All posts in Skyscrapers

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Paying Tribune

Chicago’s Tribune Tower is gutted for condos as a supertall is proposed next door
While Chicago’s iconic Tribune Towers is undergoing a conversion from office building to condo tower, a 1,388-foot-tall steel and glass tower could sprout up next door. Tribune Tower’s owners, the Los Angeles-based CIM Group and Chicago-based Golub & Co, have revealed plans to build what could be Chicago’s second tallest skyscraper. After being sold in 2016 for $240 million to private developers, the top floors of the 36-story, Gothic Revival-styled Tribune Tower have been undergoing demolition since last October. While the building’s facade and main lobby were landmarked in 1989, no such protections exist for the interiors, and Solomon Cordwell Buenz (SCB) is overseeing the conversion of what was once offices for Tribune Media into 165 condo units. According to the Chicago Tribune, CIM Group and Golub have proposed developing a narrow surface parking lot to the northeast of Tribune Tower into a mixed-use skyscraper designed by Chicago-based Adrian Smith + Gordon Gill Architecture. As the Chicago Tribune notes, Adrian Smith is no stranger to building tall, having led the design team for the Burj Khalifa in Dubai and Trump Tower Chicago when he was with SOM. The new tower would eclipse Trump Tower Chicago as the second tallest in Chicago, as Trump Tower only tops out at 1,171 feet tall, and uses a spire to reach 1,388 feet. The current proposal would see the creation of 220 hotel rooms and 158 condo units, as well as 500 parking spaces spread across floors two through eight of the new tower. Alderman Brendan Reilly described the design as “thin and soaring” based on renderings he had seen. This thinness is likely a response to the protected Ogden Slip view corridor, which means that Tribune Tower must remain visible from Lake Shore Drive as part of its landmarked status. While preservationists have been questioning whether this new development, which would dwarf the 462-foot-tall Tribune Tower, is inappropriate for the site, the conversion of Tribune Tower itself has also drawn their ire. The building’s limestone base contains embedded chunks of famous buildings from around the world, and Alderman Reilly has stated that these panels will be relocated to different areas of the tower. Tribune Tower was built in 1925 following a widely-publicized design contest that awarded the $50,000 prize to New York-based Howells & Hood. The tower’s Indiana limestone façade, gothic details, and crown composed of flying buttresses has made it an integral part of the Chicago skyline in the century since its opening. The conversion to residential space and the opening of ground floor retail is expected to finish in 2020; any construction on the adjacent lot is on hold until the Tribune Tower project is complete. The plans presented above are still subject to change, as the developers still need to procure funding and a rezoning of the lot before they can proceed.
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Jobelisk

San Francisco’s skyline-topping Salesforce Tower opens
The 1,070-foot-tall, 61-story Pelli Clarke Pelli Architects-designed Salesforce Tower in San Francisco (formerly the Transbay Tower) has officially opened, capping a design process that stretches back to 2007. Much has been made of the tower’s impact on the skyline, as it came to gradually eclipse the 853-foot-tall Transamerica Pyramid as the tallest building in the city, and is now visible from neighboring Oakland. At 1.4 million square feet, the Salesforce Tower has always been divisive, especially among those who feel the headquarters is wholly out of scale for San Francisco, or that the tower represents the tech industry imposing its will on the city.

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The bullet-shaped office tower, a centerpiece of Salesforce’s campus-like headquarters, opened its doors to employees on January 8th. Clad in glass and horizontal bands of metal accents that serve as solar shades, the building curves at the corners and tapers to a point as it rises. Pelli Clarke Pelli describes the design as aping the “simple, timeless form of the obelisk”. The tower has been LEED-Platinum Certified, and Salesforce claims that they’ve implemented an “innovative water recycling system” throughout. The façade continues past the top floor to create an ethereal crown, using perforated aluminum panels, that somewhat lessens the topper’s impact. A nine-story vertical facet has been slotted inside of the building’s topper, and the empty space within will be used to potentially project lights, patterns and photos across the tower’s crown; artist Jim Campbell has proposed using LED lights to display ever-changing pieces of art. Connected at the base of the tower is the Salesforce Transit Center, a new transit hub that will hold 11 transit systems when it’s complete later this year, also designed by Pelli Clarke Pelli. The Transit Center takes a markedly different approach from its neighbor, making use of a billowing wall of perforated aluminum panels to gently wrap the station’s upper floors. Supported by V-shaped columns, the station is centered around a massive “Light Column,” a sculptural skylight that grows all the way from the train platforms below to the transit center’s roof. The Light Column also serves to open up the main hall of the hub by creating a 118-foot-tall roof. A 5.4-acre rooftop park will top off the transit center, complete with running tracks, cafes, a 1,000-seat amphitheater, children’s playground, and fully accessible grasslands. Pelli Clarke Pelli claims that the ecology of the park will mirror the surrounding Bay Area, and feature everything from oak trees to a wetland marsh. AN will have an in-depth review of Salesforce Tower in the coming months, but in the meantime, Salesforce has posted a preview of the building’s interiors here.
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Kinky Boots

