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A Call to Arms

Operation PPE creates 3D-printed equipment for the COVID-19 front lines
Things right now are undoubtedly, brutally rough. And when the going gets rough, the architecture and design community gets 3D printing. As part of a sweeping grassroots mobilization effort that expands and evolves daily, architects, designers, makers, and a small army of displaced students have banded together and fired up their 3D printers to produce the personal protective equipment (PPE) so desperately needed in hospitals that are struggling to provide necessary gear to the doctors, nurses, and other medical professionals on the front lines of the COVID-19 pandemic. “This is, without question, the worst public health crisis of our lifetime. The numbers are truly staggering, and for medical professionals, it is very much like a war, causing casualties and death,” said Dr. James Pacholka MD, a surgeon at Southern Ohio Medical Center, in a statement shared with AN. “No one wants to fight a battle without adequate protection and the PPE’s are our armor, so any help we get in that regard is incredible. And for people using their expertise to help us in any way that they can is honestly beautiful, and serves as a warm reminder of mankind’s goodness and generosity.” In that regard, the architecture and design community has more than risen to the occasion. The Operation PPE effort began in earnest with an SOS of sorts sent via email late on March 24 by Kirstin Petersen, assistant professor at Cornell University’s School of Electrical and Computer Engineering to fellow professor Jenny Sabin, director of Sabin Lab at Cornell’s College of Architecture, Art, and Planning (AAP) and principal of the eponymous architectural design studio based in Ithaca, New York. Petersen relayed the dire need for PPE, specifically face shields, at Weill Cornell Medicine, the university’s medical school and biomedical research unit in New York City. The request—initially estimated by Weill Cornell to be 20,000 to 50,000 per day in New York City—rapidly disseminated throughout multiple departments at the university. By 10:00 a.m. the next morning, Sabin, with the blessing of Meejin Yoon, dean of Cornell AAP, had reopened the school’s Digital Fabrication Lab, fired up all 10 of its 3D printers, and got to work. At the same time, Sabin spread the word to faculty, staff, and students while providing detailed instructions on the lab website. Petersen and Amy Kuceyeski, associate professor of mathematics at Weill Cornell Medicine’s Feil Family Brain and Mind Research Institute, also started a Slack channel to keep lines of communication open and flowing in a single dedicated space. “We were able to respond to the need right away,” Sabin explained to AN. “And what started out as just a few labs on Cornell’s campus then began to grow.” Sabin and others that have since joined the Operation PPE movement are basing their output, which includes a laser-cut clear plastic shield alongside a 3D-printed visor band that snugly fits across a user’s forehead, on an open-source design file created by Erik Cederberg of Swedish company 3D Verkstan. That design, and that design only without any major modifications, has been verified for use by Weill Cornell. The shields, which can be discarded or sanitized and reused, are made from polyethylene sheets while the visor band component is generally made from PLA or ABS, both standard 3D printing materials. PET or PETG, however, is preferred by the medical community as it’s safer to reuse and longer-lasting. Once the components are distributed, hospital staff sanitizes and assembles the face shields. Ultimately, 3D-printed PPE is meant as a temporary solution, as desperate times call for creative measures. But as far as stopgap measures go at least one medical professional, an emergency room doctor at a major New York City Hospital, gave his approval: “The 3D shields and masks being made may be very useful, and can be designed with comfort, visibility, and re-usability in mind,” he said in a statement provided to AN.

A ground-up, grassroots movement grows

While Sabin’s Digital Fabrication Lab and other labs within Cornell departments that have access to 3D printers and laser cutters quickly got to work (all with an eye toward social distancing and overall safety), Yoon sent out an all-hands-on-deck email to the school’s vast network of alumni. Within 48 hours of Petersen reaching out to Sabin, a slew of major architecture firms—Terreform, Grimshaw, Bjarke Ingels Group, Handel Associates, Weiss Manfredi, and Kohn Pedersen Fox among them—had joined the effort. Edg, a mid-sized Manhattan-based architecture and engineering firm, also sprung into action. Notably, edg made a slight but critical adjustment to the visor band allowing for a tighter and more protective fit that also enabled production to increase by up to 20 percent. Currently, edg is producing up to 100 face shields per day and plans to launch a website to connect and coordinate those looking to pitch in. “In less than four days we had this massive web of people firing up their machines, dedicating material, and donating their time and effort,” remarked Sabin. As of this writing, Cornell's on-campus labs have donated 5,800 face shields, a number that jumps significantly when also including PPE made and donated by alumni architects and their networks. “Together and in a very short amount of time, we were able to respond to a gap within the supply chain by leveraging 3D printing and a network of digital fabrication labs. On one hand, 3D printing is not the best way to make these parts, and one 3D printer isn’t going to make an impact, but when you have thousands… it’s incredible.” Students and faculty from schools including Parsons, the University of Southern California, Carnegie Mellon, and Iowa State have since joined Operation PPE. “The power of people coming together is just amazing,” said Sabin. Mitch McEwen, assistant professor at the Princeton School of Architecture and founding director of Black Box Research Group, has also played an active early role on the design and organizational fronts. As noted by McEwen, one area of focus for the team has been on the material supply chain. “How do you widen the stream of materials coming into this, and how do we get ahead of the curve on the next PPE disaster?” she said, adding that the Department of Health and Human Services has mentioned a potential shortage of PPE gowns is on the horizon. “PPE shortages have been cannibalizing the materials they already have.”

Expanding the network

Cornell AAP alumnus Jay Valgora, founder of multidisciplinary design firm STUDIO V, was among the first architects to enlist in Operation PPE and has been instrumental in helping get the word out wide and far. (His son, Jesse, an architecture student at Syracuse University, is also involved in the fabrication and material-sourcing efforts.) “Everyone wants to help and no one knows what to do,” Valgora told AN. “So it’s kind of great to not only do this—to get this equipment into the hands of medical workers who really need it—but it’s also great to give people a vehicle where they can help out and play a positive role.” Noting that his staff is now working from home remotely, Valgora said: “I can still go into the studio, which is empty now, so I went in there with Jesse and we dragged our 3D printers out and brought them home and set them up in our loft and started to print around the clock.” In addition to printing away alongside Jesse at his makeshift home lab, Valgora is teaming with Illya Azaroff, president-elect of AIA New York State, to help consolidate the growing number of different grassroots factions that have joined Operation PPE throughout the state. “We’re trying to create a larger movement to get more people involved,” said Valgora of his team-up with the AIA. “It would be great if the next step were to be to take this national.” While Valgora collaborates with AIA New York State to bolster outreach and involvement within the architecture community, the New York City Economic Development Corporation (NYCEDC), acting as a clearinghouse, has also launched a formal intake process to better coordinate with local businesses looking to make and donate crucial medical supplies. The donations will be vetted by the Department of Health to ensure they meet safety protocols, at the scale needed for the city’s COVID-19 response. The NYCEDC has received over 1,700 queries from interested businesses in just several days. Per Shavone Williams, vice president and chief of staff for public affairs at the NYCEDC, the businesses working directly with the city to produce PPE include Makerspace NYC, Adafruit, and Brooklyn-based custom fabrication company Bednark Studios. Between these three enterprises, 127,000 face shield kits were delivered to New York hospitals this past week.

