News
09.08.2010
Through the Looking Glass
Many architects have taken ultra-transparent glazing to diaphanous levels of refinement, but some are looking in the other direction, probing new dimensions of opacity and performance. Here are five technologically audacious applications from around the world -- whether slumped or acid-etched, corrugated or crystalline -- that show glass in a different light.
At the REX-designed VAKKO Headquarters in Istanbul, Turkey, wafer-thin slumped glass reveals the building's frame while adding vertical and lateral stiffness to the 5-by-10-foot panels.


The x-shaped impressions strengthen the panels and reflect light.
iwan baan
 

 


Vakko Headquarters
Istanbul, Turkey
REX

When asked to design the new headquarters for Vakko, a Turkish fashion and media company, the architects at REX were presented with an old, partially constructed concrete shell and an aggressive timeline to redesign the project. Rather than concealing the building shell—derelict structures like this are common in Turkey, where concrete construction is fast and inexpensive—the architects grew interested in revealing it through the thinnest sheets of glass possible. “We didn’t want to hide the adaptive reuse,” said REX principal Joshua Prince-Ramus. “This kind of adaptive reuse, of an abandoned, incomplete structure, is really at the forefront of sustainability."

The architects turned to the technique known as slumped glass, by which glass is repeatedly heated and cooled until it falls into a mold and assumes the mold’s form. Slumping is typically used to create decorative effects, but REX decided to use it for structural purposes: The glass panels feature an X-shaped impression that gives them vertical and lateral stiffness and strength. At 5 by 10 feet, the 134 panels that wrap the building are a wafer-like 3/16 of an inch thick. They are held in place by four simple pins at the corners.

Before the glass could be heated, however, molds had to be made. Wood composite forms were cut from jigs, and then ceramic molds were made from the impression of the wooden forms. The glass was then heated and cooled over the ceramic molds, using the same techniques used to heat-strengthen glass. The process would have been prohibitively expensive in many other places. “Turkey is at that sweet spot in their development where they have all the technology, but labor costs are low and they retain a large and highly skilled class of craftsmen,” Prince-Ramus said.

The effect, according to the architects, is something akin to Saran Wrap, with the glass appearing to pucker as if pulled taut. Startlingly clear when viewed straight on, the panes catch light and reflections when viewed from an angle. The facade is distinctive without resorting to heavy-handed branding or the overt decoration  common in many prominent buildings for fashion companies. “Our client didn’t want a logo on the building,” Prince-Ramus said. “But they wanted something memorable.”

Alan G. Brake


 

A smoothly curved building envelope encoureages pedestrian activity to flow around it, following the plan Fuksas developed for the city more than ten years ago.
rob hoekstra
 
 


Admirant Entrance Building
Eindhoven, Netherlands
Massimiliano and Doriana Fuksas

Since World War II bombings destroyed much of it, Eindhoven has worked to rebuild itself as a modern metropolis, developing a masterplan for its central district in 1998 by Studio Fuksas with four main components, including a pedestrian square and shopping mall. The fourth element, the Admirant Entrance Building, a 32,000-square-foot, mixed-use center, was completed this year.

Appearing as the head of a glass beast rising from a sidewalk sea, the Admirant is both a bridge and a border to the square, separating the pedestrian area from the roadway while drawing visitors into the shopping area. Like the firm’s FieraMilano in Milan, the building is an investigation into how much glass and steel can be stressed to create an organic shape. The tessellated glass triangles create a “blob” (Fuksas’ word) that either conceals or reveals the structure beneath while preserving specific sight lines into, out of, and through the building.