Seattle’s second tallest tower rises on steel plates, without rebar
Studies are underway for the eventual construction of the Rainier Square Tower in Seattle, which will eschew a traditional concrete-and-rebar core in favor of a new steel plate system. The mixed-use Rainier Square development’s tower will be Seattle’s second tallest, and the building’s modular core will be a proof-of-concept in the earthquake-prone city. When AN first wrote about the NBBJ-designed and Wright Runstad & Company-developed Rainier Square Tower after its initial unveiling in 2015, comparisons were drawn between the building’s kinked shape and a high-heeled boot. The tower has grown from 795 feet tall to 850, but the distinctive massing and glassy facade have remained the same; the building’s slope is meant to preserve the view of the adjacent Rainier Tower, designed by Minoru Yamasaki. The $570 million Rainier Square Tower will forgo a typical high-rise core, which wraps a steel frame around a concrete core that has been reinforced with steel rebar, and will instead use a modular system of steel plates sandwiched with concrete. A boundary system is set up to shape the core, and the cross-tied plates are moved into place, and then filled onsite. While the construction of a full-scale core mock-up began in October, the general contractor, Lease Crutcher Lewis, has estimated that this alternate method would mean that the superstructure, set to begin work this August, would only take a year to complete. If these claims are true, that’s nearly nine months sooner than a comparable tower of this size. And, as the construction schedule is shortened, Wright Runstad is expected to save 2 percent of its original $370 million building costs. Structural engineer Ron Klemencic, CEO of Magnusson Klemencic Associates (MKA) is the system’s mastermind, and says that even with the increased construction speed and 58-story height, he’s confident that the tower will be able to withstand stress from wind sheering as well as seismic loads. The Rainier Square development will not only include the tower, but also a cubic glass-clad hotel wedged between Rainier Tower and Rainier Square Tower. Yamasaki’s concrete tower, affectionately named “The Beaver” by Seattle locals for the way the building balloons up from a narrow base akin to a chewed log, is the only original building on the block that will remain. If the engineering claims bear out and the new core system proves as easy to install as the contractors are expecting, Rainier Square Tower should be complete by April 2020.
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Like Grenfell Tower

New report says sinking Millennium Tower is a fire hazard
San Francisco’s sinking Millennium Tower may be less safe than previously thought, according to a new report by NBC Bay Area. The Handel Architects–designed tower, already the center of several lawsuits, could be exposing residents to a widespread fire risk owing to newly-formed gaps between the building’s curtain wall and structure. As previously reported, the 58-story, 645-foot-tall residential tower has already unevenly sunk 17 inches since opening in 2009, due to a foundation of concrete friction piles that extend 60 to 90 feet into the sandy soils below. After condo owner Paula Pretlow hired Palo Alto, California–based consultants Allana Buick & Bers to locate the source of mysterious odors in her unit in December of 2016, they discovered that the smells were likely coming from gaps that had opened up due to the building’s settlement. More important than the odors, however, the newly enlarged voids under the curtain wall would allow fire and smoke to climb upwards via a “wind tunnel” effect, similar to what happened at London’s Grenfell Tower earlier this year. However, in the final version of the report given to Pretlow, Allana Buick & Bers had blacked out their fire-related findings. Although the building consultants’ analysis was confined only to Pretlow’s 31st-floor unit, they indicated that the issue could be present throughout Millennium Tower, according to the un-redacted version of documents obtained by NBC Bay Area. “This condition may be more widespread than these two test areas and may be present in the entire stack. We recommend further investigation of this issue. These openings represent a breach in the fire and smoke barrier … which is a life and fire safety hazard to the occupants.” Pretlow fought for a year with Allana Buick & Bers for the unedited version of the report, which was only recently obtained. Now, after Pretlow had filed a new complaint to the San Francisco Fire Department, the fire marshal is scheduled to make a fresh round of inspections at the tower this week. In light of the new findings, an attorney for the homeowner’s association has released a statement saying that several facade panels have been removed recently so that engineers could inspect the underlying structure. Larry Karp, a geotechnical expert, told NBC Bay Area that as the building tilts and continues to sink, curtain wall sections would continue to bear an increasing amount of stress and bend further out of place. “The fact that they are coming apart is inevitable, it’s just a matter of time. It’s going to get worse.”
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Never Again