The effort out West

In Southern California, similar PPE-producing efforts are underway including one directly inspired by Sabin Lab's call to arms that's spearheaded by Alvin Huang, an associate professor at the USC School of Architecture and founding principal of Synthesis Design + Architecture. Since putting out an open call last week, Huang has brought together an initial network north of 80 people—largely USC faculty, alumni, and friends—working with 100 3D printers and three laser cutters. Students from other Los Angeles-area schools including SCI-arc and Santa Monica College have also joined the local effort as have firms including KAA Associates, ARUP, CO Architects, Michael Maltzan Architects, RCH Studios, Brooks Scarpa, and others. The gear produced by the Huang-launched campaign is being distributed to, via pickups coordinated by USC's Keck Medicine, to LAC+USC Medical Center, Keck Hospital, Children’s Hospital Los Angeles, and MLK Willowbrook Hospital. “I’m proud to announce we’re mobilizing our architecture, design, and manufacturing communities to utilize 3D-printing technologies,” said Los Angeles Mayor Eric Garcetti at daily press briefing held earlier this week in which he discussed the city's larger L.A. Protects initiative. “We're getting this done by tapping into resources in our own backyard—developing prototypes and designs with USC's architecture, engineering, and medical schools. We're working with UCLA and other local universities, design schools, and architecture firms to utilize their materials and to use their expertise.” Like the effort originating at Cornell, Huang’s bourgeoning L.A.-centered network is creating and distributing protective face shields using a new design from Budman that’s been approved by Keck. The primary focus, however, is on producing 3D-printed “pseudo N95 masks,” which are also verified by Keck. N95 masks, which as others involved with the Operation PPE effort have pointed out, are not being produced at the same scale as face shield kits because 3D printers simply cannot replicate their complex design in a way that meets medical standards. “We brought this to the attention of Keck as we were concerned that we might be leading people to think they are safe when they’re not,” Huang told AN. “Keck said they were fully aware and had tested everything [...] they said these masks were not what they are using now, and they’re not a replacement for medical-grade PPE. They’re backups to the backup.” “This might be the scariest thing I’ve heard,” admitted Huang. “But Keck’s response was that this is wartime medicine, and we’re preparing for war, and in wars you need a backup to the backup. And Keck identified this as a backup that’s one level above using homemade cloth masks, bandanas, and socks.” It’s a grim assessment, for sure, but these are extraordinary times. As for Sabin, she’s looking past the bleakness and focusing on the synergetic, humane work being done by a community united by one common objective. “For me, the important thing to get out there is the network of people that have come together. The bridge, in terms of working across disciplines, has very much been the context of emerging technology, especially in digital fabrication and 3D printing,” she said. “There’s a kind of democratic space in that it is informal and bottom-up, and we’ve been able to make a real impact in that way. I think everybody’s been looking for a way to contribute during this difficult and unprecedented time, and I think this is a real and positive way to come together even though we can’t be near each other physically. And every visor, every shield, makes a difference.” For those without a 3D printer or digital fabrication skills, please see #GetUsPPE to explore other ways in which you can help.
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Canadian Cut-Outs

Michael Maltzan Architecture reveals variegated new dorms for the University of Toronto
The University of Toronto (UT) recently unveiled a proposal for the Harbord Residence, a 10-story graduate dorm building designed by Los Angeles-based firm Michael Maltzan Architecture, with local firm architectsAlliance serving as the architect of record, for the St. George campus north of Downtown Toronto. Currently pending approval from the University Council, the proposal would provide housing for over 200 graduate students as well as much-need social and study spaces for the 180-acre campus. “One of the things we wanted the architect to do for us was to have the ground plane be a more welcoming place for the broader community—for our neighbours and other U of T community members to come in,” said Anne Macdonald, the university’s assistant vice-president of ancillary services, according to a press statement. “As you go up the building, there are different levels of community-building, with shared spaces and private spaces upstairs.” The ground floor would contain a food court and retail space, while the upper floors would host common lounges, meeting spaces, and quiet study rooms which, according to the university, would be designed to accommodate group work. While clad in red brick to blend into its relatively squat surroundings (representing a rare deviation from the firm’s penchant for all-white facades), the Harbord Residence is also designed to stand out, most notably through the addition of a gestural window layout on its narrowest elevation that contrasts the overall rectilinear geometry. The building will be further integrated into the campus by physically sharing its amenities with those of The Graduate House, a neighboring dorm building completed by the Los Angeles-based Morphosis in 2000, via an underground pedestrian tunnel and a sky bridge on the third level. If approved, construction on the Harbord Residence would break ground this fall and be completed by the end of 2022. The firm was commissioned to design the dorm as a part of the university’s ‘Four Corners' strategy,’ which intends to add approximately 2,500 units of housing to the campus over the next 15 years.
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Winnipeg Up

Michael Maltzan Architecture’s billowy Inuit Art Centre set to open this fall
Winnipeg, the capital and largest city of the Canadian province of Manitoba, has an outspoken indigenous culture that represents over 12 percent of its population. To reflect that heritage, the city broke ground in the spring of 2018 on the Inuit Art Centre (IAC), a 40,000-square-foot addition to the Winnipeg Art Gallery (WAG) that, when completed, will become the largest exhibition gallery in Canada devoted to indigenous art. Designed by Los Angeles-based firm Michael Maltzan Architecture, in collaboration with local Associate Architect Cibinel Architects Ltd., the IAC connects to the southern edge of the original museum building designed by Gustavo da Roza in 1971 and will also provide a lecture theatre, research areas, a visible art storage vault, and additional facilities for an expanded studio art and educational program for the local community. An expansive, light-filled gallery on the top floor will house over 13,000 Inuit carvings, textile prints, and other artworks provided by WAG and the Government of Nunavut. The design centers on the Inuit Vault, a double-height storage area visible from the outside with a shelving system that parallels the curvature of the envelope. The interior will be accessible to curators and scholars to offer an even more intimate relationship with the museum’s impressive collection. Stephen Borys, the Director of WAG, hopes that the addition will inspire the local community to engage with the country’s rich cultural heritage. “We’ll be able to connect a classroom in Winnipeg to a classroom in Rankin [Inlet] or Iqaluit,” Borys told CBC. Prior to designing the addition, Michael Maltzan joined WAG Director Stephen Borys on a trip to the north Canadian province of Nunavut to learn more about Inuit communities and the unique landscaping that serve as their background. According to a press statement, the resultant design “draws on the ephemeral qualities of northern environments that celebrate historic and contemporary Inuit art and culture.” The all-glass ground level appears to effortlessly support the sculptural walls of the upper floors, which were designed to subtly reflect the Nunavut landscape and feature organically-shaped skylights that will suffuse light throughout the columnless gallery space. The Inuit Art Centre is currently under construction and is expected to be open to the public in the fall.
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Tall Timber in Tinseltown

Michael Maltzan Architecture designs affordable mass timber housing tower for Skid Row
The newest supportive housing development is in the works in the Skid Row neighborhood of Downtown Los Angeles at the hand of one of the city’s most experienced designers of the typology. Local firm Michael Maltzan Architecture is currently in the design phase for The Alvidrez, a 14-story tower containing 150 studio apartments and “support spaces” on the ground floor, which will include case management, individual and group counseling, and group activities to improve the health and well-being of residents. The massing of The Alvidrez was determined in part by the construction logic of the mass timber frame system that the firm will employ to meet sustainability guidelines, while the units were designed using modular building blocks made of cross-laminated timber (CLT) column, beam, and deck members. The building’s overall appearance is described by the firm as a “collection of vertical bundles” that provide a series of rooftop terraces providing spaces for unprogrammed community spaces, though it may draw comparison to Kisho Kurokawa’s endangered Metabolist Nakagin Capsule Tower in Tokyo. The 77,000-square-foot project will provide housing exclusively for the homeless community of Skid Row, with 30 percent of its units reserved for those with mental or physical disabilities. Each unit will come with all the features required for independent living, including a bathroom, kitchen, appliances and furnishings. “Individual apartments and on-site supportive services have proven, time and again, to be key to breaking the cycle of homelessness,” wrote the firm.  The Alvidrez was commissioned by the Skid Row Housing Trust, a local nonprofit group that has completed 26 buildings throughout Los Angeles County, to provide affordable, permanent supportive housing for nearly 2,000 people and was named in honor of the Trust’s former CEO Mike Alvidrez. Michael Maltzan Architecture has designed several other buildings for the nonprofit in the past, including Crest Apartments in Van Nuys and the Rainbow Apartments and New Carver Apartments in Downtown Los Angeles. The group has also employed other notable architecture firms, including Koning Eizenberg and Brooks + Scarpa.  Following the completion of an environmental impact report, construction is expected to begin early next year and be finished by early 2023.
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It's a Go

