Search results for "Carpenter Center"

Le Corbusier’s Carpenter Center for Visual Arts: Fifty Years Later
This year marks the 50th anniversary of the construction of the Carpenter Center for the Visual Arts. Completed in 1963, it is Le Corbusier’s only major building in the United States, and one of his final commissions before his death in 1965. The renowned modernist architect envisaged a "synthesis of the arts," the union of architecture with sculpture, painting, and other arts. In the spirit of Corbusier’s unique style, the building stands out among the more traditional architectural prototypes of the Harvard campus. This is evident right from his initial concept sketch of the building, where Corbusier utilized bold colors to denote the new building, while shading the surrounding Harvard campus in dark brown—a color not typically part of his visual palette. The Center is unmistakably Corbusier, and reminiscent of the Villa Savoye with its smooth concrete finish, thin columns which break up the interior spaces, and a great curvilinear ramp which runs through the heart of the building, encouraging public circulation while providing views into the design studios. This achieves visibility and transparency of the creative process taking place within. To mark the anniversary of the buildings completion, Harvard displayed new material that revealed the evolution of this unique five-story structure. While Le Corbusier was never able to see his preliminary sketches come to fruition, the Carpenter Center for the Arts successfully unites a range of art disciplines, and continues to maintain the largest 35mm film collection in the New England region, as well as housing Harvard’s historic film archives.

Video> Installing James Carpenter’s Sky Reflector-Net at the Fulton Center
Earlier this week, AN went inside the recently completed, $1.4 billion Fulton Center in Lower Manhattan. As we mentioned, the station connects nine subway lines and is centered around a real show-stopper of an oculus. That massive skylight is wrapped in the Sky Reflector-Net, a 4,000-pound, James Carpenter–designed, structure that uses aluminum panels to disperse light throughout the station. Check out the video below to see how the MTA strung-up the high-tech net.

Rise Above

SOM’s Engineering + Art + Architecture exhibition opens at the MAK Center in L.A. this weekend
The widely-traveled exhibition titled Poetic Structure: Art + Engineering + Architecture showcasing the engineering and design legacy of Skidmore, Owings, & Merrill (SOM) will be on display at the MAK Center for Art and Architecture in Los Angeles starting this weekend. The sprawling exhibition will bring a large 12-foot-by-27-foot pavilion to the grounds of the Schindler House, presenting a doubly curved kinematic structure stiffened with wood panels and metal hinges is inspired by the mathematical relationships between force and motion. The hovering pavilion is suspended by aluminum trusses and is braced with steel wires, an arrangement that can yield variously-sized configurations for the traveling show. The pavilion will also house more than 30 structural models of SOM’s grandest works. The models—built at 1-to-500 scale—compare the various structural approaches taken for projects like the John Hancock Center in Chicago and the Burj Khalifa tower in Dubai in an effort to demonstrate the similarities that exist between artistic and technical designs, and how SOM “embraces and integrates engineering into works of public art.” The exhibition will also feature a mosaic collage of hand-drawn sketches from SOM’s leadership team showcasing the firm’s ever-evolving design process. Included too will be an art installation and digital projections presenting visuals and work from globally-acclaimed artists and architects who have partnered with SOM to design large-scale public installations, according to a press release for the exhibition. Works represented include Janet Echelman’s Dream Catcher, James Carpenter’s Hope Tower, Iñigo Manglano-Ovalle’s Weatherfield, Jaume Plensa’s World Voices, and additional work by Pablo Picasso and Peter Zumthor. The exhibition will be supplemented by public programs, including panel discussions and off-site educational events. Poetic Structure is scheduled to run through September 2, 2018.

