Search results for "Brooklyn"

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Descension

Anish Kapoor brings an endless swirly to Brooklyn
Anish Kapoor has brought a liquid sculpture to the Brooklyn waterfront for his latest work of public art. Descension is a hot tub katabasis, an endless swirly into the depths of Brooklyn Bridge Park. The water, sculpted by a funnel, dialogues with the continuous flow of the East River and traffic over the Brooklyn Bridge in the near distance. At 26 feet in diameter, the piece, presented here by the Public Art Fund, builds on Kapoor's longtime exploration of emptiness (and could also be seen, depending on your politics, as an apt metaphor for the state of the world today.) Up close, its foamy surface—and gurgling machinations—feels peaceful. For safety reasons, a thin white rail encircles the piece to prevents toddlers and Pomeranians from drowning, but also creates distance between the visitor and the void. A video of the installation can be seen below.
Previously, Kapoor has installed Descension in Italy, India, in Paris's Seine, and in the garden at Versailles. Here in Brooklyn, “Anish Kapoor reminds us of the contingency of appearances: our senses inevitably deceive us," said Public Art Fund Director and Chief Curator Nicholas Baume, in a prepared statement. "With Descension, he creates an active object that resonates with changes in our understanding and experience of the world. In this way, Kapoor is interested in what we don’t know rather than in what we do, understanding that the limit of perception is also the threshold of human imagination.”
This is the nonprofit's fifth year in Brooklyn Bridge Park, but it's not the first time the Public Art Fund has exhibited work by the London-based artist. In 2006, the group brought Kapoor's Sky Mirror, a 35-foot-wide concave mirror, to Rockefeller Center.
"The fact that this is free [to visit] matters," Kapoor said, at a press conference yesterday. "We believe that art liberates us, opens us, frees us, to have it as open access is a terrific thing," a particularly rich observation from an artist who's unapologetically hoarding the blackest black on earth. Descension is on view through September 10 at Brooklyn Bridge Park's Pier 1.
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BQX-ed Out?

Leaked memo suggests Brooklyn-Queens streetcar might not pay for itself
Picture the Brooklyn-Queens waterfront, seven years from now: There will be a new garment district, design fairs, and expanded ferry service, but the city wants residents to see a streetcar, carrying passengers between the neighboring boroughs. Leaked information suggests, though, that plans for the brand new line may have to wait. Politico this week released a draft of a confidential memo from the Mayor Bill de Blasio's BQX advisory team to Deputy Mayor Alicia Glen that outlines some of the challenges behind its developer-driven financial model, among other issues. The mayor officially declared the Brooklyn Queens Connector (BQX) a priority project during his February 2016 state of the city address. The proposed 16-mile, $2.5 billion streetcar line would run along the waterfront, connecting Sunset Park, Brooklyn, to Astoria, Queens. Unlike a new subway line under Utica Avenue or phase two of the Second Ave Subway, supporters say BQX could be built without financing from the MTA, which is run by the state, not the city. Instead, local backers like Doug Steiner and the Walentas family have endorsed a value-capture model, where the project would be financed by rising property values along the streetcar route. Another selling point was its tight timelines. The city estimated that the project could break ground two years from now and begin ferrying passengers up and down the waterfront by 2024. At one community meeting, a representative from Sam Schwartz, the project's transportation consultant, noted that relocating below-grade utility lines would be a challenging (and costly) aspect of the project, but it turns out the city is having serious second thoughts about the feasibility of relocating gas, water, and sewer mains: "Utility relocation continues to be the biggest single cost factor and if policies cannot be implemented to limit the impact, it has the possibility to make the project unaffordable and render implementation timelines unfeasible," the memo states. The letter outlines three possible timelines, fast to slow, to gauge the costs and benefits of breaking ground sooner rather than later. The memo suggests taking more time to study and review the project before making a final decision, though that would delay the groundbreaking, now set for 2019. But, the memo cautions, every year the project is delayed adds tens of millions more to the bill. Construction on the line was initially expected to take five years, but if the city chooses a longer timeline, construction costs will rise approximately $100 million per year. Ouch. The BQX team, according to Politico, meets bimonthly to discuss the project. If value-capture won't work and the streetcar proves too costly, the city may look into other financing models, or the BQX may be abandoned.
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The Wheeler