Venice Architecture Biennale 2020 will proceed as scheduled, announces exhibitors
Despite mounting fears that it would be postponed or outright canceled as health officials work to contain the spread of coronavirus in northern Italy, it's been announced that the 17th edition of the Venice Architecture Biennale is very much still a go and will kick off on May 23 and run through November 29. The exhibition vernissage–or pre-opening—will be held on May 21 and 22 as originally scheduled. The announcement was made by Paolo Baratta, the outgoing president of La Biennale di Venezia, via an online presentation held in Venice. The formal presentation of the Biennale was originally scheduled to be made during a press conference held at the Italian Cultural Institute in London on March 3 but was abruptly canceled earlier this week. In addition to confirming that the 2020 Biennale will proceed as normal, Baratta, as anticipated, further elaborated on the exhibition’s theme, How will we live together? The theme was first unveiled by curator Hashim Sarkis, dean of the School of Architecture and Planning at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, in July 2019. “There has been a constant theme over the years, the social advantages which architecture can catalyze,” said Baratta. “As we have often said, Architecture makes us more aware individuals, it helps us become citizens, not just consumers, it stimulates us to consider the indirect effects of our actions, it helps us understand more fully the importance of public goods and of free goods. It helps us develop a more all-around vision of welfare.“ Baratta went on to elaborate on the curatorial approach of Sarkis:
“In its broad-ranging gaze, the exhibition curated by Hashim Sarkis captures the structural problems of contemporary society. He observes—and we with him—that, in every corner of the world, phenomena of intense change are underway, they all differ but what they share is a need for important ‘adjustments’ in living conditions. Thus, the gaze of the curator and the Exhibition ranges even further afield. Architecture becomes the reference point of a vast interdisciplinary commitment and of a vast cultural and political commitment. “We live in a time characterized by a potential feeling of no longer being assured of an increasingly widespread progress but, instead, of being victims of the changes it entails. This is a time in which many could take advantage of the ensuing fears, worries, and changes to promote ultra-defensive campaigns. We find it useful if a Biennale can remind everyone that the identity of a society or a community lies in the quality of the projects it formulates for its future, to correct distortions and valorize resources. And, as can be seen by the many phenomena that are impacting the world just now, these projects can only arise from extensive awareness and widespread collaboration.”
In total, 114 participants from 46 countries will present at the 2020 Biennale—this is a notable increase from the 71 participants in the 2018 edition of the Biennale. La Biennale di Venezia noted that there will be increased participation from architects hailing from Latin American, Asian, and African countries. Thirty-six American and multinational teams with American members are among the exhibitors, and a complete list of participants can be found below. As for the Biennale’s crowd-drawing national pavilions, there will be 63 in total including first-time participants Grenada, Iraq, and Uzbekistan. The U.S. Pavillion is being co-curated by Paul Andersen and Paul Preissner of the University of Illinois at Chicago. Weekends on Architecture, a supplementary series of lectures and panels, will run throughout the course of the festival. And as during past Venice Architecture Biennales, there will be a special emphasis on education-based initiatives and programming for all ages. “The Biennale Architettura 2020 is motivated by new kinds of problems that the world is putting in front of architecture, but it is also inspired by the emerging activism of young architects and the radical revisions being proposed by the profession of architecture to take on these challenges,” said Sarkis. “But more than ever, architects are called upon to propose alternatives. As citizens, we mobilize our synthetic skills to bring people together to resolve complex problems. As artists, we defy the inaction that comes from uncertainty to ask ‘What if?’ And as builders, we draw from our bottomless well of optimism. The confluence of roles in these nebulous times can only make our agency stronger and, we hope, our architecture more beautiful.” Information on the Biennale’s exhibitors, programming, locations, ticketing, and more can be found here. Below are all 114 architects and architecture firms that will be presenting, organized by the Biennale’s five different thematic stations and their locations.

Among Diverse Beings—Arsenale

  • Allan Wexler Studio (New York, USA) Allan Wexler
  • Ani Liu (New York, USA)
  • Azra Aksamija (Cambridge, USA)
  • FABER FUTURES (London, UK) Natsai Audrey Chieza
  • Lucy McRae (Los Angeles, USA)
  • MAEID [Büro für Architektur und transmediale Kunst] (Vienna, Austria) Daniela Mitterberger, Tiziano Derme
  • Modem (Oakland, USA) Nicholas de Monchaux, Kathryn Moll
  • Parsons & Charlesworth (Chicago, USA) Tim Parsons, Jessica Charlesworth
  • Peju Alatise (Lagos, Nigeria)
  • Philip Beesley Architect and Living Architecture Systems Group (Toronto, Canada) Philip Beesley
  • Refik Anadol Studio (Los Angeles, USA) Refik Anadol
  • Studio Libertiny (Rotterdam, The Netherlands) Tomas Libertiny
  • Studio Ossidiana (Rotterdam, The Netherlands, Milan, Italy) Giovanni Bellotti, Alessandra Covini
  • The Living (New York, USA) David Benjamin

As New Households—Arsenale

  • Achim Menges / ICD University of Stuttgart and Jan Knippers / ITKE University of Stuttgart (Stuttgart, Germany) Achim Menges, Jan Knippers
  • Aires Mateus (Lisbon, Portugal) Francisco Aires Mateus, Manuel Aires Mateus
  • AL_A (London, UK) Amanda Levete, Ho-Yin Ng, Alice Dietsch, Maximiliano Arrocet
  • Alison Brooks Architects (London, UK) Alison Brooks
  • Atelier RITA (Paris, France) Valentine Guichardaz-Versini
  • BAAG Buenos Aires Arquitectura Grupal (Buenos Aires, Argentina) Griselda Balian, Gastón Noriega, Gabriel Monteleone
  • ecoLogicStudio (London, UK) Claudia Pasquero, Marco Poletto
  • Farshid Moussavi Architecture (London, UK) Farshid Moussavi
  • Fernanda Canales (Mexico City, Mexico)
  • gad · line+ studio (Hangzhou, China) Fanhao Meng
  • Gramazio Kohler Architects / NCCR DFAB (Zürich, Switzerland) Fabio Gramazio, Matthias Kohler
  • K63.STUDIO (Nairobi, Kenya, Vancouver, Canada) Osborne Macharia
  • leonmarcial arquitectos (Lima, Peru) Alexia Leon, Lucho Marcial
  • Leopold Banchini Architects (Geneva, Switzerland) Leopold Banchini
  • LIN Architects Urbanists (Berlin, Germany, Paris, France) Finn Geipel
  • Lina Ghotmeh — Architecture (Paris, France) Lina Ghotmeh
  • Miralles Tagliabue EMBT (Barcelona, Spain) Benedetta Tagliabue, Elena Nedelcu, Joan Callís
  • nicolas laisné architectes (Montreuil, France) Nicolas Laisné
  • OPAFORM architects (Bergen, Norway) Marina Bauer, Espen Folgerø
  • Open Systems Lab (London, UK) Alastair Parvin)
  • ROJO / FERNÁNDEZ-SHAW, arquitectos (Madrid, Spain) Begoña Fernadez-Shaw, Luis Rojo
  • Sahel Alhiyari Architects (Amman, Jordan) Sahel Alhiyari
  • SsD (Seoul, Korea, New York, USA) Jinhee Park
  • THE OPEN WORKSHOP (San Francisco, USA, Toronto, Canada) Neeraj Bhatia, Antje Steinmuller

