Search results for "downtown los angeles"

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Supertruss on the Skyline

New renderings reveal a slim, triangulated hotel tower for downtown L.A.
A new 58-story tower proposed by Los Angeles–based architects Nardi Associates has taken another step forward this week. The thin, diagrid-supported Olympic Tower will feature 373 hotel rooms, 374 condominium units, 33,498 square feet of offices, and more than 65,000 square feet of retail and commercial spaces, Urbanize.LA reports. The building is also slated to include an astounding 12 parking levels—with half of those levels located above ground in the building’s podium—despite being located between two busy transit stops. The above-ground parking areas are to be wrapped in residential units, however, so the podium’s presence on the street will at least include an element of liveliness. The project team has unveiled a bevy of new renderings for the development in conjunction with the publication of a draft environmental impact report. The renderings depict more detailed views of the tower’s amenities, which include several carved-out, multi-story loggia spaces and a collection of landscaped pool terraces. The new views also showcase LED signage along the tower’s lower levels, similar to those proposed and already built for many of the surrounding projects on the way to neighboring sites. The 742-foot tower will join a growing spine of high rise towers rising along Figueroa Street in Downtown Los Angeles, a new linear tower district capped on one end by the AC Martin-designed Wilshire Grand tower. Over 20 towers are planned for the area, which borders the L.A. Live, Staples Center, and Los Angeles Convention Center complexes. The new developments constitute part of the city’s effort to add badly needed hotel accommodations around the convention center, which has seen business suffer over the years due to the relative dearth of nearby lodging. A construction start date has not been announced for Olympic Tower, but the draft environmental report states that once construction begins it should take about 34 months to complete the project.
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Hospitality Watch

Shinola Hotel shares new interior renderings in advance of opening
The Shinola Hotel in Detroit has shared new renderings of its interiors in advance of an anticipated December opening. The hotel, which will stand at 1400 Woodward Avenue in Downtown Detroit will feature subdued, warm interiors designed by New York–based Gachot Studios and Kraemer Design Group. Gachot Studios, purveyors of warm, elegant interiors, has worked with Shinola on their Los Angeles and Brooklyn stores and has extensive experience in hospitality for other clients. Kraemer Design Group is a Detroit firm with experience in local historic renovation projects and ground-up construction. The new hotel will incorporate renovated historic buildings, including an old department store and a former Singer sewing-machine store. In addition to 129 guest rooms, the hotel will also include a mix of lounges and restaurant spaces to attract the broader public. The concept follows the lead of the Portland-based Ace Hotels or New York's newer Public Hotel, which include public amenity spaces and are meant to attract people to work and hang out. The renovated interiors incorporate products of Michigan and are meant to emphasize material craft. Pewabic ceramics, stone finishes from Booms Stone Company, and decorative metalwork from Great Lakes Stainless are all made locally and are used in the design. The project, a collaboration with Detroit developer Bedrock, capitalizes on Shinola's reputation for high-quality design. Shinola was originally founded in upstate New York in the 19th century and became well known for shoe polish, but in 1960 the company went out of business. In 2011 a venture capitalist bought the rights to the brand and used it to lend prestige to a line of watches and leather goods.
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Roundup

Weekend Edition: Art in Maryland, urban renewal in New York, and more
Missed some of our articles, tweets, or Facebook posts from the last few days? Don’t sweat it—we’ve gathered the week’s must-read stories right here. Enjoy! AN tours the Glenstone Museum's new Pavilions AN toured the $200-million addition to the Glenstone Museum, a new set of galleries and an additional 130 acres of restored natural woodlands in the suburbs outside of Washington, D.C. After a decade-long fight over I-81, Syracuse inches toward a decision As the battle to run Interstate 81 through the heart of downtown Syracuse drags on, community groups and the state's department of transportation are all jockeying for solutions that won't disrupt the city. Opinion: It’s time to recognize Pereira’s LA Times building The current proposal to bisect the Los Angeles Times’ buildings facing City Hall on First Street would delete a key chapter from the city’s collective memory. That's it! Enjoy the end of September.
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Better Late Than Never

