Search results for "Atlanta"

Placeholder Alt Text

Twenty20

Eight new cricket stadiums could be coming to the U.S. by 2020
"Howzat! Edged and caught at gully trying to drive a dibbly dobbly over silly mid-off." If that made no sense to you, you're not alone. The weird and wonderful game of cricket is still yet to fully catch on in the U.S., but one developer, Jignesh ‘Jay’ Pandya, from Philadelphia, has his mind set on such an agenda, planning eight new stadiums across the country. The Atlanta metro area, The District of Columbia, Florida, Texas, the New York City metro area, Illinois, and California, are the shortlisted regions Pandya is targeting for new cricket teams. In a big step toward realization, he and his firm Global Sports Ventures (GSV) have joined forces with JLL's Sports and Entertainment Group to build eight stadiums in U.S. cities by 2020, forming a new American professional cricket league. For now, the only images that have been released show a mixed-used complex for a site somewhere in Atlanta. The scheme, if built, will include restaurants and residential units. The incentive, however, may be more financial rather than for the love of cricket. GSV has said these eight stadiums will be a $2.4 billion investment, resulting the in the creation of around 17,000 jobs. Each stadium is touted to cost between $70 million and $125 million to build, while specific sites are still being scouted out. Cricket, of course, is played in the U.S. and exhibition matches are hosted on baseball fields, but a professional league would require teams having their own stadiums to avoid congestion and clashing. Furthermore, a cricket field is usually circular. It is bound by rope or markers with a circumference of 1,411 to 1,545 feet—that's about 1.5 times longer than a baseball field. Spectator capacity follows a similar ratio. Dodger Stadium in Los Angeles can hold 56,000, whereas the Melbourne Cricket Ground in Australia has a capacity of 100,024. The real test, however, will be getting people to actually go, and even more pressing will be television coverage and lucrative sponsorship deals. According to 11Alive, a news broadcaster in Atlanta, only 35 percent of viewers said they would not attend a cricket game in the city. This answer, however, may relate to the growing Indian population in the U.S. Already hugely popular in India, Pakistan, and much of South Asia, Pandya believes the immigrant communities from those regions could become a strong base of supporters. Evidence for this lies in the fact that ESPN covers the Indian Premier League (IPL)—a cricket league that is admittedly the world's most popular—with a service costing $29.99 for the 2017 season. “We know our plans are ambitious, and GSV is committed to launching a professional cricket league in the U.S. by 2020,” Pandya told WXIA. The IPL runs a fast-paced 20 over (160 "bowls"—a.k.a. pitches) format of the game, known as "Twenty20." This is the fastest way of playing the game. While the sport is complex, history suggests that changing the rules to placate American audiences does not work. This can be seen most emphatically with soccer in the U.S. as recently as 20 years ago. Pandya's story sounds eerily similar to Jim Paglia's, an entrepreneur who, in 1993, had plans for a new soccer league in the U.S. He proposed 12 new soccer stadiums in American suburbs, initially targeting eight cities: Chicago, St. Louis, Boston, New York, Atlanta, Dallas, Washington, D.C., and Orlando, Florida (the parallels continue). Until then, soccer in America had had a tumultuous time of it, with soccer leagues—both indoor and outdoor—starting and failing. Paglia proposed that each stadium would be part of a larger complex, similar to Pandya's scheme in Atlanta. He also planned a much bigger change, altering the rules to "put a product on the field that would draw more [American] fans." The changes involved dividing the pitch with colored chevrons, limiting player movement, including more than two goals and various goal sizes, and having long-shots scoring more "points" than close-range goals. Further still, players would wear different colored jerseys based on position. "ProZone Soccer," as Paglia called it, failed spectacularly. However, soccer in its standard form based on British "Association Football" is now popular. Since the U.S. hosted the World Cup in 1994 and its women's team has had much success, soccer is now the third most-played team sport in America with more than 24 million playing the game at some level. Crucially, it is well watched too. Numerous broadcasters show many live MLS games and new stadiums are now such a hot topic that a U.S.-focused email newsletter titled "Soccer Stadium Digest," run by American architecture firm Populous, exists. "There is the feeling in the industry that the leading firms are creating a uniquely American style of soccer stadium," a spokesperson for the digest told The Architect's Newspaper in an email last year.  Architecturally speaking, aside from standard tiered seating, cricket grounds boast a unique typology: the cricket pavilion. The pavilion was once (and in many ways still is) a very British typology. Its Victorian ornamentation—a stylistic extension of the railway—is a common feature in any English town and has been emulated across the former colonies in India, Pakistan, South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, and Zimbabwe, all countries where cricket is hugely popular. It can even be found in Philadelphia with McKim, Mead & White's Germantown Cricket Pavilion which still stands today. Cricket in late 19th- and early 20th-century Philadelphia, however, was quickly usurped by lawn tennis. The colonial inflection is a hallmark of the game's roots, going back to Lord's Cricket Ground in London which opened more than 200 years ago, though it's no longer present in modern stadiums. It was at the Lord's Cricket Ground—the supposed "home of cricket"—that a new spaceship-like addition breathed fresh air into the stadium. Jan Kaplický, David Nixon, and Amanda Levete's Future Systems delivered the Lord's Media Center—, which won the RIBA Stirling Prize in 1999. Though that was nearly 20 years ago, that and the more recent addition to the Emirates Old Trafford Cricket Ground in Manchester by BDP Architects suggest there is room for innovation and modernity in cricket stadium design. For Pandya to succeed, he needs time. In the opinion of this author, eight stadiums by 2020 is a tall order, but the marketing spiel of offering Twenty20 cricket by 2020 is indeed catchy. Along with that form of the game, Pandya also needs to bank on the longer versions becoming popular as a result. One day games (40 overs each) and five-day tests, where both teams bat twice, are commonplace. Moreover, even after time is up, the result can still be a draw. He also needs to stick to the rules. Changing the laws of the game? Well, that's just not cricket.
Placeholder Alt Text