As Emerging Communities—Arsenale 

  • antonas office (Athens, Greece, Berlin, Germany) Aristide Antonas
  • Arquitectura Expandida (Bogotá, Colombia) Ana López Ortego, Harold Guyaux, Felipe González González, Viviana Parada Camargo
  • atelier masōmī (Niamey, Niger) Mariam Kamara
  • Bouroullec Brothers (Paris, France) Erwan Bouroullec, Ronan Bouroullec
  • Cohabitation Strategies (Rotterdam, The Netherlands) Lucia Babina, Emiliano Gandolfi, Gabriela Rendon, Miguel Robles Duran
  • doxiadis+ (Athens, Greece) Thomas Doxiadis
  • EFFEKT (Copenhagen, Denmark) Sinus Lynge, Tue Foged
  • ELEMENTAL (Santiago de Chile, Chile) Alejandro Aravena, Victor Oddó, Gonzalo Arteaga, Diego Torres, Juan Cerda
  • Enlace Arquitectura (Caracas, Venezuela) Elisa Silva
  • Fieldoffice Architects (Yilan, Taiwan) Huang Sheng-Yuan
  • Han Tumertekin (Istanbul, Turkey)
  • Igneous Tectonics (Cambridge, USA) Cristina Parreño, Sergio Araya
  • Lacol (Barcelona, Spain) Ariadna Artigas, Mirko Gegundez, Lali Daví, Pol Massoni, Anna Clemente, Cristina Gamboa, Núria Vila, Jordi Miró, Ernest Garriga, Eliseu Arrufat, Laura Lluch, Lluc Hernandez, Arnau Andrés, Carles Baiges
  • Leong Leong (New York, USA) Dominic Leong, Christopher Leong
  • Manuel Herz Architects and Iwan Baan (Basel, Switzerland, Amsterdam, The Netherlands) Manuel Herz, Iwan Baan
  • NADAAA (Boston, USA) Nader Tehrani, Arthur Chang
  • OMA (Rotterdam, The Netherlands) Reinier de Graaf
  • PRÁCTICA (Madrid, Spain) Jaime Daroca Guerrero, José Mayoral Moratilla, José Ramón Sierra Gómez de León
  • raumlaborberlin (Berlin, Germany) Andrea Hofmann, Axel Timm, Benjamin Foerster-Baldenius, Christof Mayer, Florian Stirnemann, Francesco Apuzzo, Frauke Gerstenberg, Jan Liesegang, Markus Bader
  • S.E.L (Cambridge, USA, Paris, France) Verena Paravel, Lucien Castaing-Taylor
  • Sean Lally (Lausanne, Switzerland, Chicago, USA)
  • Skidmore, Owings & Merrill (New York, USA) Colin Koop
  • Storia Na Lugar (Praia, Cabo Verde) Patti Anahory, Cesar Schofield Cardoso
  • studio L A (Amsterdam, The Netherlands) Lorien Beijaert, Arna Mačkić
  • Superflux (London, UK) Anab Jain, Jon Ardern
  • TUMO Center for Creative Technologies (Yerevan, Armenia) Marie Lou Papazian, Pegor Papazian
  • UNStudio (Amsterdam, The Netherlands) Ben van Berkel, Caroline Bos
  • WOJR (Cambridge, USA) William O'Brien Jr.

Across Borders; Giardini—Central Pavilion 

  • AAU ANASTAS (Bethlehem, Palestine) Elias Anastas, Yousef Anastas
  • ACASA GRINGO CARDIA DESIGN (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) Gringo Cardia with AIKAX, Takumã Kuikuro (Amazonas, MG, Brazil) and People’s Palace Projects, Paul Heritage (London, UK)
  • ASSET Production Studio (Berlin, Germany) Anna-Sophie Springer with Ibu Kota Kolektif (Indonesia), Yayasan Peta Bencana (Indonesia), Nashin Mahtani (Indonesia) and Armin Linke (Italy, Germany)
  • Atelier Marko Brajovic (São Paulo, Brazil) Marko Brajovic, Bruno Bezerra
  • BASE studio (Santiago, Chile) Barbara Barreda, Felipe Sepulveda
  • Dan Majka & Gary Setzer (Madison and Tucson, USA) Dan Majka, Gary Setzer
  • Decolonizing Architecture Art Residency (Beit Sahour, Palestine) Alessandro Petti, Sandi Hilal
  • Dogma (Brussels, Belgium) Martino Tattara, Pier Vittorio Aureli
  • Forensic Oceanography (London, UK) Charles Heller, Lorenzo Pezzani
  • Foundation for Achieving Seamless Territory (FAST) (Amsterdam, The Netherlands, New York, USA)Malkit Shoshan
  • GFA (Sydney, Australia) Guillermo Fernández-Abascal, Urtzi Grau
  • Giuditta Vendrame (Rotterdam, The Netherlands)
  • Heatherwick Studio (London, UK) Thomas Heatherwick
  • La Minga (Quito, Ecuador)Pablo Escudero
  • Lateral Office and Arctic Design Group (Toronto, Canada, Charlottesville, USA) Mason White, Lola Sheppard, Leena Cho, Matthew Jull
  • Matilde Cassani, Ignacio G. Galan, Ivan L. Munuera, Joel Sanders (Milan, Italy, New York, USA, Princeton, USA, New Haven, USA)
  • Michael Maltzan Architecture (Los Angeles, USA) Michael Maltzan
  • MDP Michel Desvigne Paysagiste (Paris, France) Michel Desvigne
  • Monsoon Assemblages and Office of Experiments (London, UK) Lindsay Bremner, Neal White
  • Olalekan Jeyifous (Brooklyn, USA) and Mpho Matsipa (Johannesburg, South Africa and New York, USA)
  • Paula Nascimento (Luanda, Angola)
  • Pinar Yoldas (San Diego, USA)
  • Rural Urban Framework (Hong Kong, China) Joshua Bolchover, John Lin
  • Smout Allen ( London, UK) Laura Allen, Mark Smout, Geoff Manaugh
  • Somatic Collaborative (New York, USA) Anthony Acciavatti, Felipe Correa, Devin Dobrowolski
  • Studio Paola Viganò (Milan, Italy) Paola Viganò
  • Studio Tomás Saraceno (Berlin, Germany) Tomás Saraceno
  • UNLESS (Hamburg, Germany) Giulia Foscari Widmann Rezzonico
  • Vogt Landscape Architects (Zürich, Switzerland)Günther Vogt