Opinion: It’s time to recognize Pereira’s LA Times building
The current proposal to bisect the Los Angeles Timess buildings facing City Hall on First Street would delete a key chapter from the city’s collective memory. In spite of the Cultural Heritage Commission’s September 20th approval of landmark status for the entire block, half of the block could still be demolished for two high-rise towers by Canadian developer Onni Group. What would be lost? One of Los Angeles’s most vivid symbols commemorating its ambitious rise from provincial outpost to global metropolis during the twentieth century. Commissioned by publisher Harry Chandler, architect Gordon Kaufmann’s 1935 building on the corner of First and Spring Streets announced Los Angeles’s arrival on the national stage. Two generations later publisher Otis Chandler (Harry’s grandson) hired architect William Pereira to design the 1973 wing on the corner of Broadway to proclaim that the city (and the Times itself) had achieved its destiny as a national and global presence. Together the two buildings embody the dynamic story of the city’s evolving vision that still shapes its direction. That tangible reminder is one of historic architecture’s essential roles in a city.  
But while Onni’s proposal at the moment would preserve the beginning of that story (Kaufmann’s widely beloved Art Deco masterpiece) it would sacrifice the payoff—Pereira’s wing.  This is the thornier issue. The Pereira addition’s Late Modern style has not yet had the time to become as widely appreciated as Art Deco. Late Modern landmarks were often corporate headquarters, aerospace campuses, new universities, master-planned cities, and cultural crowns—designs which undergirded Southern California’s tremendous growth, but which were not often praised by architecture critics in their time. Proper appreciation today is hampered by the fact that there is little published recently about this important style, or on Pereira‘s career. Yet Late Modern turns out to be the signature style of Los Angeles’s arrival as a global capital.
We can’t forget that the Kaufmann building’s Art Deco style was also once considered ugly and old-fashioned. Even Kevin Lynch, a respected observer, called another Art Deco landmark, the Richfield Building, “ugly” way back in 1960—just before it was demolished as expendable. Today it is lamented.  So opinions change, which is why we can’t dismiss Pereira’s 1973 design out of hand. The Late Modern style was part of a worldwide re-evaluation of Modernism—frequently spearheaded by Los Angeles architects, including William Pereira. 
By the 1960s the mainstream International Style of modern architecture was growing stale, and many architects around the world realized it. While some architects introduced historic sources—leading to Postmodernism—others held to Modernism’s faith in technology and functionalism. This was what we now call Late Modern. They realized that technology had changed since the 1920s when an earlier generation had defined the International Style.  Late Modern architects moved away from the simple glass box to sculpted forms that reflected the complex interplay between interior functions and exterior context. James Stirling and James Gowan lead the way at the Leicester Engineering Building in England in 1963. In Los Angeles, Cesar Pelli and Anthony Lumsden (lead designers at Daniel Mann Johnson & Mendenhall before Pelli moved to Gruen Associates) moved away from the transparent Miesian curtain wall framed by exposed structure to a taut multi-directional skin of glass that—they realized—could take almost any shape or color. Recent technologies offered fresh possibilities.  As historian Daniel Paul records in his Late Modern historic context statement for SurveyLA, they were also impressed by a new wave of artists such as Larry Bell, Donald Judd, and Craig Kauffman. Lumsden’s curvaceous Roxbury Plaza, Pelli’s blue Pacific Design Center, Pelli and Lumsden’s weightless FAA headquarters in Hawthorne, CNA’s mirrored box by Langdon & Wilson in Lafayette Park all followed. Pereira offered his own new direction for Modernism in the new LA Times wing and other buildings. He had already moved past International Style Modernism (best seen in his CBS Television City with Charles Luckman) at his Neo-Formalist Los Angeles County Museum of Art (1965) and the richly expressive Metropolitan Water District (1963), both inspired by the sunlight, water, and outdoor living in our region. 
If Kaufmann told the story of California’s raw power and potential in the 1930s, Pereira’s response in the 1970s was larger, lighter, and more sophisticated in its use of modern technological might. The pair mirrored the progression from the first trans-Pacific Clippers of the 1930s to the 747 of the 1970s.
For the new wing at the Los Angeles Times, Pereira drew on several innovative urban planning and aesthetic ideas. Breaking up the International Style box, he sculpted the building into receding and advancing planes, into dominant and secondary horizontals and verticals, each articulated with richly textured stone, metal spandrels, and tinted glass. Lifting its mass high in the air on muscular columns it echoed the forms of beton brut design and of R. M. Schindler’s Lovell House in Newport Beach. Though dynamic and sculptural, these shapes also responded to functions, carving out public space in a landscaped courtyard paved with cobbles at ground level out of the path of sidewalk traffic, and maximizing office space in the jutting prow overhead.  As a planner, Pereira knew that Los Angeles wanted to build an elevated people-mover system throughout downtown, so he added a second-floor walkway to serve as a convenient stop.  Then there was Pereira’s innovative response to the strong historic structure next door. He designed the new wing to respect the older, setting his building back, reducing its height, muting its colors so as not to detract from the Kaufmann building. This was a daring response in 1973 before historic preservation had become a major urbanist concern, but it reflects Pereira’s innovative thinking throughout his career. The new possibilities of Late Modernism allowed him the leeway to do so. It is time to leave behind outdated opinions of the Late Modern style and recognize Pereira’s LA Times building for its bold composition, its creation of urban public space, and its sensitive relation to its historic neighbor. Onni can still reasonably develop the site without sacrificing this significant building—or the legendary origin story it tells about how Los Angeles grew to greatness. Fashion inevitably changes. Late Modern architecture will soon return to fashionability, as Kaufmann’s Art Deco building has. Pereira’s lessons in good urban design must remain to help us plan the next chapter in Los Angeles’s civic center. Alan Hess is an architect, historian, and author of twenty books on Modern and California architecture. He has written landmark designation nominations at the local and national level for many midcentury Modern buildings, including CBS Television City by Pereira and Luckman for the Los Angeles Conservancy. Since 2004 he has been researching the work of William Pereira in preparation for a book on the subject. His newest book, Hollywood Modern: Houses of the Stars, will be published by Rizzoli International this October.
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Dreams Come True