Upping the Ante

Las Vegas supersized convention center expansion approved
The already-giant Las Vegas Convention Center (LVCC) is about to get even bigger, thanks to an expansion by Atlanta's tvsdesign. This week, the Las Vegas Convention and Visitors Authority Board of Directors approved tvsdesign to spearhead the $860 million addition, and after renovations, the exhibition hall will be North America's second-largest (top honors go to Chicago's McCormick Place). The firm is collaborating with Henderson, Nevada's TSK Architects, as well as Las Vegas's Simpson Coulter Studio, Carpenter Sellers Del Gatto Architects and KME Architects on the 1.4-million-square-foot design. The megaproject will proceed in phases. This phase, the LVCC District Expansion, is expected to be finished by the end of 2020, while a subsequent renovation of the existing 3.2-million-square-foot convention center will wrap in 2023. "What gets us out of bed in the morning is doing big, complex projects that are important and have a meaningful impact on people’s lives," said Rob Svedberg, tvsdesign principal, in a statement. "The Las Vegas Convention Center expansion is just that: big, intricate and positioned to deliver a positive impact on many lives. We are thrilled about the opportunity to create an iconic design for the world’s greatest convention city." tvsdesign is part of the design-build team selected this year to realize the $1.5 billion expansion of the Jacob K. Javits Convention Center in Manhattan. The firm also worked on the $585 million Music City Center in Nashville. Last year, 22,000 meetings, conventions and trade shows were held in Las Vegas. When it's complete, the larger LVCC is expected to attract 2 million visitors per year.

New York Dreaming

WeWork opens offices next to Fulton Center’s Sky Reflector-Net
Today, coworking office purveyor WeWork opened up their latest location on the third floor of the Fulton Center in Downtown Manhattan. The office pays homage to both old and new (a hallmark of WeWork's office interiors) integrating the Fulton Center's iconic Rotunda and the Corbin Building, which was built in 1889.

The project is WeWork's 15th office in a landmarked site (the Corbin Building was landmarked in 2015) and its eighth in New York City. Cautious of eradicating the 127-year-old building's history, WeWork kept new design interventions to a minimum. Existing elements in the Corbin Building, including an eight-story bronze and marble staircase, along with Guastavino tiles in the arches of the doorways (which form part of the French Gothic detailing found throughout the building and on its facade), were renovated.

Light permeates the space courtesy of the conical atrium which the office wraps around on the third floor. Officially known as the Sky Reflector-Net, the dome structure is the work of James Carpenter Design Associates, Grimshaw Architects, and engineering firm ARUP. The office area comprises places to read, conference rooms, a reception, and hot desks. A pantry and range of common areas operate as stand-alone areas. From inside, occupants can peer through the structure's complex of perforated optical aluminum panels, tensioned cables, high-strength rods, and stainless steel elements down onto the 300,000 transit users that pass through the center every day. The narrow space within the Corbin Building, meanwhile, will provide space for functions and office events. Bridging old and new, a 3D art installation by local artists, The Guild, is located on the threshold between the Corbin Building and Fulton Center and aims to unify them through material and color. In a statement emailed to The Architect's Newspaper, WeWork said:
WeWork Fulton Center is uniquely positioned across both the landmarked Corbin building and a new major transit hub. We have a history of breathing new life into historic buildings, and we’re proud to help give new futures to iconic pieces of the city’s history.
Also appearing this week within the Fulton Center is a new artwork installed by the MTA Arts & Design program. Titled New York Dreaming and by artist Anne Spalter, the kaleidoscopic video installation on show for the holiday season.

Jennifer Carpenter

New York–based architect Jennifer Carpenter recently teamed up with Lukas Lighting to create a collaborative working environment for digital marketing software company MediaMath at 4 World Trade Center.

The inspiration for the design has a lot to do with the company’s strengths. MediaMath employs a lot of mathematicians who find patterns in seemingly random data. “The lounge ceiling is a sea of hexagonal fixtures, some lit and some unlit, in a pattern that looks random but is in fact calculated,” Carpenter said. “The fixtures run parallel to each other and are organized along two groups of intersecting parallel track lines.”

“The client liked the notion of using different geometric shapes to identify the various collaborative spaces,” she said. Linen was chosen for the shades to create a diffused lighting quality that would produce a calm space for workers to gather and socialize. In the three smaller lounges, a combination of thin rectangular pendants and acoustical panels are hung to distinguish the quieter, more work-oriented spaces using hard-edged geometry.