As One Planet; Giardini—Central Pavilion 

  • Bethany Rigby (London, UK)
  • Cave_bureau (Nairobi, Kenya) Karanja Kabage, Stella Mutegi
  • Christina Agapakis, Alexandra Daisy Ginsberg & Sissel Tolaas (Boston, USA; London, UK; Berlin, Germany)
  • DESIGN EARTH (Cambridge and Ann Arbor, USA) Rania Ghosn, El Hadi Jazairy
  • Kei Kaihoh Architects (Tokyo, Japan) Kei Kaihoh
  • Mabe Bethônico (Belo Horizonte, Brazil, Geneva, Switzerland)
  • OOZE and Marjetica Potrč (Rotterdam, The Netherlands, Lubjiana, Slovenia) Eva Pfannes, Sylvain Hartenberg, Marjetica Potrč
  • Plan B Architecture & Urbanism (New Haven, USA) Joyce Hsiang, Bimal Mendis
  • Self-Assembly Lab (Cambridge, USA)Skylar Tibbits, Jared Laucks, Schendy Kernizan
  • spbr arquitetos (Sao Paolo, Brazil) Angelo Bucci
  • TVK (Paris, France) Pierre Alain Trévelo, Antoine Viger-Kohler
  • Urban Theory Lab (UTL) Harvard GSD / Department of Architecture, ETH Zürich (Cambridge, USA, Zürich, Switzerland) Neil Brenner, Christian Schmid
  • Weitzman School of Design (Philadelphia, USA) Richard Weller

How Will We Play Together?—Fort Marghera

  • AWILDC-AWP london (London, UK, New York, USA) Alessandra Cianchetta
  • HAJEK & SKULL + MOLOARCHITEKTI (Prague, Czech Republic) Matej Hajek, Tereza Kucerova
  • HHF Architects (Basel, Switzerland) Tilo Herlach, Simon Hartmann, Simon Frommenwiler
  • Ifat Finkelman & Deborah Pinto Fdeda (Tel Aviv, Israel)
  • Sean Ahlquist - University of Michigan (Ann Arbor, USA) Sean Ahlquist
  • Wissam Chaaya (Beirut, Lebanon)
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Pods for People

Perkins and Will proposes compact sleeping units for L.A.'s homeless
The Los Angeles office of Perkins and Will has set their sights on the smallest imaginable scale for a modular sleeping unit built for the city's growing homeless population. In response to the mayor's A Bridge Home initiative, a city-led project focusing on creating transitional emergency shelters, the firm's Innovation Incubator team designed the prefabricated Dome unit in an effort to offer a higher level of dignity and sophistication than typically found in U.S. shelters. "We want it to feel residential, not institutional," said Yan Krymsky, a design director at Perkins and Will, in a statement. "It sends a message that people care." Each Dome unit is seven feet wide and six feet deep to provide 42 square feet of space per person. It features a lockable wardrobe, a standard power outlet, a frame for a twin bed, an optional kennel area for a 30-pound pet, and an operable canvas tarp for privacy. Designed with low-cost, quality materials that make each unit feel like a temporary little home, the firm estimates that individually, they could cost as little as $4,749 to build. Locker fabrication company Shield has already been tapped to manufacture them. “Solid surface is low maintenance and resists scratching," the team said, "while wood accents give the unit a residential character." If desired, the units can be combined to allow couples or families to share a larger set together. According to Perkins and Will, the most challenging part of the Dome project was making the units feel dignified and structured when in use while at the same time, flexible enough to collapse for storage and redeployment across the city. A typical 53-foot-long flatbed truck, for instance, can carry up to 32 units when collapsed. A number of other Los Angeles-based firms have developed concepts for homeless housing alternatives, such as Brooks + Scarpa and Michael Maltzan Architecture, and several shelters have already been completed through the A Bridge Home program. As the city with the largest number of homeless residents in the United States, The Dome units present a potentially more expedient option for emergency shelter than other temporary housing structures currently proposed for the city. A prototype of a Dome unit is currently on display at the Architecture + Design Museum (A+D) in Los Angeles until January 12.
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Cold Blooded

EYRC Architects designs an office complex for quickly developing L.A. Arts District
The Arts District may soon be known as the most rapidly developing section of Los Angeles. The newest proposed addition is Produce L.A., a boldly-designed mixed-use building on the corner of Santa Fe Avenue and Jesse Street, within throwing distance of the Los Angeles River and Michael Maltzan Architecture's Sixth Street Viaduct. The building will replace a cold storage facility currently on the site, thereby contributing to the transition the Arts District has been undergoing from an industrial area to a creative hub. When complete, Produce L.A. will be one of many office complexes in the immediate area, including OFFICEUNTITLED's AVA Los Angeles and the adaptively-reused Santa Fe Business Center. Designed by local firm EYRC Architects (formerly Ehrlich Architects), the four-story building will include over 100,000 square feet of office space, 15,000 square feet of commercial space, a restaurant on its ground floor, extensive landscaping along Santa Fe Avenue, parking for over 200 cars, and an activated rooftop with views from the Downtown skyline to the Los Angeles River. The distinct patterning of the facade is designed to protect the building's interior from excess solar radiation while decreasing the necessary amount of glazing. In a nod to the area's industrial history, the panels will be primarily comprised of corrugated steel. The owners of the Produce L.A. building, Denver-based Continuum Partners and Beverly Hills-based Platinum Equity, are putting aside an estimated $100 million towards the new office building (the project received a much-need boost when the group received a $54 million loan from an undisclosed lender). Construction has already begun, and the project is slated to be completed by late 2020.
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To Be Determined

OFFICEUNTITLED designs with an open mind across the West Coast
When an artist titles a piece, a series, or a body of work Untitled, it may appear to the viewer as an abdication of responsibility, or blatant indecision designed to confuse the viewer. And yet, more often than not, the decision is made to establish a shared experience of open-endedness and subjectivity between the artist and viewer. The decision to avoid a title can potentially liberate any work from belonging to a single movement, choosing instead to reflect ageless human conditions and the ever-changing qualities of how we perceive the world around us. Such was the decision behind the naming of OFFICEUNTITLED, the Los Angeles-based architecture firm with an extensive range of projects behind them in their young career. The firm's four principals—Shawn Gehle, Benjamin Anderson, Lindsay Green and Christian Robert—met while working at Gensler and first established an office together in 2013 under the name R&A Architecture and Design. Changing their name in 2019 to reflect the undefined nature of their practice, OFFICEUNTITLED currently has a handful of exemplary work behind them and a wealth of projects set to be completed in the near future. AVA LA Arts District Developed as a “base camp” for the creative community in Downtown Los Angeles, AVA LA Arts District is a seven-story complex broken up by multiple courtyards conceived as impromptu workspaces. The project will be up to seven stories in some parts of the 3.75-acre property and will contain approximately 475 live/work units. The overall plan was designed in recognition of the adjacent light rail station that is set to be completed within the next few years. “AVA opens up to this context and the new urban fabric at ground level,” the firm wrote, “while reinterpreting the horizontality of Los Angeles through its form.” The exteriors were designed in a nod to the large, turn-of-the-century industrial buildings found in the area, while its interiors are minimally designed with board-formed concrete and fiber cement paneling. When completed in 2023, AVA LA will be neighbors of several significant developments, including a mixed-use project designed by Bjarke Ingels Group and Michael Maltzan Architects’ Sixth Street Viaduct. 9th & Hil OFFICEUNTITLED’s adaptive reuse of the May Company Parking Garage in Downtown Los Angeles, one of the first purpose-built parking structures in the United States when it was completed in 1926, will maintain much of the character of the structure while adding mixed-use programming and a penthouse in the form of a pristine glass box. The upper two floors of the 400-car structure will be transformed into creative office space, while the ground floor will become a grocery market with exposed Beaux-Arts detailing throughout. The project, set to be completed in 2021, will require extensive renovation of its iconic facade, for which it was designated a Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monument in 2011. Woodlark Completed in 2018, Woodlark is a hotel in Portland, Oregon, developed as an adaptive reuse of the historic Woodlark Building and adjacent Cornelius Hotel into a single, continuous building. To develop the aesthetic for the 150-room hotel, the firm brought the opulence and ornate design of the two structures into the 20th century through the use of “subtle, soft, and elegant” detailing while renovating the exterior facades in their entirety. A penthouse and stair tower penetrate the roofline of the tower half of the hotel while still maintaining the site’s French Renaissance style and iconic rooflines. The design of the hotel’s interiors is a nod to the verdant landscapes unique to the Pacific Northwest, down to the ‘mossy’ velvet and natural wood tones throughout the ground floor, restaurant and lounge bar. Through a reimagining of the two buildings’ interiors as one, OFFICEUNTITLED achieves a balance between vernacular and indigenous aesthetics in the middle of downtown Portland. Cayton Children’s Museum Set within the upper floor of Santa Monica Place, OFFICEUNTITLED’s design for Cayton Children’s Museum is a free plan defined by playfully-scaled landmarks that allow visitors to determine paths through the 30+ exhibits on display. These objects are referred to according to their unique external appearances and textures, with names such as the Armadillo, Porcupine, Onion, Egg, and Drum. According to the firm, “these objects solve non-exhibit program requirements while [bearing in mind] that everything is a teachable moment in a children’s museum.” The firm’s goal to use the objects to blur the relationship between architecture and exhibit is perhaps best demonstrated by the Courage Climber, a vibrantly-colored net structure hanging above over 20 percent of the museum’s total floor area. The installation allows children to unique navigate space through a novel method while offering views of other exhibits throughout the museum. “Made to inspire a sense of curiosity,” the firm explained, “the design is a contemporary space for exploration and adventure.” Completed June of this year, Cayton Children’s Museum sets a high standard for design for spaces intended for children.
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Just Don’t