New downtown Brooklyn office tower will straddle the Macy’s on Fulton Street
This week Tishman Speyer unveiled plans for a 10-story office building—nay, a "creative hub"—above the Macy's on Fulton Street in downtown Brooklyn. When it opens mid-2019, the tower will hold offices with 16-foot ceilings, plus an acre of outdoor space spread out over terraces and a roof deck. The structure will be built atop two others: Macy's four-story home, a department store from the 1870s, and a nine-story art deco building from 1930. For Tishman Speyer’s first-ever project in Brooklyn, we are creating an environment that is every bit as innovative, energetic and dynamic as the borough itself,” said the company's president and CEO Rob Speyer, in a statementThe Wheeler will celebrate its special location at the epicenter of Brooklyn and feed off the vitality of the iconic brownstone neighborhoods, open spaces, cultural venues and creative communities that surround it on all sides.”

The founder of Los Angeles–based Shimoda Design Group, Joey Shimoda, is collaborating with New York's Perkins Eastman to design the project, which will add 620,000 square feet 0f Class-A office space to the neighborhood. In a nod to Brooklyn history, the developers are calling is project The Wheeler after Arthur Wheeler, the guy who built the Macy's that grounds the new building.

The department store will continue to own the first four floors for use as retail, plus the lower level of the two connected buildings. Meanwhile, The Wheeler will have its main entrance on Livingston Street between Hoyt Street and Gallatin Place.

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80 Flatbush

Two new schools and a 74-story high-rise planned for Downtown Brooklyn
Brooklyn-based firm Alloy Development has unveiled new scheme in Downtown Brooklyn that will boast 900 housing units (200 of which will be affordable), two new schools, and 200,000 square feet of office and retail space. The architect and development company will also design the scheme. The project known as "80 Flatbush" is being bankrolled by the Educational Construction Fund (ECF), a department within the New York City Department of Education that deals with development projects. It is sited next to the Atlantic Terminal, the Brooklyn Cultural District, and Barclays Center. In addition to the office and retail space, 40,000 square feet of the development—what Alloy called in a press release "neighborhood retail"—will be included in the scheme, as will 15,00 square feet of "cultural space." The latter was made possible by transforming the Khalil Gibran Academy (an old Civil War infirmary which dates back to 1860). This will then become an extension of the BAM Cultural District. As per the timeline outlined by Alloy, construction is set to start in 2019, with the project being built in two phases. The first will incorporate the two schools, both of which will be designed by New York studio, Architecture Research Office. Also included in this phase will be a 38‐story triangular residential block, office, and retail building. Phase one is due to be complete in 2022. Phase two, on the other hand, will comprise a 74‐story residential, office, retail tower and the rehabilitation of a coterie of buildings at 362 Schermerhorn Street. Phase two is due to finish in 2025. “It's rare for a developer to come to us for feedback in the earliest stages of a project,” said Peg Breen, President of the New York Landmarks Conservancy, in a press release. “But Alloy did that, listened, and made preservation a meaningful priority.  We're very appreciative of their efforts. This project shows that development and preservation can work together and that investing in historic buildings makes economic sense.  We're pleased to support this important project.” 80 Flatbush is yet to go through the Uniform Land Use Review Procedure (ULURP) and so final approval has not yet been granted.
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Smart Cities NYC '17

Brooklyn Navy Yard to host four-day smart cities conference
This May 3 to May 5, multiple venues across the Brooklyn Navy Yard will host the inaugural Smart Cities NYC conference and expo. The conference is ambitious in its scope: it features a global selection of speakers with backgrounds ranging from government to technology, academia, real estate/development, and design. Key topics of interest to architects, designers, and developers will be transportation (from biking/walking to driverless cars), public health, innovations in construction risk and public/private partnerships (with panels on the LaGuardia Airport redevelopment and Penn Station), resiliency, and the Internet of Things (IoT). Smart Cities NYC Founder Jerry MacArthur Hultin told The Architect's Newspaper that the conference:
...represents what we're trying to do more broadly as a strategy: Build a capacity to use technology in cities to get people a better life. We're looking at any of the levers that make that happen so that young people start inventing more things, governments pick up on these ideas and do them, companies finance them and make them happen, citizens help design them. The more there's an ecosystem of activity, the better.
Notable participants include a team from Columbus, Ohio handling the city's $50 million "Smart City" grant, Matthew Claudel of MIT's Design X (who will be on the panel "Anticipatory Urban Design for the Age of Autonomous Vehicles"), New Lab, Ger Baron, the Chief Technology Office of Amsterdam, James Ramsey, co-founder and creator of the Lowline (who will be on the panel "The Repositioning and Revitalizing of Cities"), and Daniel Zarrilli, senior director, climate policy & programs chief resilience officer, New York Office of the Mayor—and that's just to name a few. See a full list here. The conference will feature lectures, workshops, and social gatherings spread across the Navy Yard venues, which include the 35,000-square-foot Duggal Greenhouse, 30,000-square-foot Agger Warehouse, and the 5,737-square-foot Building 92. The former two are large, open event spaces while the latter features a cafe, terrace, and multipurpose room. There will also be tours outside the Navy Yard (details TBD). "Architects have been beginning to see that this new technology is really going to influence urban design, building design," said Hultin. "Seeing the new technology, debating, imagining what you can do with it, it's really essential." For more on Smart Cities NYC '17, see their page here. Tickets range from approximately $420 to $1,250.
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Vital Brooklyn