A machine learning–based light show will illuminate L.A.'s Walt Disney Concert Hall
As part of an upcoming centennial celebration, the Los Angeles Philharmonic, media artist Refik Anadol, and Google Arts & Culture have partnered to create WDCH Dreams, a series of digital art projections that will bathe the Walt Disney Concert Hall in “dream-like” light.  For the project, Anadol and Google Arts & Culture have translated the L.A. Philharmonic orchestra’s complete digital archives—over 45 terabytes’ worth of recordings, images, and video—into millions of data points. This “data universe” will be manipulated by deep neural networks and projected as three dimensional light displays across the rounded stainless steel geometries of the Gehry Partners–designed concert hall.  The light shows will be joined by a soundtrack crafted by sound designers Parag K. Mital, Robert Thomas, and Kerim Karaoglu. The music will use selections from the philharmonic's archives that have been sorted into thematic compositions by machine learning algorithms. Inside the concert hall, the Ira Gershwin Gallery will contain a companion installation where participants can interact with the philharmonic's archives via a mirrored, U-shaped room with two-channel projection. Billed as an “exploration of synergies between art and technology, and architecture and institutional memory” in a press release, the “data sculpture” shows will take the form of nightly “performances” between September 28 to October 6, 2018. The Ira Gershwin Gallery opens to the public on September 28 and will remain open throughout the Centennial season. 
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Roundup