Los Angeles is at a crossroads—don’t let it become New York
Makin’ my way downtown, I zip along on my Lime® scooter through the ersatz Japanese village of Little Tokyo, past taxis, buses, and Prii, to a bustling, small-scale warehouse district on the fringe of Los Angeles’s central core. The whirlwind of scales, land uses, languages, and people is dizzying, but I finally land at my destination: Sonoratown, a lively taco spot famous for its soft tortillas, which are made with flour driven up from Sonora, Mexico, in small batches by the owner’s mom. This delirious, quasi-urban experience is one that could only happen in the messy, diverse urban fabric of Los Angeles. You are free to grab whatever pieces of the kaleidoscopic surroundings you can, and the faster you are moving, the more there is to take. Somehow, this frantic energy and free movement seem unaffected or held back by the past. The cultural critic Sean Monahan called LA the capital of the 2010s, describing it as:
...a city whose attributes anticipate collapse: flat and amorphous, rather than vertical and defined; kitsch and pop, rather than avant-garde and tech; individualistic and mass, rather than institutional and elite. You can suggest San Francisco, HQ of disruption, or New York, backdrop for protest movements (#OWS, #BLM). But both places fail to capture the spirit of the age, because they are fighting so hard to change it. They are relics of empire, unsure of themselves after a decade in which success was indistinguishable from failure… Built on celebrity, media, and lifestyle, L.A. doesn’t presume to be building the future, merely inhabiting it. It’s a pick your poison kind of place. [Go wild] at Chateau Marmont. Spend half your paycheck on inscrutable health food at Erewhon. Commute four hours so you can live in a Riverside McMansion. Drive Uber every day, write screenplays every night. Sell out, drop out, suck up, fuck up. There is no right or wrong way to do L.A.
Monahan accurately describes why Los Angeles encapsulates the present, and why it’s the most exciting place in the US right now. However, it is also important to note where the city is moving in the 2020s. With the 2028 Olympics as a finish line, Los Angeles is at a crossroads, on a path to become a different place in the next decade. But with the city already at the forefront of global media culture (The Kardashians, Moon Juice, Goop, etc.), it doesn’t need global architecture to maintain its position as a worldwide force. How it defines itself as a physical place is still up for grabs, and it should learn lessons from other hyper-globalized cities, namely New York. Tomorrow’s Los Angeles is one of layers. Moving on from its days as a bastion of mythological American modernism centered around mobility (cars), individuality (single-family homes), and triumph over nature (lawns), it will add new collectivities on to itself. These layers will arise from the constant flux of the new: Technologies and emerging social patterns meld nicely into the loose, still-codifying culture and its corresponding urban forms. It is the flickering of new, communal, car-free, publicly subsidized lifestyles against the old, car-centric, low-density, low-regulation, “libertarian” bones of the urban landscape that make it such an interesting place for urbanism today. The oft-bandied-about claim that the city is libertarian is also not entirely accurate, as California is a sea of regulation and red tape, continually votes to raise its already high taxes, and both California and Los Angeles are leading on climate action. The city is quietly building public infrastructure at a pace that vastly outpaces New York. New York’s Second Avenue Subway took somewhere between 10 and 100 years to complete three stations, and the next phase will be three stops and will be completed by 2029 at the earliest. Meanwhile Los Angeles is (optimistically) on course to build 28 new lines by 2028. This includes an airport-connection line that will allow a direct link from LAX to the city. Meanwhile, New York’s MTA is in a worsening crisis with crumbling stations and delays only getting worse, and New Jersey’s NJ Transit recently gave up on accounting for the traffic expected to reach the American Dream Mall, instead calling on private industry to complete the line, citing none other than Los Angeles’s electric rail airport connector as an example. That’s right—L.A. is leading the way in public transit. Meanwhile, Uber, a municipal car share and micro-mobility options such as scooters have already altered how people get around (many young people don’t have cars at all) and where they live, partly due to an explosion in transit-oriented development around the new metro lines. It is unclear exactly how successful, affordable, and sustainable this will be, but change is certainly underway. New transit networks both public and private, along with lower parking requirements for new construction will profoundly impact development and housing typologies in the future. But it is no secret that Los Angeles is careening toward a New York–like affordability crisis (if it isn’t there already) that goes hand-in-hand with the urban whitewash of global capital. Homelessness is at record levels and only getting worse. In response, architects are working to develop new housing typologies, from affordable prototypes and accessory dwelling units, to larger, multi-family schemes that continue to evolve with new regulations and design challenges. The L.A. River and the L.A River Greenway in the San Fernando Valley are also emerging sites of urban experimentation and reclamation/rehabilitation of greenspace. Los Angeles has a unique architectural culture and urban fabric, but red flags are emerging. First, Bjarke Ingels Group and Herzog & de Meuron, international firms that are both very popular with the New York development community, have projects downtown. Related Group (of Hudson Yards fame) has moved in and is developing a large Frank Gehry project across from Gehry’s own Disney Concert Hall. It perfectly illustrates the lower design quality of developer-led construction and echoes Related Companies’ other project, Hudson Yards: “The project is anchored by a central plaza wrapped with shopping areas and public art.” The biggest red flag might be the shortlist for the La Brea Tar Pits project. In Miracle Mile’s Museum Row, a neighborhood that already has been marred by architectural globalists—once by KPF and twice by Renzo Piano—the shortlist for the La Brea master plan is New York establishment firms WEISS/MANFREDI and Diller Scofidio + Renfro, along with Danish firm Dorte Mandrup. It is a truly odd and troubling list. All three are talented firms, but their selection signals the wind turning toward a placeless architecture where, in California terms, “there is no there there,” reflecting classic donor-class aesthetics. Don’t even get me started on what director Michael Govan and the LACMA board are doing to push through their new building. Joseph Giovannini said it best:
In a sleight of hand that still has serious consequences for LACMA and Los Angeles, Govan introduced [Peter] Zumthor, the architect who presumably could achieve this world-class building, to his Board of Trustees. There was no competition, no public review or discussion, no transparency, just a shoo-in of the architect who had arrived in Los Angeles in Govan’s back pocket. “It won’t be the seventh Renzo Piano building in the country,” Govan explained to me in an interview. “We’ll have the only Zumthor.” …Had he even made it into a normal architect selection process, the jury might have concluded that he was mismatched and dangerously underequipped for the commission.
Some Angelenos say that local architects should get their due. L.A. has been defined in many ways by outsiders such as Neutra and Schindler, but also by local legends like Thom Mayne and Frank Gehry, as well as a younger generation like Barbara Bestor, Michael Maltzan, and a host of others who can deliver top-notch design. Los Angeles doesn't need the continental, polite, same-as-everywhere architecture that plagues institutions around the world. The architecture scene has always valued experimentation and allowed younger, more avant-garde approaches and diverse practices to gain ground, outside of the institutional weight that plagues places like the East Coast. It is not “provincial”—as some claim—to want to preserve this well-established local flavor while moving forward. In fact, what would be provincial is thinking that it is necessary to look outward for world-class architecture, or that a mythical global culture needs to be imported for the city to become a world-class place. Nothing defines the periphery like the center, and nothing makes one more provincial than defining oneself against New York. Of course, outside architects can come in and add to the culture; it just takes a bit of judgment. For instance, Spanish firm SelgasCano’s bright, breezy, kit-of-parts style seems to fit with L.A.’s pop modernist aesthetic, and Arata Isozaki’s MOCA has also become an iconic part of L.A. architecture. So let L.A. be regional and different. Don’t let it succumb to the pressures of global capital and “global architecture.” Don’t let Boyle Heights—a strong Latino neighborhood under development pressure, with several buildings already being renovated—become Hudson Yards. New York City has been ruined by capital, which was weaponized to take away the grittiness of places like Times Square, a project of Ed Koch and eventually of Rudy Guiliani. Later, technocrat billionaire Michael Bloomberg finished the sanitization of the city with sloppy rezonings of Williamsburg, West Chelsea, and Long Island City most notably, which ushered in the era of bland office towers and mega mall-like sterility. Developers like President Donald Trump and Related Companies, along with their elected enablers like Bloomberg and Guiliani have shared class interests that threaten the small-scale, local and regional urban landscapes where artists, immigrants, and the working class foment culture. How can Los Angeles be a laboratory for resisting the entropic, hegemonic cancer that is global capital, the global donor class, and the donor-class aesthetic? One tactic, and to be fair, something that the Bloomberg administration got right in places like Brooklyn and Staten Island, is downzoning to preserve the character of neighborhoods. This is also tricky and can lead to NIMBYism, which L.A. has certainly had its share of recently. In a similar vein, Thom Mayne provocatively suggested clustering development on the Wilshire corridor in order to protect other areas. The Wilshire area has seen some development, but not at the scale Mayne has suggested. Additionally, serious and innovative criticism is needed. Critics must not fall into 20th-century modes of operating; they have to get out in front of these debacles rather than react to them. There are a host of critics operating in Los Angeles, and no one is better positioned to have an impact than former L.A. Times architecture critic Christopher Hawthorne, who is now in a unique role as the Chief Design Officer for the City of Los Angeles, a position where he is literally helping craft RFPs (request for proposals). As long as Hawthorne is able to be heard in the government and in the public and can surround himself with good people who will help guide L.A. through this crucial time, there is a real opportunity to have more and more expert opinions in the process that will avoid the disasters that haunt New York. This, along with more equitable and compensated juried design competitions, can help the people who make financial decisions make "better" aesthetic and cultural decisions. Regionalism, when connected to local ecology, provokes more interesting and nuanced design than a totalizing, global aesthetic. In terms of what resistance might look like outside of design review, Los Angeles is already taking on challenges in a unique way. In Boyle Heights, gentrifying art galleries have been pushed out by strong neighborhood coalitions demanding affordable housing and neighborhood services. Los Angeles could also adopt anti-gentrification policies such as rent control or downzoning to prevent the displacement of both residential and retail spaces. Many cities have adopted such plans, while Berlin and other cities have enacted rent freezes and other regulations on the housing market to ensure affordability. Los Angeles in many ways is the logical conclusion of the myth of the American West. Several time zones and thousands of miles in distance from New York and other global cities, it has historically been connected to global culture through mass media, not physical space. This isolation has left it to its own devices as an urban place. This doesn’t need to change as it grows into more of a global force. New forms and ways of living can be cultivated without abandoning what makes it a special place: its resistance to the forces of the outside. In the 2020s, defining a new localism would be quite an amazing achievement.
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Moving Up