In terms of working directly with the manufacturer, everyone did his or her part, especially in regard to deadlines. Carpenter remarked that she “provided renderings of the concept early on, but did not have specifications for the materials or how the pieces would come together—Lukas really brought that to the table.”

The most intense parts of the design process included the onsite layout of over 80 fixtures. Carpenter and the electricians spent a sizeable amount of time drawing a full-size template on the floor using chalk and butcher paper. Afterward, they used lasers to mark attachment points onto the ceiling, and install (which involved some tricky conduit work). Additionally, the schedule for the project combined with the manufacturing process didn’t allow for extensive prototyping. The shades required laminating all of the custom linen fabric at once to ensure consistency, and time didn’t allow for a mockup installation.

There is quite a bit on the horizon for Carpenter in 2016, including hospitality projects, a series of restaurants for fast casual company Honeygrow, and a new flagship store for menswear brand Ubiq. She will also continue to work with MediaMath on their global offices.

The employee lounge at the MediaMath offices at 4 World Trade Center.

Carpenters Union builds the nation’s largest training complex in Las Vegas
Every architect has horror stories about construction quality on job sites. The United Brotherhood of Carpenters (UBC) union wants to prevent that, investing $250 million for a training center in Las Vegas to teach and certify their workers. The group has been building the International Training Center, just outside McCarran Airport, over the past several years, and recently completed phase five of the complex, bringing its total size to almost 1 million square feet. The facility features more than 70 classrooms, its own dorms (with 300 guest rooms), and training shops fitted with facilities like scaffolding mock ups, concrete form making stations, a pile driver pit, flooring stations, glass curtain wall mock ups, turbine pit, a robot zone, and even a tank to practice underwater welding. Third year apprentices from around the country train here for two weeks at a time. They include general carpenters, interior systems carpenters and drywallers, millwrights, floor coverers, millworkers, cabinetmakers, framing and residential carpenters, pile drivers, lathers, scaffolders, roofers, and workers in forest-product and related industries. The UBC sponsors more than 200 training centers across North America (there are about 3,500 full- and part-time instructors associated with the UBC), but this is by far the largest. “Our job is to make sure our members are trained and ready,” said Bill Irwin, executive director of the Carpenters International Training Fund.

James Carpenter on Light and the Building Envelope
In architecture—and especially in warm, sunny locales like Southern California—light is a double-edged sword. Successful daylighting reduces dependence on artificial lighting and enhances occupants' connection to the outdoors. But the solar gain associated with unregulated natural light can easily negate the energy savings effected by replacing electric lights with sunshine. As leaders in the field of high-performance building envelope design, James Carpenter and Joseph Welker, of James Carpenter Design Associates (JCDA), are no strangers to the benefit-cost balance of designing for light. Carpenter and Welker will draw on their firm's extensive portfolio of both civic and commercial projects for "Light in the Public Realm," the morning keynote address at next month's Facades+ LA conference. "We'll talk about the approach we have to light—how you use light for the occupant, and for the public realm," said Carpenter. "It obviously has technical components, like cable walls and curtain walls. But the thread might be less about a purely performative agenda and more on performance and aesthetics together." JCDA's notable facades include two joint projects with SOM, 7 World Trade Center and the Time Warner Center atrium, both in New York. For 7 World Trade Center, the firm was tasked with integrating the glass tower and concrete podium. By floating vision glass in front of a stainless steel spandrel panel, the architects encouraged the play of light on the tower facade, creating an ever-shifting dynamic that blurs the line between building and sky. In the case of Time Warner Center, JCDA designed the largest cable-net wall ever constructed, and achieved the remarkable feat of hanging two cable-net walls from a single truss. To hear more from James Carpenter and Joseph Welker on JCDA's approach to light and the building envelope, register today for Facades+ LA. More information, including a complete schedule of speakers and workshops, is available online.

Fulton Center

Arup, Grimshaw, James Carpenter Design Associates

David Sundberg / Esto

Zak Kostura

In addition to its daylighting function, the installation conceals large air ducts that draw warm air, or smoke, from the tunnel system and exhaust it out of the building.