Weekend Edition: Recovering from disaster in New York and New Orleans, and more
Missed some of our articles, tweets, or Facebook posts from the last few days? Don’t sweat it—we’ve gathered the week’s must-read stories right here. Enjoy! Brad Pitt’s Make It Right Foundation sued for building defective homes The Make It Right Foundation, a New Orleans–based housing charity, which was founded by actor Brad Pitt in the wake of Hurricane Katrina, has been hit with a class-action lawsuit for allegedly selling residents “defectively and improperly constructed homes.”
2001–2018: Looking at the architectural history of the World Trade Center The new World Trade Center stands today as a place of remembrance and as an architectural marvel of the early 21st century—one that was built at an extraordinarily aggressive schedule and isn’t done yet. Spatial Affairs Bureau unveils BridgePark plan for riverfront in Richmond, Virginia Los Angeles and London–based Spatial Affairs Bureau has unveiled a series of transformative concept designs for a major new downtown linear park that would reconnect several communities and establish key points of access to the historic falls of the St. James River in Richmond, Virginia. Stay safe, and see you Monday!
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Going Down in Tinseltown

Facades+ Los Angeles will scale the heights of Southern California design

From October 25 to 26, Facades+ will bring local and national leaders of the architecture, engineering, and construction industry to Los Angeles for the fourth year in a row. The first day of the conference features keynotes by Thom Mayne, founding principal of Morphosis Architects; and Heather Roberge, principal of Murmur.

Founded in 1972, Morphosis has spread its distinctive presence internationally. In recent years, the firm has completed the Bill & Melinda Gates Hall at Cornell University, 41 Cooper  Square in New York City, and Kolon One & Only Tower in Korea. Opening in late August, the 123,000-square-foot Kolon One & Only Tower features a sweeping primary facade built of high-tech fiber manufactured by the client. Each fiber appendage is latched to the curtain wall with traditional stainless steel brackets that knife through exterior joints to steel mullions that ring the structure.

Heather Roberge founded Murmur in 2008. The firm’s work is characterized by its experimentation with a broad range of materials to create projects unique in layout and form. In 2015, Murmur unveiled En Pointe, a group of conjoined, aluminum-paneled columns standing atop razor-like fulcrums. According to the architect, “to achieve a balanced state, the mass and silhouette of each column are eccentrically distributed to stabilize its adjacent columns.” Other realized projects, such as the pentagonal Vortex House and a multi-sided addition to a Beverly Hills Residence, highlight Murmur’s unique approach to facade fabrication and design.

Over the last decade, Downtown Los Angeles has experienced an upswell of high-rise development. At Facades+, Skidmore, Owings, & Merrill (SOM) and century-old Los Angeles–based firm AC Martin Partners will discuss the immense change underway. SOM’s Olympia complex is one of the boldest being undertaken in the area, composed of three towers of stacked terraces clad in translucent and clear glass wrapping visible concrete piers. AC Martin, with its long Angeleno history, has continually left its imprint in the downtown area with projects such as the twin-towered City National Plaza built in 1972 and the contemporary 73-story Wilshire Grand Center.

Representatives from Walter P. Moore, CO Architects, HKS Architects, and Renzo Piano Building Workshop, will also be on hand to discuss the assembly of complex facades at ever-rising heights as well as significant projects shaping the cultural scene of Los Angeles, such as The Academy Museum of Motion Pictures.

Further information Facades+ Los Angeles can be found here.