Report slams British regulatory system overseeing Grenfell
Since the June 2017 Grenfell Tower fire, the United Kingdom is attempting to come to terms with a ubiquitous feature of its urban landscape, the council-owned tower block. Built in 1974, the Grenfell Tower had recently-installed cladding meant to insulate the decades-old structure. Instead, the renovation served as an accelerant, leaping over the concrete floor plates that should effectively seal potential fires. The severity of the conflagration within a council-owned tower housing some of society’s most vulnerable raises the question of whether the British regulatory environment and construction industry facilitated such a tragedy. The Guardian reports that the ‘Independent Review of Building Regulations and Fire Safety,’ has lodged a searing indictment of Britain’s construction industry and governmental regulation of high-rises. Authored by Dame Judith Hackitt, the report describes the practices that led to the Grenfell Tower fire as being caused by a “mindset of doing things as cheaply as possible and passing on responsibility,” and the use of third-party inspections that are “open to abuse given the potential conflicts of interests, with growing levels of mutual dependence between developers and contracted inspectors.” In short, the regulatory organs tasked with insuring building safety are increasingly in collusion with the property interests they are meant to police. With more than a million people living in council-owned tower blocks, the review of British building practices and the regulation of high-density developments is imperative. As noted by The Guardian, Hackitt described the “whole system of regulation” as “not fit for purpose, leaving room for those who want to take shortcuts to do so.” Although Hackitt’s report does not provide a specific framework to address the safeguarding of the country’s council-owned tower blocks, she emphasizes the need for greater clarity within regulatory guidance documents, increased scrutiny of inspectors and developers, as well as an examination of sprinklers, escape routs, cladding and alarm systems.
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PoMo's Golden Boy

Philip Johnson’s AT&T Building clears first hurdle in landmarking process
Following a recommendation from research staff, New York City’s Landmarks and Preservation Commission (LPC) has unanimously voted to put Philip Johnson’s contentious AT&T Building on the path towards becoming a protected landmark. The calendaring approved today, the first formal step in the designation process, is a promising sign, although 550 Madison Avenue must now face a public hearing sometime in the next few months and further deliberations from the commission before a full vote. The landmarking initiative was given a jumpstart this month after Snøhetta unveiled their plans to strip the 110-foot tall granite archway at the base of the tower and re-clad it with an undulating glass façade. The reaction was swift, with architects and critics from around the world weighing in both for and against the redevelopment, and eventually a protest broke out in front of the building on November 3rd. Commissioners at the Monday meeting took their time after the presentation to deliberate on the unique factors that they would need to take into consideration before making a decision. If landmarked, Johnson’s tower, completed in 1984, would beat out the former Citicorp Building at 601 Lexington Avenue to become the youngest landmarked building in the city. Citing the AT&T Building’s size, prominent Midtown location, impact on the history of postmodernism, and Johnson’s legacy as the first winner of the Pritzker Prize, commissioners spoke of the building’s importance to the history of New York City. Mentioning the heavy media attention that the building has received lately, in addition to the looming renovation, the commissioners acknowledged that with the history of unauthorized changes and the proposed renovation, the tower is “in play” and that this was an opportunity they likely wouldn’t have another chance at. An interior landmarking of the building’s lobby was also discussed but was ultimately dismissed, as there had been too much deviation from Johnson’s original design. The tower’s original base had allocated open, publicly accessible arcades and a lobby designed specifically to house the “Golden Boy” statue for AT&T, all of which was scrapped when Sony began making changes in 1992. David Laurie, Managing Director at Chelsfield America, a development partner for the 550 Madison Avenue renovation, reached out to AN with the following statement. "We support the calendaring decision by the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission to protect the special architectural aspects of 550 Madison Avenue, which we are as committed to as ever following our conversations with community stakeholders. "We are committed to creating a rejuvenated 550 Madison that retains its important presence, works for future tenants, and realizes long-promised public amenities to the larger Midtown community. And we look forward to further collaborating with the LPC to make that happen." With the AT&T Building now potentially on its way towards reaching protected status, it remains to be seen how much of developer Olayan America and Snøhetta’s current scheme will actually be implemented. AN will be following this story as it develops.
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Chiseled Corners