Courtesy Arup

The recently opened Fulton Center has brought a scrumptious taste of sexy British high-tech to Lower Manhattan. Subway riders accessing or departing from the Gordian Knot of transit lines that the center serves—2, 3, 4, 5, A, C, J, N, R, Z—now have the opportunity to pass through a sci-fi fantasy of a pavilion building.

A robust grey metal exoskeletal framework supports the rectilinear glass facade—blast-proof, you understand, and offering a contemporary take on the depth and modularity of downtown New York’s historic cast iron edifices. Elemental granite floors anchor the interior, cluing you into the fact that you are about to descend into the earth. Two upper levels of yet-unoccupied retail and restaurant space hover within the glass box, floated above the ground floor on V-shaped columns with rounded GFRC covers that give the curved volume’s glistening glass walls an outward cant. Passing under the commercial component—a moment of compression—stairs and escalators descend one flight to an intermediate level, and a soaring atrium rises above—the corresponding moment of release.

Roughly circular in plan, the intermediate level offers sightlines up to the street as well as down into the subway system, an excellent position from which to find your direction into, or out of, the rabbit warren of tunnels. At one end, a snaking stairway rises up from the granite floor, curving sensuously around a glass elevator shaft and providing access to the upper levels. Digital screens ring the circular cut in the street-level floor plate, adding another layer of kinetics to an already busy space and more of the sense that you’ve just entered a scene from Neuromancer.

The atrium is bathed in an otherworldly light that filters down from an oculus skylight, some 110 feet above. The light has a diffuse, almost material quality, similar to the fog of light seen in certain James Turrell works. This quality is the result of an optical diffuser/reflector that rings and hangs down from the oculus. Composed of crossing radial stainless steel cables that support diamond shaped aluminum panels, it looks like it could be the glowing interior of a nuclear power plant’s cooling tower.

Entitled Sky Reflector-Net (2013), this $2.1 million component of the architecture is the result of a collaboration between Arup, Grimshaw, and James Carpenter Design Associates. MTA Arts and Design and the MTA Capital Construction Company commissioned the work, along with the whole project, more than a decade ago. In March 2002, in the wake of the destruction of the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks, the MTA hired Arup to conduct a planning study for a downtown transit center. The study, which was delivered four months later in July 2002, got the MTA $847 million in funding from the Federal Transit Administration, part of the huge outlay of cash made available by the Supplemental Appropriations Act for Further Recovery.

The building that now stands on the corner of Fulton Street and Broadway is remarkably consistent with the recommendations of the initial study, a primary component of which was the use of daylight as a wayfinding device. Arup performed a solar analysis that established an ideal geometrical relationship between the site, the building, and the oculus to take optimal advantage of the sun’s path throughout the course of the year. One of the chief challenges of the site in this regard is that the street corner faces north, whereas sunlight in this hemisphere comes from the south. In that direction, tall buildings hem in the site. In answer, the oculus rises out of the roof like a chimney, and its low-e coated, insulated glass top is tilted 23½ degrees south, to capture as much light cresting the neighboring buildings as possible. The exterior of the oculus is clad in a stainless steel batten system with a diffusive coating that prevents hotspots and glare.

In February 2004, Carpenter was brought on to work with Arup and Grimshaw on developing a system that would encourage the light captured by the oculus to reach two levels under the ground to the subway system. His studio worked with the architects and engineers on reflection studies and finding a structure and materials for the system. The team eventually decided on a cable net. Made of 316 stainless steel, it attaches at 56 points to gusset plate and tension rod connections on the compression pipe at the top of the oculus, and at 56 points on the atrium structure below. TriPyramid fabricated the 4,000-pound net in its Westford, Massachusetts, facility and drove it to the site on the back of a tilt-bed truck. An installation team from Enclos lifted the net into place using eight individually operated hoists. As cable nets do, when erected and pulled into tension it naturally assumed its cooling tower shape.