Chicago Connection

BREAKING: SAIC and UChicago may be organizing the U.S. Pavilion at Venice Biennale
We have been reporting on the official silence from the U.S. Department of State regarding the 2018 Venice Architecture Biennale. But now there seems to be a glimmer of information on who will organize and curate the pavilion. A job posting on the School of the Art Institute of Chicago (SAIC) website is seeking a “Venice Biennale US Exhibition and Program [Coordinator].” The exhibition, according to this posting, is being co-curated with the University of Chicago:
Under the leadership of the SAIC and UChicago program directors and curatorial team, the Exhibition and Program Coordinator supports the development of the U.S. pavilion at the Biennale Architettura 2018 in Venice, Italy (hereafter, “Biennale”) through research, fundraising, planning, scheduling, commissioning, staffing, and more. This work involves coordinating and collaborating with architects, artists, scholars, public and private organizations in both the U.S. and Italy.
There is no word on the theme of the exhibition and the posting makes us wonder if this group was selected without a coordinated curatorial approach or idea, perhaps based on a fundraising budget and strategy? The job listing claims the Program Coordinator will be under the program director and curatorial team of the sponsoring institutions. The architecture program of the Art Institute of Chicago is directed by Jonathan Solomon who co-curated the 2010 U.S. Pavilion with Michael Rooks. (The High Museum in Atlanta was the organizer for the 2010 pavilion as well.) Solomon clearly knows his way around the Venetian Giardini. Stay tuned.
Placeholder Alt Text

Going for Gold

Los Angeles will host the 2028 Olympics

Los Angeles is set to host the Olympics in 2028, its third time doing so following the 1932 and 1984 games, as first reported by the New York Times.

L.A gave up the bid for the 2024 games, which will be hosted in Paris, after a deal was struck with the International Olympics Committee (IOC). The Committee had not reached a consensus as to which city would take the earlier games until today. The unusual arrangement saw the simultaneous announcement of the hosts for both the 2024 and 2028 games.

The city, when making its bid for 2024, proposed using its existing facilities from the previous Olympics. While extensive retrofitting and building temporary facilities will take place, no new permanent structures will have to go up. In this way, L.A. would be the “most affordable” of any U.S. proposal, as Mayor Eric Garcetti claimed. The L.A Memorial Coliseum and surrounding Exposition Park will be the main stages for the games; other significant venues include the Staples Center, Nokia Theater, Griffith Observatory, Dodger Stadium, and Rose Bowl. 