Snøhetta reveals tapered residential tower for Manhattan’s Upper West Side
Snøhetta has released the first renderings for a split, tapering tower set to rise between Lincoln Center and Central Park in New York City. Snøhetta hopes that this reimagined tower-on-a-base scheme for 50 West 66th will simultaneously engage pedestrians at street level, while also paying homage to the surrounding neighborhood through the use of a familiar material palette. At 775-feet tall, the 127-unit residential building will stick out from the traditionally lower-slung neighborhood surrounding it, but Snøhetta has carved away bulk from the tower’s upper floors to minimize 50 West 66th’s effect on the skyline. Referencing Manhattan’s long history of natural stone construction, the studio has described the tower as being sculpturally excavated, and the 16th-floor amenity terrace prominently cleaves the building into two volumes. Even at that height, residents will be able to see across Central Park to the east, as well as across Hudson River to the west. A two-story textured limestone, bronze and glass retail podium will also contain an entrance for an adjacent synagogue on 65th street and create an approachable neighborhood access point. More windows are introduced to the limestone facade as the bulk of the building rises above the podium’s setback, and the slender tower portion is clad in a bronze and glass curtain wall.  Other than the planted, multi-story terrace that anchors 50 West 66th, the tower portion has had its corners sliced away to expose balconies at its opposing corners and create a series of cascading loggias. Triangular, bronze-panel-clad cutaways taper the tower’s corners and join at the tip to form an angular crown. The warm materials, cutaways and slim top all serve to soften the building’s presence in what has been a historically low-to-mid-rise area. The project’s reveal has come amidst a particularly busy month for Snøhetta. Besides being tapped for the Oakland A’s new stadium and an underwater restaurant, the Norwegian studio has also faced criticism for its proposed glassing over of Philip Johnson’s postmodern AT&T Building. Construction is expected to begin in the first half of 2018.
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End zone

Community groups propose zoning Two Bridges towers out of existence
This week, two housing organizations, CAAAV Organizing Asian Communities and the Good Old Lower East Side (GOLES), announced their intention to apply for a rezoning of the Two Bridges waterfront area in the Lower East Side. They asked that Community Board 3, where the meeting was held, and Borough President Gale Brewer become co-applicants of the proposal. This plan targets the proposed development of luxury skyscrapers in the Two Bridges area, which includes a 1,008-foot tower by developer JDS, two 700-foot towers by developers L+M and CIM, and a 724-foot structure by Starrett. For these organizations and other local residents, the Two Bridges projects only signal the beginning of a massive redevelopment that will push out low-income residents. In their rezoning proposal, a 350-foot height limit for new buildings would halt all of the tower projects. These concerns about affordability and exclusion have been heightened after construction began on Extell's massive, 847-foot condominium tower One Manhattan Square directly next to the Manhattan Bridge and also located in Chinatown and the Lower East Side. Extell’s renderings of the tower’s target audience don’t do much to quell that fear. The proposed rezoning would apply to a long ribbon of waterfront in Two Bridges stretching from Catherine Street to around East 13th Street. Beyond the height restriction, the plan would also require new developments to commit 50 percent of their units as permanently affordable housing, and 55 percent of the new construction on a storage facility site. It would also institute an anti-harassment policy to prevent landlords seeking to demolish or redevelop their buildings from harassing tenants and require special permits for commercial establishments. Finally, the plan would rezone parts of East River Park as parkland, including an existing sports field, piers, and walkways. This rezoning proposal builds on the ideas generated in the 2014 Chinatown Working Group plan, which was restricted to a more localized area of Chinatown not inclusive of the waterfront after the de Blasio administration claimed the area it covered was too large. This Working Group plan was also bolstered by a host of community groups including GOLES and CAAAV. Although pursuing rezoning through the application process can cost a great deal of time and money, even after the Department of City Planning’s (DCP) waives fees for community groups like GOLES and CAAAV, both organizations are supported in the legal process by the Urban Justice Center (UJC), which relies largely on foundation support. Now it is all a matter of timing – the city’s Uniform Land Use Review Procedure (ULURP) takes seven months to move forward, and even then it is not sure whether the City Planning Commission will approve the application. The proposal will be reviewed by the Community Board 3 Land Use Committee on Wednesday, October 18.
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Towering History