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A New Way to Cross

Spatial Affairs Bureau unveils BridgePark plan for riverfront in Richmond, Virginia
Los Angeles and London–based Spatial Affairs Bureau has unveiled a series of transformative concept designs for a major new downtown linear park that would reconnect several communities and establish key points of access to the historic falls of the James River in Richmond, Virginia. The so-called Richmond BridgePark plan has been in the works for over six years as part of an expanding set of improvements slated for the city’s waterfront, where several historic and modern bridges cross over the James River. The aim of the project is to connect the city’s downtown and South Side neighborhoods by creating new pieces of pedestrian-focused urban infrastructure that can draw both sides of the city together. Within a short section of the downtown area, the river is crossed by bridges at 14th and Manchester Streets as well as by State Route 301 and Interstate 95, among other crossings. The latter three spans were built as part of modernization efforts during the mid-20th Century, but their wide configurations and oversize arterials have isolated spaces and dislocated communities. With their expansive plan, Spatial Affairs is aiming to remedy at least some of these malignant conditions by “borrowing” space from the bridges in order to create a pedestrian boardwalk across the river. The plan also calls for transforming an existing but disused median along the bridge into a “bicycle superhighway” that could carry bicycle commuters over the river, as well. The paths will have generously landscaped footholds on either side of the river, according to renderings, and will extend formally and informally into the neighborhoods on either side. The reworked transportation route will also host several of the city’s Pulse high-speed bus lines and add a new interconnected park system studded with event spaces and public art. Another aim for the project is to create a new people-centered route that offers expansive views of a historic train viaduct that was burned down at the conclusion of the American Civil War. The remaining foundation elements and ruins will be visible from the pedestrian bridge and will serve as a focal point for the entire project. The project is moving into the final design stages over the next couple of years as work continues on a private fundraising campaign aimed at funding the plan. Meanwhile, backers of the BridgePark are moving toward getting the city to include the initiative in the city’s forthcoming development plans. Regarding the project, Peter Culley, director at Spatial Affairs said, “We are at a very exciting stage in what is an appropriately ambitious project taking its place as part of Richmond’s impressive renaissance as a river city with important histories now ready to be reexamined.” Culley added, “As cars begin to take a second place in our cities, human stories and experiences can appropriately move up to the front of the line.” In a press release, BridgePark Foundation President, Ted Elmore, states,We are thrilled to work with the community and this extraordinarily accomplished team in examining our past and envisioning monuments to our future. The popularity of newly achieved river initiatives, such as The Potterfield Bridge, coupled with exciting projects pending downtown make now an ideal time for us to contribute a bold vision to our City. The unveiling of the conceptual plan for the project follows a six-year-long community outreach effort and the completion of an ideas study by Spatial Affairs Bureau in 2015. Spatial Affairs has an office in Richmond to help coordinate the project. Buro Happold New York is on board for structural and economic impact studies for the project with Sam Schwartz Engineering working on the pedestrian, bicycle, and vehicular transportation strategies. Timmons Group will provide civil engineering services while Gardiner & Theobald will conduct cost estimation for the project. A timeline for completion of the park has not been announced.
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Boring Plans

Boring Company unveils Hyperloop route for L.A.’s Dodger Stadium
The Boring Company has released yet another underground transit proposal for Los Angeles.  Wednesday night, embattled Boring Company CEO Elon Musk announced the so-called Dugout Loop, a proposed “zero-emissions, high-speed, underground public transportation system” that could potentially ferry passengers between the Red Line subway and Dodgers Stadium. The company released a series of possible proposals, with variations on route length and station origination point.  The ultimate aim of the proposal is to improve travel times between the East Hollywood, Los Feliz, and Rampart Village neighborhoods and the stadium, which is roughly 3.6-miles away. Boring Company estimates that the proposed loop would be able to complete a one-way trip in roughly four minutes and carry between 1,400 and 2,800 passengers per day, roughly the same number as are currently transported by the express Metro buses that currently operate between the stadium and Union Station using dedicated bus lanes. Here’s the hitch: Unlike conventional transportation systems that convey passengers in both directions simultaneously, Musk’s link would only be able to operate in one direction at a time. The limiting arrangement is a result of the small diameter tunnel that is being proposed for the route, similar to that of other Boring Company tunnels proposed for western Los Angeles and Chicago. The proposal comes after a week of questionable business decisions and erratic tweetstorms from Musk, and as L.A.’s Metro makes plans to embrace a proposed $125 million gondola system connecting the Union Station in Downtown L.A. with the stadium. Backers for the gondola plan include former Dodgers owner Frank McCourt; Estimates for the transit link indicate the gondolas could ferry as many as 5,000 passengers per hour, with traffic moving in both directions simultaneously.  Musk recently drew criticism and accusations of project “segmenting” for bypassing environmental review as the Boring Company attempts to move forward with a portion of a proposed Hyperloop route through L.A.’s Westside neighborhoods. Neighborhood groups outraged by the effort successfully sued to block the project.  The proposal also comes as the Boring Company faces legal challenges for a similarly-vague proposal issued for Chicago that would link the city with O’Hare Airport. 
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Clarification Station