The city’s proposal also relies heavily on expanding transit infrastructure, including the light rail, streetcar systems, and LAX's Tom Bradley International Terminal. Officials have made the promise that 80 percent of spectators and visitors will be connected to venues by public transportation.

The U.S. has not hosted a Summer Olympics since 1996 when it was held in Atlanta. The success of both games, and especially in 1984 when the city turned a $250 million profit, as well as the advertised lower cost due to existing infrastructure, has made both the public and city officials amenable to hosting. Boston was originally chosen to be the American bid over Los Angeles and San Francisco but withdrew last minute in 2015 due to cost overruns. 

L.A. had originally made its proposal and plans for 2024, and not 2028. According to the Times, while the city is still willing to accommodate for four years later than planned, officials have acknowledged that the cost and logistical estimates in the bid will likely be higher in 2028.

The official announcement will take place on September 13 in Lima, Peru.

Placeholder Alt Text

Recap

From SO-IL in Paris to Atlanta's ambitious highway-capping park: AN’s can’t-miss top posts from this week
Missed some of our articles, Tweets, and Facebook posts from the last few days? Don’t sweat it—we’ve gathered the week’s must-read stories right here. Enjoy! SO-IL and the triumph of non-“starchitecture” in Paris When someone tells you that they won an international competition in Paris along the Bastille axis on a site at the junction of Canal Saint Martin and the Seine River, images of Gehry’s Fondation Louis Vuitton, I.M. Pei’s Pyramide du Louvre, Bernard Tschumi’s Parc de la Villette, or Jean Nouvel’s Institut du Monde Arabe come to mind. However, New York–based architects SO-IL took a much different route and made something almost as non-“starchitect” as possible. Midtown East rezoning gets unanimous approval from land use and zoning committees

Following several key revisions, Midtown East’s rezoning plan was unanimously approved by both the City Council Land Use Committee and the subcommittee on zoning and franchises.

Atlanta’s highway-capping park moves forward but seeks new partners and funding The plan to build a nine-acre park over a highway in Atlanta’s Buckhead neighborhood is moving forward after the Buckhead business district voted to create a nonprofit organization that will manage its future development. Facing soaring costs, the world’s skinniest skyscraper is facing foreclosure The world’s skinniest skyscraper on Billionaire’s Row in New York City could be headed towards foreclosure. The SHoP-designed building on 111 W. 57th Street has only been built up to 20 stories and is already $50 million over budget. Met Breuer exhibit introduces an Ettore Sottsass you’ve never seen before Although Italian architect and designer Ettore Sottsass is perhaps most famous in the United States for his legendary design collective, Memphis, his life and career involve far, far more, as a fascinating new exhibition at the Met Breuer in New York reveals.
Placeholder Alt Text

Buckhead Park Over GA400

Atlanta's highway-capping park moves forward but seeks new partners and funding

An ambitious plan to build a park over a highway in Atlanta’s Buckhead neighborhood is moving forward after the Buckhead business district voted to create a nonprofit organization that will manage future development, according to the Atlanta Journal Constitution.

The nine-acre linear park—proposed last year and planned for a section of Georgia 400—would be designed by the two New York–based firms ROGERS PARTNERS Architects + Urban Designers and Nelson Byrd Woltz Landscape Architects. The Buckhead Community Improvement District (CID), a public-private organization that invests taxes from commercial property owners within the district into the public realm, released today an updated timeline for the project. The next five months will be dedicated toward the creation of the nonprofit, as well as the planning and design of the park. The CID has also dedicated up to $262,500 in order to sustain its contract with the design team through 2017.  

“The goal would be for us to truly hand this off to the new entity where they could count on some funding from the CID to help stand them up and help attracting additional partners,” Buckhead CID Executive Director Jim Durrett said to AJC.

Buckhead Park Over GA400, the park’s current tentative name, is a push from the city to encourage walkable environments and green spaces. The park is located at the confluence of Georgia 400, Peachtree Road, the MARTA red line, and the Path400 Greenway Trail. 

The current design is an open scheme with various public spaces—a Commons, a Plaza, and the Gardens—that aim to create diverse experiences through the park. It will also be built over a MARTA station (acting as a roof, almost) and will be connected to various pedestrian paths. Public engagement is expected to play a role during the design phase, as well as in the formal naming of the park.