Governor Cuomo unveils Central Brooklyn revitalization plan that’s big on ideas
New York State Governor Andrew Cuomo has unveiled a sweeping plan to revitalize Central Brooklyn, the latest in a spate of ambitious, big-budget projects he has proposed for the state's airports, trains, bridges—and election year 2020, possibly. The $1.4 billion initiative positions itself as a "national paradigm" for addressing health, violence, and poverty in low-income communities. Called Vital Brooklyn, the proposal will target Brownsville, East New York, Flatbush, Crown Heights, and Bedford-Stuyvesant, communities where residents face persistent barriers to health, education, and employment equity as well as the rising threat of gentrification. Targeting eight investment areas, Vital Brooklyn aims to augment the supply of affordable housing; build resilience infrastructure; invest in community-based violence prevention, job creation, and youth employment; tackle open space and healthy food availability; and improve healthcare access with an emphasis on preventative care.
“For too long investment in underserved communities has lacked the strategy necessary to end systemic social and economic disparity, but in Central Brooklyn those failed approaches stop today,” said Governor Cuomo, in a prepared statement. “We are going to employ a new holistic plan that will bring health and wellness to one of the most disadvantaged parts of the state. Every New Yorker deserves to live in a safe neighborhood with access to jobs, healthcare, affordable housing, green spaces, and healthy food but you can't address one of these without addressing them all. Today, we begin to create a brighter future for Brooklyn, and make New York a model for development of high need communities across the country.” The lion's share of the plan—$700 million in capital investments—will go towards healthcare, followed by $563 million for affordable housing. The remaining money is split between Vital Brooklyn's six other initiatives, with food access getting the smallest portion of the funding. So far, Cuomo's plan is heavy on ideas but short on specifics. The healthcare component calls for more community health care facilities to fulfill current demand and provide additional preventative and mental health care services. To achieve this, a 36-location ambulatory care network will partner with existing providers, and to complement the health focus, the state will spend $140 million to ensure that all residents live within a ten-minute walk of parks and athletic facilities, and revamp existing facilities through grants. Vital Brooklyn also calls for building five-plus acres of recreation space at state-funded housing developments. Mindful that health outcomes and housing are linked, the governor confronts Brooklyn's affordable housing shortage with plans to build, build, build. With more than half of Central Brooklyn residents spending more than half of their income on rent, Cuomo's plan calls for the construction of more than 3,000 new multifamily units at six state-owned sites, with options for supportive housing, public green space, and a home-ownership plan. On the resiliency front, the state's projects aim to meet growing demand for electricity while shoring up the low-lying area's resistance to extreme weather. Under the plan, there could be 62 multi-family and 87 single-family energy efficiency initiative, plus almost 400 solar other projects in the pipeline. The initiative also calls for equipping Kings County Hospital, SUNY Downstate Medical Center and Kingsboro Psychiatric Center with backup power through the Clarkson Avenue microgrid project. Linked to the resiliency, Vital Brooklyn features a partnership between the Billion Oyster Project and the State Department of Environmental Conservation’s Environmental Justice program to expose area youth to habitat restoration practices on Jamaica Bay by adding 30 environmental education sites to the area. Through these sites, the Billion Oyster Project aims to reach 9,500 students who will learn about the benefits of oysters through the bay and SCAPE's Living Breakwaters Project on Staten Island. Not everyone is bullish on the plan, though. New York City Mayor (and Cuomo rival) Bill de Blasio, for one, is skeptical about the governor's follow-thorough. "Show us the money, show us the beef, whatever phrase you want," de Blasio said on WNYC las week. "I don't care what a politician does to get attention. What I care about is actual product." The state legislature has until April 1 to decide on the governor's budget, and negotiations may change the plan's final funding and form.
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Graffiti Heaven