Attached to the cable net are 952 1/8-inch-thick, diamond shaped aluminum panels with a mechanically applied anodized coating. Carpenter worked with German optical aluminum company Alanod to develop the coating, which has both diffusive and reflective qualities. The custom finish is now part of Alanod’s product line and is called Scattergloss, an apt name that well describes what happens to light as it lands on Sky Reflector-Net. It works as well for daylight as it does for electric light. At night, 32 metal halide lights grouped at the top of the installation in clusters of four transform the net into a giant lampshade.

The panels are perforated, 80 percent toward the bottom of the net and 20 percent toward the top. This gradient causes the installation to seem to dissolve as it reaches toward the ground. It also allows views to pass through where the net covers the upper atrium floors. As importantly, the perforations provide for the more-or-less unimpeded passage of air. In addition to directing light, the net conceals the large ventilation and smoke-evacuation ducts that ring the upper reaches of the atrium, lending a glowing face to a machine built in the memory and for the prevention of Fulton Center’s tragic historical impetus.

RESOURCES

Cable Net:
TriPyramid
tripyramid.com

Aluminum Panels:
Durlum
durlum.com

Optical Finish:
Alanod
alanod.com

Installer:
Enclos
enclos.com

Commissioned in the wake of the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks, Fulton Center brings much-needed clarity to the tangle of subway lines that the station serves. A large part of the wayfinding strategy is Sky Reflector-Net, an art installation that directs daylight captured by the building’s raised oculus two levels under the ground.

Fulton Center
David Sundberg / Esto

Arup,
Grimshaw,
James Carpenter Design Associates

The recently opened Fulton Center has brought a scrumptious taste of sexy British high-tech to Lower Manhattan. Subway riders accessing or departing from the Gordian Knot of transit lines that the center serves—2, 3, 4, 5, A, C, J, N, R, Z—now have the opportunity to pass through a sci-fi fantasy of a pavilion building.

A robust grey metal exoskeletal framework supports the rectilinear glass facade—blast-proof, you understand, and offering a contemporary take on the depth and modularity of downtown New York’s historic cast iron edifices. Elemental granite floors anchor the interior, cluing you into the fact that you are about to descend into the earth. Two upper levels of yet-unoccupied retail and restaurant space hover within the glass box, floated above the ground floor on V-shaped columns with rounded GFRC covers that give the curved volume’s glistening glass walls an outward cant. Passing under the commercial component—a moment of compression—stairs and escalators descend one flight to an intermediate level, and a soaring atrium rises above—the corresponding moment of release.

   
Commissioned in the wake of the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks, Fulton Center brings much-needed clarity to the tangle of subway lines that the station serves. A large part of the wayfinding strategy is Sky Reflector-Net, an art installation that directs daylight captured by the building’s raised oculus two levels under the ground.
David Sundberg / Esto
 

Roughly circular in plan, the intermediate level offers sightlines up to the street as well as down into the subway system, an excellent position from which to find your direction into, or out of, the rabbit warren of tunnels. At one end, a snaking stairway rises up from the granite floor, curving sensuously around a glass elevator shaft and providing access to the upper levels. Digital screens ring the circular cut in the street-level floor plate, adding another layer of kinetics to an already busy space and more of the sense that you’ve just entered a scene from Neuromancer.

The atrium is bathed in an otherworldly light that filters down from an oculus skylight, some 110 feet above. The light has a diffuse, almost material quality, similar to the fog of light seen in certain James Turrell works. This quality is the result of an optical diffuser/reflector that rings and hangs down from the oculus. Composed of crossing radial stainless steel cables that support diamond shaped aluminum panels, it looks like it could be the glowing interior of a nuclear power plant’s cooling tower.

 
Zak Kostura
 

Entitled Sky Reflector-Net (2013), this $2.1 million component of the architecture is the result of a collaboration between Arup, Grimshaw, and James Carpenter Design Associates. MTA Arts and Design and the MTA Capital Construction Company commissioned the work, along with the whole project, more than a decade ago. In March 2002, in the wake of the destruction of the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks, the MTA hired Arup to conduct a planning study for a downtown transit center. The study, which was delivered four months later in July 2002, got the MTA $847 million in funding from the Federal Transit Administration, part of the huge outlay of cash made available by the Supplemental Appropriations Act for Further Recovery.