Elon Musk's Chicago tunnel targeted by a new lawsuit
Elon Musk’s plans to build an underground express system for Chicago are super vague and people are mad about it. The Illinois-based Better Government Association (BGA) announced in a report yesterday that it’s filed a lawsuit against the city to release public records behind its $1 billion deal with the Tesla CEO. In June, Mayor Rahm Emanuel and Musk unveiled their grand vision to create a tunnel that would allow commuters to traverse 15 miles from the Loop in downtown Chicago to O’Hare International Airport in just 12 minutes. Musk promised to use untested digging equipment to build it and to introduce the new electric rail system in as little as 18 months. But that’s pretty much all that's been publicly revealed about it. The BGA argued that the secrecy behind the proposal’s logistics goes against the statutes of public policy that require such developments to solve clear problems in a clear way before receiving approval or funding. The watchdog organization reached out to the Emanuel administration to obtain public records detailing the meetings between the mayor and Musk, but the city simply claimed the initial discussions on the project were “pre-decisional.” This means no firm deal has been struck between the two parties even though the plan went public this summer. The BGA also pointed out that Musk has already completed a short tunnel project beneath Los Angeles’s Hawthorne neighborhood, but used conventional sewer drilling technology to make it, not the as-promised, untested tech. Musk claims that he can begin construction on the Chicago tunnel by the end of this year and complete it quickly thanks to the new (non-existent) digging equipment. But the head of the Chicago Infrastructure Trust, which green-lighted the project according to the BGA, said a more realistic construction time is four years. Even so, major infrastructure projects generally take a decade or more to finish (see: New York’s Second Avenue Subway) and Chicago has already spent over $250 million under former Mayor Richard M. Daley on a failed plan to complete an underground superstation on the way to the airport. Improving upon the 45-minute commute via rail from the Loop to O’Hare is a top priority for the city, but no real plans from Musk or the mayor have been outlined as of late for locals to review. If the BGA’s lawsuit moves forward, Chicagoans could get a peek at the plans sooner rather than later.
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No Pat Down

Los Angeles to deploy body scanners on its subways
Los Angeles County’s transit system is poised to become the first in the country to deploy airport-style security measures to screen its passengers.  The Los Angeles Times reports that the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority (Metro) is rolling out new portable body scanners that can be deployed in response to terrorist threats and during large crowd events like protests and sporting matches in an effort to thwart potential “mass casualty” attacks.  The scanners can be used to screen passengers using radio waves from up to 30 feet away and are designed with an integrated split-screen display that produces a black square over the part of a person’s body where a gun or non-metallic explosive device might be located.  Metro currently operates 93 subway and light-rail stations—with many more on the way—and has plans to utilize the mobile devices as necessary across its system. Officials at Metro explained that areas where passengers might be subject to body scanning will be clearly labeled in each station with signs that read: “Passengers proceeding past this point are subject to Metro security screening and inspection.” Plans call for making “randomized” scans of passengers traveling within these zones. Officials at a press conference announcing the plan explained, however, that passengers seeking to opt out of the possibility of being scanned will not be allowed to ride transit from that station.  The scanners can process roughly 2,000 passengers per hour, according to Dave Sotero, spokesperson for Metro. The figure is an improvement over previous technologies, The Times reports, but likely to fall short of what would be required to process crowds efficiently during rush hour or large scale events. Recent protests in Downtown Los Angeles, for example, have drawn hundreds of thousands of people at a time and have snarled Metro service even without the scanners in place. 
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Petrourbanism