Canadian Centre for Architecture director Mirko Zardini steps down
The director of the Canadian Centre for Architecture for the past 14 years, Mirko Zardini, will step down at the end of the year, and Giovanna Borasi will take his place starting in January. Borasi is chief curator at the CCA, and she has been a curator at the Montreal-based institution since 2005. Zardini led the CCA through a crucial period of growth and change. The CCA was founded in 1979 by the architect Phyllis Lambert with a desire to provoke—a masthead on their website quotes Lambert as saying “We’re not a museum that puts things out and says, ‘This is architecture.’ We try to make people think.” As its director, Zardini made crucial moves to fulfill Lambert's mission, including the ambitious use of the CCA's archives and exhibition spaces, enabling a vibrant research program, and launching an online platform that makes the CCA's resources widely available. Donations to the archives during Zardini's tenure include those of Kenneth Frampton, Pierre Jeanneret, Abalos Herreros, Cornelia Hahn Oberlander, Alessandro Poli, Umberto Riva, Álvaro Siza Vieira, and Anthony Vidler. Donations of works by architects included Zaha Hadid, Greg Lynn, Foreign Office Architects, and UnStudio. Recent exhibitions such as The Other Architect (2015-16) and three shows in the Archaeology of the Digital series (2013-16) have been international in scope and focused on challenging models of architectural practice. Zardini has positioned the CCA as a crucial node in conversations about architecture and the urban realm. In an interview with AN, Zardini deflected questions about the "highlights" of his time at the CCA: "I like to think of what we produce as critical tools," he said, not singular exhibitions or publications. He emphasized the CCA's success in focusing on environmental issues, the effects of increasing global multicultural processes, the question of combining large-scale planning with button-up building, and reflections on technology. Zardini said that he hopes the CCA "will not be judged for any single exhibition or publication, but for the discourse it has produced through the years." He added that he likes that the CCA is "mature enough as an institution to speak in a collective voice." This is "not easy," he says, because "as an institution, you have to build your own public." He concluded that his achievement as a director has been in "the kind of friction we have created at the CCA – we have maintained the institution in a critical position." The appointment of Borasi is based on a conviction that Zardini's time as director was a success. In a statement, CCA Board Chair and Toronto-based architect Bruce Kuwabara emphasized that the CCA will continue to build on its current direction. Borasi was involved from the beginning of when Zardini became director, and indeed before. After curating and collaborating on exhibitions in Milan and working as an editor of Lotus International, Borasi worked closely with Zardini on exhibitions in Italy and then at the CCA. They seem to think alike. One of Borasi's current projects involves the creation of three short documentary films, the first of which, What it takes to Make a Home, will focus on homelessness. It will premier at the Architecture and Design Film Festival in New York in October 2019. This type of experimentation with media, modes of discourse, and challenging topics related to the built environment embodies the essence of the CCA's approach to architecture. Speaking about her upcoming directorship and Zardini, Borasi said in an interview that she "shares his vision. He pushed the idea from Phyllis that architecture is not just about building, but about ideas." Borasi emphasized their shared belief that architecture "needs to have an impact at large" by constantly asking "What are the issues that architects should discuss today?" She said that it is the responsibility of an institution such as the CCA to "ask the questions that no one wants to ask. This means that the CCA "is not neutral. Architecture that is committed, not self-referential, is the architecture I am interested in." Zardini was quick to emphasize how he has benefitted from collaboration at the CCA. Lambert's support has been crucial, he said, as has collaboration with Borasi. He mentioned the help of several others at the CCA and outside, including strong advice from Peter Eisenman that the CCA should be proactive and take risks in the use of its resources. Pressed to offer advice, Zardini opined that "many other institutions are too confident of the traditional role that they have. In this moment, rather than being reassuring, institutions need to be provocative;" they should become "public intellectual figures." Zardini spoke against the pressures of the current neoliberal moment: "Rather than thinking of architects as part of large corporations, I would rather think of architects operating with a more community-oriented strategy or in public organizations." Asked what he will do next, Zardini mentioned that he has "never had a chance to take a sabbatical." He said that he "never aspired to become 'director' of anything," that he is "not a director by career," and he even mentioned wryly that did not apply for the directorship of the CCA, but was persuaded to take it by Lambert. Zardini plans to spend time in Europe and begin work on new research – to "create a new baggage of ideas to work with in the future." Among his last projects at the CCA will be a publication of essays from the past 15 years, which is due out in spring 2020. What will remain to be seen is whether Zardini's departure and Borasi's appointment will mark the end of an era for the CCA or the continuation of an approach that seems to have worked.
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Time to Grow Up

