that we still face after decades of redevelopment: a rental vacancy rate that remains below three percent. We need new housing in New York City, but not of this kind. It's time to explore a new way, and the Domino site is the place where it can begin to happen. Respectfully, Stephen Zacks