Zak Kostura
 

The building that now stands on the corner of Fulton Street and Broadway is remarkably consistent with the recommendations of the initial study, a primary component of which was the use of daylight as a wayfinding device. Arup performed a solar analysis that established an ideal geometrical relationship between the site, the building, and the oculus to take optimal advantage of the sun’s path throughout the course of the year. One of the chief challenges of the site in this regard is that the street corner faces north, whereas sunlight in this hemisphere comes from the south. In that direction, tall buildings hem in the site. In answer, the oculus rises out of the roof like a chimney, and its low-e coated, insulated glass top is tilted 23½ degrees south, to capture as much light cresting the neighboring buildings as possible. The exterior of the oculus is clad in a stainless steel batten system with a diffusive coating that prevents hotspots and glare.

 

RESOURCES

Cable Net:
TriPyramid

Aluminum Panels:
Durlum

Optical Finish:
Alanod

Installer:
Enclos
In addition to its daylighting function, the installation conceals large air ducts that draw warm air, or smoke, from the tunnel system and exhaust it out of the building.
Courtesy Arup
 

In February 2004, Carpenter was brought on to work with Arup and Grimshaw on developing a system that would encourage the light captured by the oculus to reach two levels under the ground to the subway system. His studio worked with the architects and engineers on reflection studies and finding a structure and materials for the system. The team eventually decided on a cable net. Made of 316 stainless steel, it attaches at 56 points to gusset plate and tension rod connections on the compression pipe at the top of the oculus, and at 56 points on the atrium structure below. TriPyramid fabricated the 4,000-pound net in its Westford, Massachusetts, facility and drove it to the site on the back of a tilt-bed truck. An installation team from Enclos lifted the net into place using eight individually operated hoists. As cable nets do, when erected and pulled into tension it naturally assumed its cooling tower shape.

   
Zak Kostura
 

Attached to the cable net are 952 1/8-inch-thick, diamond shaped aluminum panels with a mechanically applied anodized coating. Carpenter worked with German optical aluminum company Alanod to develop the coating, which has both diffusive and reflective qualities. The custom finish is now part of Alanod’s product line and is called Scattergloss, an apt name that well describes what happens to light as it lands on Sky Reflector-Net. It works as well for daylight as it does for electric light. At night, 32 metal halide lights grouped at the top of the installation in clusters of four transform the net into a giant lampshade.

The panels are perforated, 80 percent toward the bottom of the net and 20 percent toward the top. This gradient causes the installation to seem to dissolve as it reaches toward the ground. It also allows views to pass through where the net covers the upper atrium floors. As importantly, the perforations provide for the more-or-less unimpeded passage of air. In addition to directing light, the net conceals the large ventilation and smoke-evacuation ducts that ring the upper reaches of the atrium, lending a glowing face to a machine built in the memory and for the prevention of Fulton Center’s tragic historical impetus.

 