Michael Maltzan's masterplan for Pasadena’s ArtCenter approved
A new 15-year master plan designed by Michael Maltzan Architecture (MMA) for Pasadena ArtCenter College of Design was unanimously approved by the Pasadena City Council on July 16.  The plan calls for the large-scale transformation for the school by expanding southward ArtCenter’s Craig Ellwood-designed Hilltop Campus. Among other aspects, the new plan calls for up to 1,500 new student beds, a series of new elevated terraces and quads, and a handful of new residential and academic buildings across the school’s new South Campus. The existing Hilltop campus will receive cosmetic and functional upgrades, including a new solar array, Urbanize.la reports  Tina Chee Landscape Studio is slated to work as the landscape architect on the project while ARUP and Sherwood Design Engineers will handle energy and water infrastructure optimization, respectively. MMA’s multi-phase plan will first connect a pair of existing South Campus buildings and two new housing towers with a new sloped terrace that spans over a stretch of train tracks cutting through the site. Phase one of the expansion will add 350- and 500- unit student housing towers as well as a new landscaped quad, and is expected to be completed by 2020. The project’s second phase will kick off that year and will involve a great deal more effort and construction.  The addition will add a second, much more expansive elevated terrace southward from the northern cluster of buildings impacted by phase one. The elevated terrace is depicted in project renderings containing interconnected pedestrian areas with large planters, public art, and assembly spaces filling out the spaces between the new buildings. A new multi-level student center will be located below the elevated terrace.  With the new multi-level complex, the architects hope to bring a form of “layered urbanism” to the site that will embed a variety of social, commercial, and cultural uses across the campus. Pedestrian improvements—including a bicycle path running the length of the site—will accompany the campus expansion.  Phase two is expected to be complete by 2027.
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Oh, Canada

Jeanne Gang and Renzo Piano are making their mark on Canada with a spate of new projects
It’s time to go north of the border as The Architect’s Newspaper checks out some of the highest-profile projects that have been announced across Canada this year. A strong economy has driven construction across the country, and Toronto, in particular, has an abundance of notable buildings breaking ground. From subdued civic structures to prismatic rental towers, 2018 has brought a surfeit of high-profile projects to America’s northern neighbor. One Delisle Studio Gang Toronto, Ontario Studio Gang could end up making a major mark on Toronto’s skyline with its first Canadian project, a 48-story multifaceted tower. The rental building has been designed with 16 sides made up of overlapping eight-story hexagonal modules, and each segment will contain enclosed balconies and be topped with garden terraces for residents. The overlap of the modules resembles scales or the natural spiraling of growing plants, and the effect creates a different view of the tower depending on the angle of approach. An existing 1929 Art Deco facade will be moved over to the base of a neighboring tower, and the base of One Delisle will relate to the historic facade to maintain a cogent street wall. Toronto Courthouse Renzo Piano Building Workshop and NORR Architects & Engineers Toronto, Ontario Renzo Piano Building Workshop (RPBW)’s first project in Canada will consolidate many of Toronto’s smaller courts into a centrally-located municipal building next to the city’s Superior Court of Justice. The building is reminiscent of Piano’s work on the Jerome L. Greene Science Center for Columbia University, both in its boxy massing and in its open ground level, created by raising the base of the building several stories. Despite the courthouse’s wide-open atrium space, the building has been designed with security in mind, and cameras, baggage checkpoints, and internal security corridors will be deployed throughout. The first museum in Ontario to focus on the history of the indigenous justice system will also be located inside. Construction is on track to finish in 2022.
The HUB/30 Bay Street Rogers Stirk Harbour + Partners (RSHP) Toronto, Ontario The recently-revealed design for The HUB, a 1.4 million-square-foot tower proposed for Toronto’s South Core neighborhood, is the result of an international design competition for a building that would have a major impact on Toronto’s skyline. The HUB will float over the adjacent Toronto Harbour Commission Building courtesy of a cantilevering base, and create what Senior Partner Graham Stirk describes as 'a harmony' between the two buildings. The use of external structural steel lends the tower a more industrial feeling, and RSHP is promising that the tower will contain column-free office space and a multi-story atrium as a result. Toronto’s Spadina Line expansion stations The Spadina Group Associates and All Design Toronto, Ontario Construction in Toronto is not limited to new towers. Humbler additions to public infrastructure have also been taking shape. Toronto’s largest subway extension in decades opened late last year with six new stations, including two colorful facilities from the late Will Alsop’s All Design. The boxy, zebra-striped second story of the Finch West Station cantilevers over the building's main entrance and is capped with an enormous red window at one end. A concrete 'skirt' floats around the station’s base and offers shelter to riders who are waiting for a bus outside. Inside, Alsop uses touches of color to lighten up the polished concrete interiors. For Pioneer Village, Alsop wrapped the cantilevering station in Corten steel. This station is much rounder than Finch West and uses a red band around the base of the building’s front to direct riders to the main entrance. A geometric canopy rises from the station’s back and creates a covered waiting area for the two regional bus lines that service the station. The same polished concrete seen at Finch West was used inside. Barclay Village Büro Ole Scheeren Vancouver, British Columbia Vancouver has also seen significant growth recently, including the Shigeru Ban-designed hybrid timber tower. Ole Scheeren’s recently-revealed twin towers sit in Vancouver’s West End neighborhood, and according to Scheeren, they use balconies, setbacks, and offsets to create a more welcoming face in contrast to the typical monolithic glass tower typology. All of the terraces are planted, and a rooftop plaza sits on top of the base that links the two towers. Scheeren claims that the driving concept for Barclay Village was to elevate the concept of the village skyward to match Vancouver’s overall verticality.
The Winnipeg Art Gallery’s Inuit Art Centre (IAC) Michael Maltzan Architecture Winnipeg, Manitoba This curvilinear four-story museum from Michael Maltzan broke ground in Winnipeg last month, and when complete in 2020, the building will become the largest Inuit art gallery in the world. A double-height glazed atrium at the museum’s base will be anchored by a central 'vault' protected by curved glass, and visitors can freely examine Inuit artifacts as they walk around the ground level. An 8,500-square-foot gallery on the third floor will display Inuit art. The sculptural facade of the building’s stone portion was reportedly inspired by the “immense, geographical features that form the background of many Inuit towns and inlets.” The IAC is an extension of the neighboring Winnipeg Art Gallery, and every floor with connect with the original building.