Initial notes on Houston after theory
1 We landed in Houston two weeks before the storm. For newcomers to Texas, Hurricane Harvey provided a terrifying crash course in the geography and hydrology of the city, its micro-differences in topography and macro-differences in resources across the city’s communities. We were told that after the water receded, nothing would be the same, that the magnitude and destruction of the storm would simply be too hard to ignore. Yet less than a year later, as rebuilding continues on the verge of another hurricane season, it is hard to see how much—if anything—has changed for the better. Money was spent reconstructing homes on their original sites, and large-scale infrastructures that were designed to flood, like Buffalo Bayou Park, have performed admirably well as examples for designing resilient landscapes in Houston and elsewhere. A slew of well-intentioned policy reports were issued in the wake of Harvey, many reiterating similar proposals that preceded the storm, seemingly to little avail. The heuristic measures of the so-called 500-year event were questioned in light of a new reality in which such mega-storms will now be separated by years, not centuries. And then the city went back, it seems, to the combination of development and dread that has apparently become the new normal. 2 I came to Houston expecting to tap into a rich body of urban writing from the late 1970s to the 2000s that placed the city firmly at the center of broader attempts to theorize the contemporary metropolis. These formed part of what Joel Warren Barna described as “a long American tradition of minority reports” in which the social, political, economic, and psychological dimensions of architecture and the city were probed. Houston’s horizontal field provided an ideal environment for such speculations. For Joe Feagin, it offered the example par excellence of the “free enterprise city,” a case study of the unceasing urban transformations wrought by capitalist development unburdened by zoning. For Doug Milburn, Houston was “the last American city,” characterized by its ever-unfinished status as process rather than product. For Lars Lerup, its diffuse ecology of mega-shapes and micro-stimuli heralded the demise of the traditional city: a fluid condition of natural and artificial strata, a metastasizing field of events and affects punctuated by moments of stim and dross. At its peak, metropolitan Houston served as a radical testing ground for new ways of understanding the relentless permutations of 20th-century urbanism at large. Far from finding new extensions of these threads of writing the metropolis, probing their limits, or harnessing their potential for new speculations, instead, I encountered a city that seemed to have little nostalgia not just for its architecture, but also for its own prior theorizations. While cities like New York and Los Angeles capitalize on the major authors of their urban histories, Houston, by comparison, has largely fallen out of the center of contemporary discussions of urbanism and its possible futures. The most significant attempts to characterize Houston ultimately left a shrinking footprint on the contemporary urban scene, perhaps condemned by their avoidance of fixed definitions in relation to a metropolis endlessly in becoming. 3 Perhaps the major characteristic of Houston in the age of its most provocative theorizations was its lateness. An economy centered on petro-capital meant that its cycles of boom and bust happened a full decade out of step with urban development elsewhere in the U.S., with its peak following the spike in crude oil prices in the 1970s at the same time that the rest of the nation suffered from a deep recession. The city was similarly subject to the end of the oil boom in dramatic fashion, as plans to build the world’s tallest tower in Houston ran aground as prices crashed after 1983. The city’s authors reinforced the sense of Houston as late: for Milburn, the “last” truly American city in its combination of frenetic pace and untimely development; for Lerup, a model for what comes “after” the conventional city. Inevitably, Houston became a capital of late modernism and its manifestations. These included lapidary icons of petro-development, like the faceted, symmetrical towers of Pennzoil Place (Johnson/Burgee, 1976), along with local masterpieces like Four Allen Center (Lloyd, Morgan & Jones, 1984), which MoMA curator Arthur Drexler praised as “absolutely staggering” in its mirrored-glass effects. Houston’s later corporate development encapsulated its seamless, stylistic transition to postmodernism in buildings often designed by the same architects, like Johnson/Burgee’s RepublicBank