Herzog & de Meuron will transform Brooklyn’s “Batcave” into an art powerhouse
Swiss firm Herzog & de Meuron are a dab hand when it comes to converting power stations, especially the brick kind. Slathered in graffiti, the "Batcave" in Brooklyn began life as a rapid transit power plant in 1904. Come the 1950s however, the Thomas E. Murray–designed station had been decommissioned and in the decades that followed morphed into a punk squat and venue for New York's edgiest parties. Now the 113-year-old building will be reincarnated once again, this time as a manufacturing center for the arts, courtesy of Herzog & de Meuron. The "Batcave" will be a place for metal, wood, ceramic, textile and print production. Emulating their hugely successful approach to the former Bankside Power Station in London (now the Tate Modern), the focal point of Herzog & de Meuron's renovation revolves around the existing Turbine Hall. Here, space will be configured to create workshops. In addition to this, the Boiler House which was once demolished will be rebuilt. "By preserving, restoring and reconstructing essential elements of the original Power Station—some still intact and some long-ago demolished—this design strengthens its relationship to the immediate urban context,” said Ascan Mergenthaler, senior partner at Herzog & de Meuron in a press release. “The aim is to demonstrate sensitivity to the program by integrating existing layers seamlessly into a functional, modern manufacturing facility.” Residing on the banks of the Gowanus Canal, the "Batcave" got its name at the turn of the century when it became a hotspot for young urban explorers and artists who enamored its walls. Graffiti expert Henry Chalfant was invited to the Batcave to see if there was any wall art of historical significance. "If this place is renovated, it would be great if these interior walls were kept as they were and not made pristine again," he told the New York Times. Construction is due to begin this year and be completed by 2020. The facility will be run by the Powerhouse Environmental Arts Foundation. The foundation picked up the site in 2012 for $7 million and began environmental remediation under the New York State Brownfield Cleanup Program.
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Checked In

Here’s where art on the facade of the Brooklyn Heights library will go
Last week the Department of Buildings (DOB) approved demolition permits for the Brooklyn Heights branch library, clearing the way for a 36-story tower but raising questions about the ultimate fate of the art on the library's facade. The Brooklyn Daily Eagle reported that exterior demolition at 280 Cadman Plaza West will begin in late March, and take about three months to complete. The new tower, designed by New York's Marvel Architects, will add 133 condos, retail space, and a STEM lab for young people in the neighborhood. An almost 27,000-square-foot library will occupy the development's mezzanine, part of the ground floor, and a below-grade level. Though it's smaller than the low-rise building it's replacing, the city maintains that the new branch will contain more usable space. Moreover, the sale of the city-owned property to developer Hudson Companies for $52 million is set to generate $40 million in capital repair funding for the BPL. Although site work has begun, the library sale and delayed transfer of ownership have remained a point of contention for activist groups like Citizens Defending Libraries, which maintains that no work should begin until the deal between the two parties is signed. So, with plans filed and permits in, there's just one more question—what's happening to the art on the library facade? The Architect's Newspaper previously reported that New York City's Public Design Commission (PDC) had to weigh in on the two bas–relifs by Clemente Spampinato before they could be removed. Keri Butler, deputy director of the PDC, shared the latest on the art's final home in an email:
The Public Design Commission has reviewed the methods and materials for removing the artworks from the facade of the library and temporarily storing them, and has found these methods to be appropriate with the understanding that a proposal for relocating the artworks within the new development at 280 Cadman Plaza West will be submitted by September 2017.
Displaying Spampinato's work in the new library underscores its civic function while preserving the art more-or-less in situ for public enjoyment. There's no word yet, though, on where in the new building the reliefs will be hung when it opens in spring of 2020.
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Homeport