The approval was a narrow vote, 4-3, with dissenters citing a lack of key details—including funding sources. The estimated cost of the project is as high as $245 million, with Buckhead CID officials saying they expect funding to come through both public and private sources, including MARTA when the Buckhead MARTA station goes through a redesign.

With this approval to move forward, the Buckhead CID is hopeful that pre-construction work will begin in January 2018, groundbreaking will happen by 2020, and a fully operational park will open by 2023, according to AJC. 

Explore the park in 3D here.
Placeholder Alt Text

"make homelessness rare and brief"

Atlanta’s $50 million fight to end homelessness is moving forward

Atlanta’s city council approved major funding for a plan to end homelessness, voting unanimously on Monday to issue $26 million in bonds to match another $25 million promised by nonprofit United Way of Greater Atlanta, as first reported by the Atlanta Journal-Constitution.

The city’s mayor, Kasim Reed, has made tackling homelessness a priority during his time in office. During his “state of the city” address back in January, he announced United Way’s commitment to match any city funding towards the homeless initiative.

“I am proud to announce that with the unanimous approval of the Atlanta City Council, we will move forward with our $50 million commitment to make homelessness rare and brief in the City of Atlanta,” Reed said in a press release.

The bonds and the matched donation will indeed bring in more than $50 million. The city will also leverage (i.e. taking on debt to increase the return on investment) an additional $66 million to make a total investment of more than $115 million to tackle homelessness.

Over the next three years, the money will be distributed to provide different services, including 264 new emergency shelter beds and housing interventions. Approximately $7.6 million will be used for the acquisition and renovation of shelters over the course of the next three years. The majority of the money (around $16 million), however, will go towards the primary goal of the city’s homeless initiative: buying or renovating 500 units that will be used as permanent homes for the homeless.

Atlanta has more than 3,500 individuals and families in need of shelter, according to an analysis by non-profit Partners for Home. But homelessness in the city has been on a downward trend, decreasing by 16.5 percent from 2015 to 2016, according to National Alliance to End Homelessness’ report 2016 The State of Homelessness in America. This approval of funds brings Reed’s pledge one step closer to reality.

“We now have the opportunity to end chronic homelessness in our city and ensure that all men, women, and children—regardless of circumstance—have the chance to live stable, meaningful lives and participate fully in their communities,” Reed said. 

Placeholder Alt Text

The A Team

Emory University, CDC, and others seek to be annexed by the City of Atlanta
The City of Atlanta would gain 630 acres, and an entire university campus, under a proposal that would dramatically change the city’s footprint. Emory University, currently part of the Druid Hills section of DeKalb County, Georgia, filed a petition this week to have its campus annexed by the City of Atlanta, while also remaining part of the county. Emory is one of three institutions that have filed petitions to become part of the city. Others include Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta Egleston Hospital and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), a federal agency. If Emory’s plan is approved, Atlanta would be able to say it is home to yet another well-known institution of higher education, along with the Georgia Institute of Technology, Georgia State University, Morehouse College, Spelman College, and Clark Atlanta University. Atlanta would also become home to Emory-affiliated medical facilities that are not already in the city. Established in 1836 as Emory College, Emory is a private research university with 14,913 students as of fall 2016, 29,000 employees, and an endowment of $6.4 billion. It’s the second oldest private institution of higher education in Georgia and one of the 50 oldest private universities in the United States. Emory President Claire E. Sterk said in a prepared statement that the annexation into Atlanta will complement the university’s commitment to both the city and the county. “We are enriched by our relationships with the county and the city as well as the larger region and the state and look forward to building upon our commitment to community involvement, academic excellence, innovation, and entrepreneurship,” she said. The university indicated last year that it might petition for annexation, but this week’s action makes it official. “Emory’s annexation into the city of Atlanta has always been viewed as one of the most viable, long-term options and one that provides consistency and alignment relative to the University’s marketing and branding initiatives,” officials said in a statement last August. “Emory already promotes its location as Atlanta, is known internationally as being in Atlanta, routinely recruits faculty and students to Atlanta, and has an Atlanta address and zip code. The prestige of Emory as an international university and Atlanta as a global city are inextricably linked.” The Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta Egleston Hospital is on Emory’s campus, and the hospital sought annexation to be consistent with what Emory is doing, officials said in a statement quoted by The Atlanta Business Chronicle. The annexation would be for the Egleston Hospital on Clifton Road but not the entire health care system, they explained. The CDC filed its petition after “careful consideration,” the federal health agency said in a statement. The petition is for its Edward R. Roybal Campus on Clifton Road to be annexed by the city of Atlanta. “Annexation by the city of Atlanta allows CDC to continue working with DeKalb County’s critical response capability while linking to Atlanta’s infrastructure and municipal services,” the organization said. The petitions will now be considered as part of the city’s public meeting process for annexations. If the requests are approved, officials say, the annexations could take effect as soon as this fall.
Placeholder Alt Text