Center of 1984, just across the street from Pennzoil Place. Houston’s theorizations provided valuable frameworks for understanding these economic and aesthetic cycles together, from the city’s boom to the period that Joel Warren Barna called the “see-through years” in homage to the hollow, abandoned development projects that littered the city’s landscape in the 1980s, begun a decade too late. 4 Houston has emerged as ground zero for what architecture and the city have become—for good or evil—in the midst of our national politics. The genuine multiculturalism of the country’s fourth-largest city—its greatest resource—offers conflicting signals with regard to architecture’s complicity with, or resistance to, the rise of xenophobia, racism, and nationalism in the U.S. This year provided welcome news of an international competition to design the country’s first official Ismaili Center, sponsored by the Aga Khan, with the hope of producing a distinguished building worthy of serving the nation’s largest community of Ismaili Muslims. Emancipation Park, established in 1872 as the first municipal park for African Americans in a segregated Houston—but long fallen into disrepair since the 1970s amid the decline of the historically underserved Third Ward—reopened last year to much fanfare following an extensive program of renovation and new construction by a team of designers led by Phil Freelon. Such initiatives are tempered by the news that Southwest Key Programs, a Texas nonprofit, plans to repurpose a warehouse near Houston’s downtown—which previously housed families displaced by Harvey—as a detention center for “tender age” immigrant children under the age of 12 who were forcibly separated from their parents by ICE. Meanwhile, the first federal contract for an immigrant detention center under the Trump administration was awarded in April 2017 to GEO Group, a private prison company, to build a $110 million, 1,000-bed facility in Conroe, a city just north of Houston. Such cruelties underscore the presence of the vast prison-industrial complex that underlies much of the financial landscape of the city’s politics, in parallel with the multinational conglomerates centered here—such as Halliburton—that have tied the city’s petrochemical industries to the construction of military detention facilities abroad. 5 What lessons can we learn from Houston today, from its dissonant combination of the hopeful and the horrifying amidst the city’s current urban transformations? How can new thinking emerge from the multiculturalism of an expanding city? Perhaps Houston’s lateness can be redeployed in its favor: While it may be behind the beat in offering responses to climate change, urban development, and cultural conflict, Houston’s apparent condition of being out-of-time can be reclaimed as a mode of resistance, a slowness in relation to contemporary politics. In this context, what can we do differently, and what must we think anew? For one, future criticism and speculation on the city will have to become more intersectional, no longer centered around a dominant—white, male—set of voices. (Look again at the list of authors on the previous page.) New ideas will have to come from beyond the domain of the academy, from the full spectrum of actors, interests, and constituencies that together represent Houston’s enviable diversity. The way forward might be indicated by the remarkable success of Project Row Houses, established in 1994 by artist Rick Lowe as a residency program for artists, architects, and writers—primarily women and people of color—to create and exhibit work in a series of restored shotgun houses in the Third Ward. The project’s model, based on a commitment to public art and an alternative model of community development—one that includes dedicated residences for young, single mothers—offers a true praxis for how cultural identity and community work can intersect in rethinking and remaking the city. Another lesson in joint urban practice can be found in the recently announced initiative by the University of Houston and the International Center for the Arts of the Americas at the Museum of Fine Arts, Houston to create a partnership focused on Latino and Latin American art and culture. In seeking to connect students to the culture and heritage of Latino communities that make up some 43 percent of the urban population, this initiative suggests how architecture and design can respond more fully to a deeply multicultural city. Such examples offer the hope of a new Houston urbanism to come, one that expands the range of those who can participate in interpreting its transformations and reclaiming its prior theorizations toward new, untimely, and more humane futures.