This interactive map lets you explore Manhattan’s skyscraper history in 3D
Publicly accessible data maps on New York's buildings is nothing new, however, an easy-to-navigate three dimensional one is. While Google Maps and others provide accurate visuals, the "Manhattan Skyscraper Explorer," developed by Raluca Nicola, allows users to navigate with ease by sorting buildings into 25-year segments. As a result, it is easy to see the buildings constructed between 1950 and 1975 with the click of a button. Using ArcGIS API for JavaScript (software that allows three-dimensional applications to be powered by web-generated scenes with toggle-able layers), Nicola was able to make a light-weight tool for navigating Manhattan's architecture. "I started by coloring the buildings based on the time period they were built in. This way I could identify the areas with newer or older buildings, discover which buildings were built in the same period or see that in some neighbourhoods like Soho most of the buildings were built before 1925," Nicola explained in a blog post. "Then I was curious to correlate construction year and height, so I built a timeline with Y axis representing the height. In this timeline each building is a circle with the color given by the construction period. It was interesting to confirm that fewer skyscrapers were built during the Great Depression and almost none during World War II." Inside the map, users can scroll to zoom in and out as well as pan by clicking and dragging. When selected, buildings come with images and a short synopsis. Wikipedia API (called MediaWiki) and the Flickr API were used to load images—famous buildings having their own wiki page helped with this. Furthermore, being color coded, spotting the era of a building is easy. Likewise, buildings over or under a certain height can be selected to further narrow scope. Searching directly for a building can also be done too. To find out more about how Nicola built the platform, read the blog post here. The map itself can be found here.
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Flat Top

70 story tower coming to Downtown Los Angeles
New York–based architects ODA and Miami-based developer Crescent Heights have revealed new renderings for a 70-story apartment tower slated for Downtown Los Angeles. The mixed-use development will be located at the intersection of 11th Street and Olive Street; it aims to bring 794 apartments and 12,504 square feet of ground floor commercial space to downtown’s South Park district. The midcentury modern–inspired tower has been dubbed 1045 Olive and is being shepherded by the city through an expedited permitting process thanks to California’s ELDP program, a measure that guarantees sped-up approval for projects that invest over $100 million in the state’s economy. Renderings for the building depict a rectangular, flat-topped tower resting on a parking podium. The tower’s midsection is interrupted by a multistory amenity complex that features large corner openings several stories in height. One of the large cutouts along this area contains an outdoor pool and deck overlooked by glass-clad amenity spaces that include an indoor gym. The building’s conventional floors are wrapped in protruding wood-clad balconies in an effort to bring the outside indoors and challenge the standard thinking on residential tower designs in the downtown area, Curbed reports. The architects took an unusual approach with regard to the design of the parking podium, which is wrapped in apartment units that overlook the street. The tower, if completed to a height of 810 feet as currently designed, would become one of the tallest residential structures in the region, though it would fall roughly 165 feet below the recently proposed 925 S. Figueroa tower designed by CallisonRTKL. Developer Crescent heights is also working on a pair of other high-rise developments in the area, including the controversial Palladium Residences designed by Natoma Architects in Hollywood and the Handel Architects–designed Ten Thousand tower in Beverly Hills. An official timeline for 1045 Olive has not been released; see the project website for more information.
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Jogging Around