May 23

Tech+ expo: The future of the built environment is here

NYCxDESIGN kicks off this week, and our first ever Tech+ Expo will be part of it. Check us out on May 23rd from 8:30 a.m. to 6:30 p.m. at 639 West 46th St. For more information visit techplusexpo.com.

A wave of new technologies is transforming the architecture, engineering, and construction industries. On May 23, The Architect’s Newspaper will host the first trade expo and forum to investigate this convergence: TECH+. Taking place during NYCxDesign month, New York’s official citywide celebration of design, the conference incorporates visionary speakers, engaging panels, live demos, and product displays from leaders in emerging fields like virtual reality, smart buildings, parametrics, advanced materials, drones and robotics, AEC Software, and mobile apps.

Architects, engineers, designers, builders, real-estate professionals, investors, entrepreneurs, software developers, students, and makers will converge at Metropolitan West in New York—the center of one of America’s fastest growing tech markets—to discover innovations, come across start-ups, meet top experts, and build connections. A conference addressing new architectural technologies is both needed and timely, spurring new ideas, cross-pollination, and innovation.

“We see TECH+ as the place where technology companies and the AEC industry converge,” said The Architect’s Newspaper publisher Diana Darling. “We want to share what’s happening and start pulling people together. These fields are developing quickly, and people are eager to build a community.”

Over the past six years, AN has hosted 26 events for Facades+, a series of conferences taking place in cities around the country focusing on the future of building envelopes. TECH+ will build on that series’ success by teaming up with Microsol Resources TechPerspectives conference to host a full day of inspired presentations on the Innovation Stage.

Presenters at TECH+ will include keynote speaker Hao Ko, a Gensler principal who helped mastermind the Nvidia headquarters building in Santa Clara, California, and the Mercedes-Benz headquarters building in Atlanta; Kerenza Harris, leader of Morphosis Architects’ advanced technology team; and leaders of innovative companies like Graphisoft, Humanscale, Kohn Pedersen Fox (KPF), FXFowle, Thornton Tomasetti, and more.

Panels will discuss, among other topics, start-up technology investment, workplace design, digital printing and fabrication, virtual-reality environments, and on-site drone footage. More than a dozen exhibitors hail from around the AEC industry, in fields like BIM (building information modeling) software, virtual reality (VR), 3-D printing, engineering, and computer graphics. The conference will also showcase know-how from some of the city’s top tech incubators and research from cutting-edge technology programs at design schools like Columbia GSAPP, Parsons, MIT DesignX, and Pratt.

TECH+ is a new type of conference,” said Darling. “We’re focusing on completely new ideas and techniques, and gauging where the future of the AEC will be and how we get there.”

Placeholder Alt Text

PARKing

New seven-acre Atlanta public park will sit atop parking facility
Atlanta Mayor Kasim Reed has announced plans for a new parking center and ‘mobility facility’ in the city's Grant Park neighborhood. The $48 million project, titled Grant Park Gateway, will sit on what is currently an eight-acre surface parking lot that serves Zoo Atlanta. The new deck will be partially underground and will provide approximately 1,000 parking spaces, more than double the current lot's capacity. A rooftop park and other vegetation on the structure are intended to help manage storm water run-off and to help the project reach LEED-certified status. A multidisciplinary design-build team led by Atlanta-based Winter Johnson Group and Smith Dalia Architects will helm the project. "The Grant Park Gateway will be the first facility of its kind in the City of Atlanta, and earned its name because it provides an entirely new way of looking at the entrance to a community," said Mayor Reed in a press release. “The design benefits the Grant Park neighborhood and respects its history as Atlanta’s oldest park, while addressing parking demands, reducing traffic congestion, and improving the overall safety in the area.” The parking garage itself will utilize an intelligent parking system that will be able to tell visitors where to find empty spots and help manage some of the traffic jams that have plagued the area. As if the rooftop park was not enough to make the area a destination, a new restaurant, which the Mayor said will highlight local cuisine, will also be placed on the deck’s rooftop for visitors to enjoy. The Department of Parks and Recreation will host several meetings with the community in the coming months to engage local residents about the project, which is projected for completion in late 2018. To learn more about the project, you can visit Smith Dalia Architects’ website here.
Placeholder Alt Text