Pictorial> The new Fulton Center opens in Lower Manhattan
When the new Fulton Center opened this weekend—after seven years of delays and cost overruns that lifted the project’s price tag from $750 million to $1.4 billion—New York City got two things: a modern upgrade to its transportation network and an iconic piece of architecture. With new well-lit concourses, pedestrian tunnels, escalators and elevators, and more intuitive transfer points between nine subway lines, Fulton Center will drastically improve the transit experience for the 300,000 people who pass through it every day. But even with these significant improvements, all anyone is talking about is the center's eye-catching glass oculus and its hyperboloid Sky Reflector-Net installation. Step inside the station, and you'll understand why. The 53-foot-diameter structure was commissioned by the MTA Arts & Design program and created by James Carpenter Associates with Grimshaw Architects, Enclos, TriPyramid Structures, and ARUP. It is comprised of 952 aluminum panels, 224 high-strength rods, 112 tension cables, and 10,000 stainless-steel components that work in tandem to fill the station with natural light. The full effect of the design can only be experienced from within the station—standing across the street from Fulton Center, which appears as a steel and glass headhouse, the oculus and Sky Reflector-Net could be mistaken for a massive vent. The upper floors of the rotunda, which are set directly underneath the oculus, will soon be ringed by shops and restaurants. The 66,000 square feet of commercial space is connected to the station through a prominent glass elevator that is wrapped in a spiral staircase. But as dramatic as all of these large gestures are, the center is completed with the MTA's standard-issue, black and gray finishes. The handrails, doors, flooring, and even garbage cans are what you would find at any other station. The station's subdued color scheme, though, is broken up slightly with the light blue glass tiles that clad the station’s below-grade corridors. In these subterranean spaces, the choice of tile, and the decision to set overheard fluorescent bulbs at an angle, shows the impact that designers can have when deviating—however slightly—from the norm. Spread throughout the new Fulton Center are over 50 digital screens that make up the MTA’s “largest state-of-the-art digital signage media program.” When AN visited the Fulton Center, some of those screens were quickly switching between video art and ads for Burberry. And then back again. The completion of the Fulton Center also comes with the $59 million renovation of the adjacent, 125-year-old Corbin Building. The refurbished space, which boasts a stately exterior, is incorporated into the circulation of the center. Exiting through the Corbin Building–side exit, you can see the wings of the nearly $4 billion, Calatrava-designed World Trade Center Transit Hub. When that station opens next year, it will connect to the Fulton Center, and quite likely overshadow it. The bulk of the funding for this project ($847 million) came from a Congressional appropriation which was aimed at rebuilding transit networks in Lower Manhattan after September 11. An additional $423 million came from President Obama's stimulus act. The MTA also provided $130 million in funds.              

“Sky Reflector Net” Installed at Lower Manhattan’s Fulton Center
Next year, when construction wraps up at the Fulton Center in Lower Manhattan, commuters will be gazing up, rather than around, at the station’s new artistic centerpiece—a curved, 79-foot-high reflective aluminum diamond web encased in a stainless-steel tracery. The showstopper will send ambient daylight into the mezzanines, passageways, and possibly even the platforms to help passengers orient themselves in the transportation hub. At $2.1 million, Sky Reflector-Net, an artist/architect/engineer collaboration between James Carpenter Design Associates (JCDA), Grimshaw Architects, and Arup, is an integrated work created for the Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA) Arts for Transit and Urban Design and Metropolitan Transportation Authority Capital Construction (MTACC). It is the largest such work that the MTA has ever commissioned. Sky Reflector-Net seamlessly incorporates both functional and aesthetic goals. The piece was recently installed within the transit center building designed by Grimshaw Architects and Arup. Arup is leading the 15-member sub-consultant team, which includes building design architect Grimshaw Architects, architect and historic preservationist Page Ayres Cowley Architects, architects HDR | Daniel Frankfurt. The general contractor for the Transit Center construction package (one of nine construction packages) is the Plaza Schiavone Joint Venture. Prismatic glass blades hanging at the top of the dome that cause the 8,500-square-foot surface to continually change by dispersing light rays throughout the station. Sky Reflector-Net consists of a stainless-steel lattice made of slender cables tensioned between two sizeable rings. The 53-foot-wide upper ring slants at a 23-degree angle. The 74-foot-wide lower ring sits at a 12-degree angle. The 952 perforated diamond-shaped and triangular aluminum panels each reflect approximately 95 percent of the light that strikes it. The largest reflective pane is just over eight feet tall.

Composed of 112 tensioned cables, 224 high-strength rods and nearly 10,000 individual stainless steel components, the design of the steel cable net sculpture emphasizes simplicity of construction and optimal performance in all environmental conditions. Arup developed 815 unique scenarios based on the possible permutations of air pressure, indoor temperature, and building movement within the Fulton Center dome. Each scenario produced a slightly different cable net shape. The net will assume these shapes over the course of its lifetime as the environmental conditions within the space change. Sky Reflector-Net is a powerful example of the capacity of a large tensile structure to define a landmark public space.

The Fulton Center serves the 2, 3, 4, 5, A, C, J, R, and Z subway lines and accommodates 275,000 passengers per day. The project is currently expected to cost a total of $1.4 billion, nearly twice the budget that was expected when the project began in 2003.