The architects’ vision for the building skin determined the size and shape of its concrete floor plates, which stabilize the glass shell horizontally with architecturally exposed connections. Working with Stuttgart-based engineers Knippers Helbig, Fuksas digitally optimized the form into triangular pieces. The shell is composed of welded rectangular hollow steel profiles, which create a slender mesh onto which transparent glass and opaque aluminum sandwich panels are clipped. Custom nodes at the intersection of each panel allow the necessary directional changes in the facade and are especially crucial to creating the complicated geometry around the shell’s sunken “eyes.” Austria-based Waagner-Biro prefabricated all of the glass and steel components using an automated cutting robot to achieve the ultra-precise measurements so essential because the clear triangular glass units were produced in tandem with the steel profiles.The individual panels, each with an area of about 20 square feet, were assembled in sections before installation, allowing the structure to settle before loose members were welded into place between the sections.

Though the five-story building contains a range of uses—commercial spaces, offices, and mechanical systems—the shape reads as one large gateway to the city’s revitalized shopping district. “I try always to hide the performance of the building,” Fuksas explained, adding that he was instead aiming to evoke “the quality of the space and the emotion you get when you have a relationship with the building.”

Jennifer K. Gorsche
 




 


the centerpiece of the sparkling hill resort is a crystalline facade constructed of 15 triangles of .63-inch-thick glass, held in place by a steel armature.
derek lepper photography
 
 

Sparkling Hill Resort
Vernon, British Columbia
Cannon Design

The design process for British Columbia’s new Sparkling Hill Resort began simply: Designers from Swarovski came into the Vancouver offices of Cannon Design, set a large piece of crystal on their desk, and said, “We want it to look something like this.”

The partnership between Swarovski and Cannon was orchestrated by Hans-Peter Mayr, an Austrian hospitality entrepreneur who chose the location for the resort at the top of a mountain range in Vernon, British Columbia.

“It’s actually a seven-story building, but it doesn’t feel like it. It literally is cut into the rock,” said Cannon Design architect David Wilkinson. The resort cantilevers away from the ridge, and beneath it, the team blasted into the mountain for parking and support spaces while drilling geothermal wells that provide nearly all the resort’s energy needs.

But Sparkling Hill’s centerpiece and namesake is its facade, a four-story crystal composed of over 15 facets, angled irregularly to echo the surrounding rock formations. From within, the facade creates an expansive atrium, spanned by a series of catwalks connecting it to each floor of guest rooms, and inviting guests to stand up close to the glass and look out at the mountains and lake below.

The crystal is supported by a complicated frame and cable system, initially conceived by Canada-based Stella Custom Glass Hardware. Working with structural engineers Read Jones Christoffersen, the team devised a system of steel tubes 8 inches in diameter that comprise an armature holding the panes of glass in place. But with each individual pane being over 15 feet long, additional support was needed to keep them from sagging, and to make them resistant to snow loads, earthquakes, and the exceptionally strong mountaintop winds. “Probably the most unique challenge of the design was how to support the panels of glass in the middle of the triangles,” said Roy Lamont, president of Stella Glass. To solve this problem, Vancouver-based Erdevicki Structural Engineering developed and designed a unique cable tension system using stainless-steel cables tautly connecting the centers of the glass panels to the major intersections of the catwalks and armature. The project's glazing contractor was Advanced Glazing Systems, and the glass engineer was Division 8 Consulting.

The complicated system melts away when viewed from afar, and upon the long approach up the mountain, the effect is simply reflected light. Indeed, the facets are angled to send light in as many directions as possible toward the drive below. “The goal was to create something that signaled from a distance,” Wilkinson said. “You can virtually see it from a plane.”  

Julia Galef



When not reflecting the sun's rays, the Lightcatcher uses gels to create an inviting atmosphere in the courtyard at night.
Benjamin Benschneider
 
The acid-etched glass element creates a dynamic presence in downtown bellingham.
Benjamin Benschneider

a visitor peers through one of the porthole windows that doubles as a ventilation hatch. 
tim bies
 
 

Lightcatcher at Whatcom Museum
Bellingham, Washington
Olson Kundig Architects

The Pacific Northwest is known for many things, among them salmon, pine trees, and grunge rock. Sunshine does not often make the list. When designing an expansion of the Whatcom Museum, a showcase of regional art in Bellingham, Washington, Seattle-based Olson Kundig Architects knew that to attract a crowd, a luminescent structure would be essential.