Portmania

A new book explores John Portman’s influence on American architecture with photos by Iwan Baan

In 1995, Ramón Prat and photographer Jordi Bernadó published Atlanta, a book of images of that city on the edge of the 21st century. A generation later, a new volume titled Portman’s America & Other Speculations revisits Atlanta—and American urbanism at large in this not-so-new century—through the work of hometown architect John Portman.

Photographer Iwan Baan traveled to Portman buildings around the United States, documenting his work in New York, Detroit, San Francisco, and, of course, Atlanta.

The images reveal a humanism that’s lost in the Hunger Games films and the Walking Dead television series, which exposed Portman’s work to most of America. Lush shots of Entelechy I and II, the Georgia houses the architect built for his family, coexist among now-classic takes on his supersized atria and their stacked balconies. Amid the drama, Baan’s work captures the everyday: a woman on her phone outside the Atlanta Marriott Marquis, a guy perched on a curved red banquette at the Westin Bonaventure hotel in L.A., and the sculptures and furniture Portman created to enhance the spaces he developed and designed.

Four essays (including one by Portman himself), a conversation between the architect’s close friends and family, plus student work from a Portmanian architecture class at the GSD, complement Baan’s images.

“The resulting photographs,” wrote editor Mohsen Mostafavi, dean of Harvard Graduate School of Design (GSD), “capture the view as if in a state of distraction; Portman’s architecture, and by extension Portman’s America, is presented as it is today, for all to see.”

Portman’s America and Other Speculations, Lars Muller Publishers, $35, June 2017

Placeholder Alt Text

Zero Work Future

As the American Dream dies, we must rethink our communities

This article appears in The Architect’s Newspaper’s April 2017 issue, which takes a deep dive into Florida to coincide with the upcoming AIA Conference on Architecture in Orlando (April 27 to 29). We’re publishing the issue online as the Conference approaches—click here to see the latest articles to be uploaded.

Americans define themselves through work; it builds character, or so we believe. The American Dream is premised on individual achievement, with the promise that our labor will be rewarded and measured by the things we collect and consume. For many, the sine qua non of the dream, our greatest collectible, is the single-family house. Of all our products, it is the one we most rely upon to represent our aspirations and achievements.

Throughout the history of our republic, the idea—promoted from the beginning by the likes of Thomas Jefferson, heir to Palladio and father of the American suburban ideal—of living in a freestanding house in the middle of one’s own personal Eden has been the dream of generation after generation of Americans. So while it was possible for Le Corbusier to say, in Paris near the beginning of the last century, that “A house is a machine for living,” from our perspective, on this side of the Atlantic and on this side of the 20th century, it would be better to append that famous maxim: “A house is a machine for living the American Dream.” At this point in history, this statement seems entirely self-evident but still we are reminded by our leaders to get our piece of the dream. In promoting his vision of an “ownership society” in a speech at the St. Paul African Methodist Episcopal Church in Atlanta in 2002, President George W. Bush said, “I do believe in the American Dream… Owning a home is a part of that dream; it just is. Right here in America, if you own your own home, you’re realizing the American Dream.” And during the early years of the new century, the economy soared as millions of wood-framed dreams sprang up across the country, enabled by an elaborate new financial calculus cooked up by Wall Street.

But then the magic formulas—which scripted the construction and consumption of ever-larger houses in ever increasing numbers by bundling our dreams together into tradeable units—began to fail. The dream quickly became a nightmare. As the legitimating environmental, economic, and socio-political narratives that for so long sustained the endless reproduction of suburbia began to collapse, it became clear that the suburban house, rather than the manifesting of our achievements, masked our delusions. According to the historian John Archer, “the romanticized isolation of the individual (or nuclear family unit) in a manufactured Arcadian preserve is an increasingly untenable fiction.”