NYC’s new Citywide Ferry Service will be based in the Brooklyn Navy Yard
Yesterday, New York City Mayor Bill de Blasio released major details concerning the new Citywide Ferry Service, whose new routes are coming online the summer of 2017 and 2018. The Brooklyn Navy Yard, already the hub of extensive development, will be the Service's "homeport" and feature a 56,000-square-foot storage and maintenance facility with berths for 25 ferries. This is where ferries will be cleaned, restocked, repaired, and fueled, and will also serve as a new stop on the East River route that runs from E. 34th St. to Wall St./Pier 11. In a press release, the Mayor's office added that the new facility will be elevated to comply with FEMA flood standards and fully operational by 2018. The Citywide Ferry Service is part of a broader plan from the Mayor's Office to increase underserved New York City communities' access to Manhattan and create an overall more robust and evenly-spread public transportation system. New routes will run from Manhattan to: Southview in the Bronx, Astoria and the Rockaway in Queens, and Bay Ridge and Red Hook in Brooklyn (just to name a few). The Mayor's Office estimates that the Service's 20 ferries, working across 21 landings and six routes, will make 4.6 million trips per year. “A more connected city—and the jobs that come along with it—are just on the horizon,” stated Council Member Stephen Levin in a press release. “I applaud the Mayor taking the challenge of transportation and turning it into an opportunity. The new homeport at the Brooklyn Navy Yard continues the trajectory of Brooklyn as a leader in innovation and inclusive economic development. Whether it’s more jobs or better transportation options, Citywide Ferry has the potential to substantially improve our community.” Job seekers and transportation enthusiasts alike will also be excited to hear that the homeport brings with it 200 new openings for captains, deckhands, concessions operators, and other related roles. Applicants can inquire through the Brooklyn Navy Yard's Employment Center or Workforce1 Career Centers. The best news of all? The Citywide Ferry will be just $2.75 a ride. “For the price of a subway ride, Citywide Ferry service will connect millions of riders to jobs and homes all along New York City’s waterfront. As we prepare to launch this summer, we are focused on the finishing touches, and hiring captains, deckhands, engineers and maintenance workers who will operate these boats,” said Mayor de Blasio. (It should be noted, however, that riders will have to purchase tickets separately and cannot use their MTA cards.) For more details on the Citywide Ferry Service, see their website here.  
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A New Leaf

Tree removal at Brooklyn Heights library begins, paving way for 36-story tower
A controversial project in Brooklyn Heights sparked protest yesterday morning as developers cut down trees to make way for a condo tower on the site of a former public library. The project in question is the Brooklyn Public Library's (BPL) former Business and Career Library. Last year, developer Hudson Companies won a $52 million contract to replace the library's building at 280 Cadman Plaza. Hudson Companies' plans to redevelop the site includes a 36-story tower with 114 units of off-site affordable housing. As part of their deal with the city, the developer would build a new, 27,000-square-foot library located at the base of the new building. Fast forward to yesterday morning when contractors arrived to cut down several trees on the property in anticipation of demolition. Michael D. D. White of Citizens Defending Libraries was there, along with three fellow members, to protest the tree removal in the context of the library's sale and conversion to luxury condos. "First, [the city and the developers] take something valuable, then they trash it, then"—White gestured to the tree crews hacking away—"they drive away the constituency in all ways they can." As The Architect's Newspaper reported last November, Hudson Companies filed plans to demolish the library in early November, even before they closed the deal for the site. Department of Building (DOB) demolition permits have been filed, though their final approval is pending. A spokesperson for the developer confirmed that the tree removal was permitted and lawful. Hudson is removing five trees total: four within the perimeter of the property and one street tree on the Cadman Plaza West sidewalk for which it paid restitution to NYC Parks. "The construction team will be taking measures to prune and protect the remaining trees on the sidewalk during construction," the spokesperson said. "At the project’s completion, Hudson will plant new trees on the sidewalks per NYC requirements." As the building inches towards demolition, site conditions have deteriorated in some areas. A recent visit revealed a pile of leaves and trash that has accumulated around the library's former entrance, which is visible from the sidewalk but encircled by a metal security gate. Debris from the construction site has been the subject of ongoing community concern, especially since asbestos removal began in October of last year. When reached for comment on plans to clean up the mess, the Hudson spokesperson released the following statement: "Our crews make sure that all public areas around the site are cleared and free of debris at the end of each work day. We also expect them to keep the site itself as clean as possible, and will ensure that they adhere to that standard." The ongoing development begs a final question—what's happening to the art on the library facade? Working with an as-yet unnamed building conservation and repair company, Hudson has plans to remove and store the panels, while BPL is developing plans for the panels' eventual placement. Correction: This article initially stated that demolition permit approvals were pending the site's transfer of ownership from the city to Hudson. The permits' status is independent of the deal closing.
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Descension