The new, 42,000-square-foot museum is known as the Lightcatcher, for the 180-foot-long, 37-foot-high swooping wall of glass that is the project’s signature, a shining concavity that lures visitors into a nexus of art and activity. “It really came from the idea of light and a lack thereof—that this would be a focal point to gather light and gather people,” said Olivier Landa, the project manager at Olson Kundig.

On typically overcast days, the glass wall takes on a silver hue, reflecting the clouds; during the summer, it radiates warmth, shining like a peak of the Northern Cascades. As with most of Olson Kundig’s work, the project draws heavily on its surroundings.

To achieve this effect, Olson Kundig employed a complex system of frits and laminates on the two walls of glass that comprise the Lightcatcher. They began with an acid-etched product made by Montreal-based Walker Glass with a translucency that shifts from a nearly transparent ghostliness to an opaque veil. “It’s almost like it’s alive,” principal Jim Olson said, adding that it took a year of mock-ups to create the desired appearance. The etching serves a dual purpose, protecting art from direct light as well as transforming the wall into a canvas, allowing for art installations and films.

Where the glass meets the museum, an agate-tinged frit is employed, which gets progressively denser as visitors travel toward the galleries, allowing their eyes to adjust and shielding the art within. The frit helps the museum glow, both by day and night, when interior lights telegraph activity inside. To create even more of a beacon, white, golden, and salmon-colored lights have been installed within the wall.

The most unique thing about the Lightcatcher, though, is not the way it looks but the way it works, as an integral part of the museum’s HVAC system. The two sets of window panes create a 2-foot chimney that traps heat, insulating the building in winter and cooling it in summer, when vents at the top and portholes at the base are opened. 

Matt Chaban
 


 

 
the 10-story tower is covered in red indian sandstone, broken up by full-length windows of corrugated glass.
sarah blee/courtesy neutelings riedijk
 
 

Museum aan de Stroom
Antwerp, Belgium
Neutelings Riedijk

Ascending the escalators that spiral up Antwerp’s newly-completed Museum aan de Stroom, galleries displaying artifacts of the city’s past alternate with 18-foot-high views onto the city and waterfront. A competition-winning design by Dutch architecture firm Neutelings Riedijk, it comprises ten floors cantilevered out from a central core, each one rotated 90 degrees from the one below. Because many of the exhibitions’ contents will be sensitive to the sun, the galleries themselves have no windows, providing a stark contrast to the expansive panoramas on every other floor. 

Those views are especially striking through the museum’s undulating glass enclosures. After winning the commission ten years ago, Neutelings Riedijk teamed up with glass engineer Rob Nijsse to devise a way of making their oversize panes thin enough to maintain clarity but stable enough to withstand wind, without resorting to metal supports. Their solution was to corrugate the panes, placing float glass in a wavy mold and baking it until it melted into shape.

Although the basic technique for curving glass dates to the 19th century, the unprecedented size of these panes raised a host of new problems. Only one other building had incorporated similar corrugated windows, to Neutelings’ knowledge: the 2005 Casa da Musica in Porto, by Rem Koolhaas, who worked with Nijsse as well. But the 18-foot panes in the Museum aan de Stroom were far larger, too large for most ovens to accommodate.

The team solved that problem by renting Europe’s largest oven, a 20-footer in Italy, but other difficulties remained. The hardest, according to principal partner Willem van Neutelings, was how to achieve enough precision in the dimensions of the panes to allow them to align perfectly and connect with silicone joints. “It took a lot of calculations and work with the glass industry to make it suitable,” Neutelings said.

The thin panes, unmarred by any metal reinforcement, seem to disappear when the museum is glimpsed from far away. When viewed from within the building, the corrugation is obvious. Standing inside the radius of one of the curves appears to create a private viewing chamber, with a much wider panorama than that of a flat window. Alternately, seen from a slant, the glass takes on a greenish tint, turning the window into more of a curtain and making the room feel enclosed. “What you see in the glass depends on your position,” Neutelings said. 

JG