The myth that we all stand alone, propelled by our own initiative and hard work is part of that fiction. Suburbs, and the detached single-family houses of which they are comprised, reinforce it. They work to isolate and separate us, to dislocate us as individuals, detached from any larger heterogeneous collective body. The common cul-de-sac is, both literally and symbolically, the end of the road, a terminus in a system. Safely sequestered within its four (or eight, or sixteen, or thirty-two) walls, we stand apart from the crowd, reaching out through an array of devices to make contact with those who are, more or less, just like us. Space becomes less a medium in which we mix and more a barrier that insulates us from those unlike ourselves. And as houses balloon in size, this sense of disconnection is amplified within the walls of the house itself, with each inhabitant withdrawing to ever more far-flung and insular domestic realms.

The social and political consequences of this withdrawal are increasingly obvious in the deterioration of a civil society and the erosion of civil discourse. The further we live from each other, the less we are capable of seeing each other as people with shared dreams and struggles and the more likely we are to see an other, unlike us, whom we fear and demonize. The evidence of this is clear in the last election, in which President Donald Trump’s campaign of xenophobia claimed the most votes, according to the Washington Post, in our suburbs, small cities, and rural areas. As our houses spread out—as the distance between us increases—we vote more myopically to protect our own perceived interests (and the interests of those we see as like us) at the expense of what is arguably the greater collective good.

But is the detached house, with its resulting social detachment, a prerequisite of the American Dream? Is it possible to imagine other futures for the dream and, consequently, other futures for dwelling? What would happen if personal happiness were no longer so closely tied to economic success derived from the fruits of one’s labor? These are questions we would do well to consider. Jobs are disappearing. And while presently most of us still need—and may even want—to sell our labor, it is becoming clearer that with each passing day there will only be fewer buyers. Our relationship to work, and therefore to the American Dream, and therefore to our manner of dwelling, and therefore to politics, is changing.

According to the network theorist Geert Lovink and the political activist Franco Berardi, the capitalist promise of “full employment turned out to be a dystopia: there is simply not enough work for everyone…. Zero work is the tendency, and we should get prepared for it, which is not so bad if social expectations change, and if we accept the prospect that we’ll work less and we’ll have time to think about life, art, education, pleasure, love, and what have you rather than solely about profit and growth.” Our current world is built on a foundation of profit and growth. Our urbanism—and the infrastructure and architecture with which it is constructed, including the tens of millions of homes spread thin across the landscape—is the result of a centuries-old economic system. And that system has consistently sought to segregate sites of labor and production from sites of dwelling. The single-family house in a suburban bedroom community along a congested commuter route is the product of a capitalist system in which we head out each day to sell our labor in an indifferent market, returning as night falls to replenish our energies and reclaim our identity.

As the market for labor decreases in an increasingly automated world, we need to begin thinking about the consequences and benefits of a future without work, or, more accurately, with far less wage-earning work. Even now we can see that a shift is occurring. The recent collapse of the distinction between places of work and living is both a symptom of the underlying economic and technological transformations that are reshaping work as we know it and a sign that points toward other ways of dwelling. Out of necessity, and, in many cases, desire, people are beginning to experiment with other ways of living, coming together to form new (or new again) types of shared live-work households. And as the tendency toward zero work increases, we will all need to rethink the way we live. Because if we take the classical definition of work out of the equation, the whole structure of our cities, as well as our manner of living, makes a lot less sense.

Already, this probability is leading economists, technologists, and political scientists—but sadly few politicians on either the left or the right—to speculate on the structure of society in the future. A key question is how people will sustain themselves without jobs. There are renewed calls for a universal basic income by tech leaders like Elon Musk (or a universal basic dividend suggested by Greek economist and politician Yanis Varoufakis); Bill Gates has even suggested that we have an income tax on robots. In any case, a new economic model—which will, necessarily, be accompanied by a new politicalorder—in which we are freed from the obligation to sell our labor in order to survive will require that we consider other conceptions of human productivity, other forms of human association, and of course other ways of living.