Anish Kapoor will install a dark, ominous whirlpool at Brooklyn Bridge Park
British artist Anish Kapoor will bring Descension to Brooklyn Bridge Park. The work is as dystopic as its name implies: A dark whirling funnel of water will descend down into an abyss, adjacent to the East River at Pier 1. Descension sees Kapoor's desire to coalesce negative space and energy finally realized, coming in the form of a 26-foot-wide whirlpool. To create the dark look, an all-natural black dye will be used to evoke the sensation that the water's journey is never-ending. Perimeter railing that traces the pool's circumference will stop audiences plunging into the illusory chasm, but will allow them to peer over, perhaps creating a swirling sinister phone-swallower in the process. The concept was first conceived in India (Kapoor's country of birth) at the Kochi-Muziris Biennale that ran from 2014 to 2015. There he exhibited the work as an interior piece, though later he furthered the idea in Versailles, France, exhibiting Descension as an outdoor work. Descension has also made an appearance in Italy where it was exhibited inside the Galleria Continua, a disused cinema theater. “Anish Kapoor reminds us of the contingency of appearances: our senses inevitably deceive us. With Descension, he creates an active object that resonates with changes in our understanding and experience of the world,” said Public Art Fund Director and Chief Curator Nicholas Baume in a press release. “In this way, Kapoor is interested in what we don’t know rather than in what we do, understanding that the limit of perception is also the threshold of human imagination.” The Public Art Fund—a non-profit arts organization which receives public and private support—is celebrating its 40th anniversary this year. "We’re thrilled that Anish’s newest work will be a highlight of this anniversary season, more than a decade after his outdoor debut with us," added Baume. Descension will be on view from May 3 to September 10 this year.
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Made in NY

WXY to plan Brooklyn campus for film and fashion industries
This post has been updated to reflect WXY's planning role in the project. This week New York City unveiled plans for a $136 million garment factory and film lot complex in Sunset Park, Brooklyn. New York's WXY is planning the "Made in New York" campus, a waterside project that includes new space for film and television production, upgrades to existing facilities, and streetscape improvements at Bush Terminal. “We have used our ‘Made in NY’ brand to grow fashion and film companies, and today, we're committing some of our most important real estate assets to support them as well," said Deputy Mayor Alicia Glen, in a statement. "These industries support hundreds of thousands of families with good wages, and they need affordable and modern space to grow. The ‘Made in NY’ Campus represents the collision of our creative economy and advanced manufacturing. This is going to be a 21st-century working waterfront that keeps our city the capital of film and fashion.” Other, as-yet unnamed firms will design a 100,000-square-foot film and T.V. facility with sound stages, space for shoots, plus augmented reality and virtual reality facilities. Renovations to two existing buildings will yield almost 200,000 square feet of fashion manufacturing space for marking and grading, cutting and sewing, patternmaking, and sample-making. The city says the layout is meant to encourage collaboration and resource-sharing between tenants in different sectors of the industry. Outside, WXY-led improvements will add a new plaza, as well as energize a 43rd Street campus corridor that allows public access to Bush Terminal Piers Park. Potential food and retail tenants will have a chance to lease 7,500 square feet for their operations at the onsite SF Café Building.  The 36-acre Bush Terminal, neighboring Brooklyn Army Terminal, and the Brooklyn Wholesale Meat Market together comprise the New York City Economic Development Corporation (NYCEDC) Sunset Park District, an industrial park that's home to more than 165 enterprises. The Made in NY campus is expected to open in 2020. The announcement recognizes the struggle core industries face in an increasingly expensive city. Five percent (182,000) of the city's jobs are in fashion, while the film industry employs 130,000. Though both industries sustain New York's glamorous image, many enterprises have trouble finding affordable space for local manufacturing and production. The city hopes the Bush Terminal campus will support existing companies while attracting new businesses. For some designers, it may be cheaper to work with factories abroad, but for many, a local facility allows for greater oversight and faster communication if, say, a client wants a new sample that day or a small run of a style that responds to new trends.