New renderings revealed for crooked, pixelated tower in Los Angeles
In recently-revealed renderings, adam sokol architecture practice (asap/) and developer Downtown Management have revealed a new, slanted look for a long-delayed mixed-use residential tower project proposed for Los Angeles's historic core. The 45-story tower, located at 525 South Spring Street, has been under design for several years by several different firms, including a recent 2015 proposal from L.A.-based Steinberg. Though the new proposal is strikingly different in terms of its form, asap/’s involvement has not changed the building’s program since the Steinberg scheme. The new proposal calls for 360 residential units and 25,000 square feet of retail space to be contained within a canted tower that starts on a square-shaped base and jogs to the south as it rises. Once the tower’s height surpasses those of the surrounding historic buildings, the mass of the structure shifts inwardly from the cornice line, ultimately rising to meet a square-shaped tower block. The mass rises straight up from there to the tower’s flat-topped apex. The renderings also depict a tower clad in variously-sized panels of multi-tone blue glass. The treatment starts off dark and vertically-oriented at the base, where storefronts and the entry to a garage podium are located. The podium level contains a terraced public space located above the garage entry that is shaded by the slanted structure above. Beyond the podium level, the panels take on a more pixelated motif while also becoming lighter in color as the tower rises in height. In a press release, asap/ described the cladding approach as an attempt to “exploit the materiality of glass in novel ways by deploying it to maximize its sense of mass and density.” The project comes as L.A.’s historic core sees an increase in both wholly new structures and renovations to existing buildings. asap/ is also working on a faceted hotel tower located one block south of the 525 South Spring Street site. A timeline for the 525 South Spring Street project has not been announced.
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Green Giant

Leafy tower sprouts in Singapore’s Central Business District
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The Oasia Downtown is a mixed-use office and hotel tower designed by Singapore-based architecture firm WOHA, which set out to create “an alternative imagery for commercial high-rise developments.” Clad in a saturating orange and red metal screen living wall system, the building combines innovative ways to intensify land use with a tropical approach that showcases a perforated, permeable, furry, verdant tower of green in the heart of Singapore’s Central Business District.
  • Architects WOHA
  • Facade Installer Jinyue Aluminum Engineering (S) Pte Ltd (curtain wall);  Century Construction & Engineering Pte Ltd (facade mesh)
  • Location Singapore
  • Date of Completion 2016
  • System Expanded aluminum mesh on galvanized steel frame; Galvanized steel mesh ledge with fiberglass planters (Roof); RC ledge with fiberglass planters (Building); RC structure and Curtain wall (Building)
  • Products Expanded aluminum mesh in powder coated finish
WOHA said the Oasia’s living wall serves as an aesthetic and functional buffer between the surrounding cityscape and the building, creating a layer of shade, absorbing heat, and providing cover. 21 varieties of creeping plants were ultimately used on the project to adapt to various environmental solar conditions responsive to light and shade. “Some produce colorful flowers that will attract birds and insects at different times of the year. The facade is also extended down to the ground, creating possibilities for small animals (such as squirrels) to climb up the building and use it as a vertical habitat.” Together with 33 different species of trees and shrubs on the sky terraces, there is a total of 54 species within this building that attract biodiversity and support ecosystems. This variety also provides natural resilience against disease and bugs, ensuring a more healthy long-term system. The building's structure is constructed of a reinforced concrete frame wrapped in a three-layer building envelope assembly: an internal curtain wall, prefabricated fiberglass planters set on an integrated reinforced concrete ledge, and an expanded aluminum mesh that serves as a climbing base for greenery. Planters tap into an automatic irrigation system and are positioned within easy reach of an inner ring of maintenance catwalks located on every floor of the tower. This architecture provides simple, low-tech maintenance avoiding the need for costly specialized care. The architects said the programming of the tower is analogous to a club sandwich, a stacked typology where distinct floors of offices and hotel rooms are sandwiched between elevated “sky gardens.” Rather than relying on external views of the surrounding city, the tower reorients views inward to a series of vertical urban-scaled verandahs. This openness also allows the wind to pass through the building for improved cross-ventilation. In this way, the public areas become functional, comfortable tropical spaces with greenery, natural light, and fresh air instead of enclosed, internalized air conditioned spaces. Living wall systems are not a new concept for WOHA, which has previously integrated a system onto a 36-story residential development called Newton Suites in 2007 and School of the Arts in 2010, with green plot ratios of 130 percent and 140 percent respectively. Green plot ratios measure the area of vegetation with respect to site area. In comparison to these projects, Oasia Downtown has achieved an 1100 percent green plot ratio, thanks for the extensive use of landscaping as an architectural surface treatment, both internally and externally throughout the building. The architects say the tower ultimately performs as a tropical, urbanistically sensitive and humanistic addition to the city. “We are interested in how green, vegetated facades and sky gardens can transform not just a building, but an entire neighborhood by creating visual relief while achieving psychological, as well as environmental benefits.”