In such a future, the American Dream, as it is currently defined, would have no utility. But how would we organize our lives in a world where we work less? What would we do? How would we live? In his essay “Fuck Work,” the historian James Livingston points toward an answer when he asks, “How would human nature change as the aristocratic privilege of leisure becomes the birthright of all? As architects, seeking a way forward, we might ask a different version of Livingston’s question: How would human habitats change, as the privilege of leisure becomes the birthright of all?

Liberated from the idea that our dwellings must be understood as freestanding castles, as isolated retreats from society through which we represent our individualism and secure our market share, we could instead conceive of assemblages of dwellings that collectively define a domain of mutual cooperation, interaction and civil discourse. We have counter-histories of dwelling that offer us guidance in thinking about other possible domestic orders. In 1886, Jean-Baptiste Godin, the French industrialist who built the Social Palace at Guise, wrote that when “constructed with a view to unity of purpose and interests, the homes, like the people, approach each other, stand solidly together, and form a vast pile in which all the resources of the builder’s art contribute to best answer the needs of families and individuals.” And following this, we might allow ourselves to imagine—as a way of shaking off the dust of the 20th century—living in what the social reformer Robert Owen described as a “magnificent palace, containing within itself the advantages of a metropolis, a university, and a country residence, without any of their disadvantages, …placing within the reach of its inhabitants… arrangements far superior to any now known … [nor] yet possessed by the most favored individuals in any age or country.”

Of course, the American Dream can’t be transformed overnight. There are aspects of it that are deeply embedded in our collective consciousness. At its core, the dream is about security, comfort, and familiarity, as much as it is about aspiration, accomplishment, and status. Any new ideas about the way we live, if they are to dislodge us from our long-habituated connection to the single-family detached house, must be accompanied by new architectural models and delivered through compelling new narratives that situate the needs and desires currently manifest in the house within new patterns that make collective life more desirable.

This may seem to be yet another call for a utopia, and therefore criticized as being divorced from the pressing concerns of the real world. It is not. For as Lewis Mumford said, “the prospects of architecture are not divorced from the prospects of the community. If man is created, as the legends say, in the image of the gods, his buildings are done in the image of his own mind and institutions.” The real world is changing rapidly all around us; meanwhile we cling to increasingly outmoded dreams. In the future, if we hope not only to survive but also to thrive, we’ll need to change our minds and rethink our institutions. We’ll have to prioritize community as much as we currently prioritize individuality. We’ll have to decide to live together. We’ll need new dreams.

Keith Krumwiede is the author of Atlas of Another America: An Architectural Fiction (Park Books, 2017).

Placeholder Alt Text

Da ba dee Da ba daa

(Almost) everything is blue in Snarkitecture co-founder Daniel Arsham’s latest installation
Daniel Arsham is feeling blue. Hourglass, the latest exhibition by the New York–based artist and Snarkitecture co-founder, is currently on display at the High Museum of Art in Atlanta. Hourglass features some of the Arsham’s first work in color. The colorblind artist has worked predominantly in black and white throughout his career but recently began using special light refracting glasses, which allow him to see the world more vibrantly. “Life is definitely more nuanced, but I’m not sure it’s more interesting. I feel like I’m inside a game—an overly saturated world,” said Arsham in a press release. “But now I’ve arrived at a point where I’m using color as another tool in my work. This is a unique project for me in that there is a ton of color, so I think it’s going to be really interesting to see audiences react.” The exhibition at the High features three installations, including a blue Zen garden and tea house that dominates one of the museum’s interior galleries. The monochromatic space is washed in a hurts-your-eyes blue: blue Japanese tea house, blue floor, blue sand. A gray petrified tree and gray stone lantern stand in the garden, providing the eyes with a break from the overwhelming color. Inside the tea house, a cast figure of a woman and a camera sit on the, you guessed it, blue tatami mats. The “scattered objects give the environment a palpable sense of dwelling—as if occupied by a caretaker hermit,” said the museum in a press release. That caretaker hermit, a member of the Atlanta glo dance company, comes along each Sunday during the exhibition to rake new patterns into the sand. The other installations include a cave of purple amethyst-cast sports equipment and a room of hourglasses that draw on Arsham’s continuing project, Fictional Archaeology, which involves the casting of everyday objects in precious and semi-precious stones. Hourglass is on view at the High Museum of Art in Atlanta through May 21.